Preventions and awareness of breast cancer

Educationist um Nazia Ashraf
6. Sep 2016

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Preventions and awareness of breast cancer

  1. Prevention and Awareness of Breast Cancer Dr. Saira Javeed Senior Demonstrator Pathology
  2.  Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment. The goal of this campaign is to raise the public's “brand awareness" for breast cancer, its detection, its treatment, and the need for a reliable, permanent cure. In many countries the month of October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (NBCAM) and was begun in 1985 by the American cancer society and pharmaceutical company. As a result of awareness, breast cancers are being detected at an earlier, more treatable stage.
  3.  The PINK RIBBON is the most prominent symbol of breast cancer awareness. It is associated with individual generosity, faith in scientific progress, and an optimistic "can-do" attitude. It encourages individuals to focus on the emotionally appealing ultimate vision of a cure for breast cancer, rather than the reality that there is no certain cure for breast cancer. The practice of blindly wearing or displaying a pink ribbon without making efforts to cure breast cancer has been described as a kind of slacktivism.
  4.  Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Pakistan. Approximately one in every nine Pakistani women is likely to suffer from breast cancer. This is one of the highest incidence rates in Asia. According to World Health Organization, breast cancer rates are getting worse and it is not sparing even younger age group. “Women in the developing countries, like Pakistan tend to die at greater rates than in more developed countries because the disease is generally detected when it is in its advance stages”.
  7. FACTORS NOT LINKED TO BREAST CANCER Antiperspirant Bras Induced abortion Breast implants
  8. SCREENING FOR BREAST CANCER A GOOD BREAST HEALTH PLAN: Breast Self Examination (BSE) Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) Mammograms Genetic screening
  9. BREAST SELF EXAMINATION (BSE)  It is an opportunity for woman to become familiar with her breasts.  BSE is a useful and essential screening strategy.  About 20% of the time, breast cancers are found by physical examination rather than by mammography.  It aids in early detection of changes in breast tissue.
  10. WHEN TO DO BSE  First BSE is recommended after you have had your first menstrual cycle.  Monthly examination of the breasts and underarm area one week after the periods.  In postmenopausal women same date of each month.  In pregnant women same date each month.
  11. WHY DON’T MORE WOMEN PRACTICE BSE Fear Embarrassment Youth Lack of knowledge Too busy, forgetfulness
  12. CLINICAL BREAST EXAMINATION (CBE) Performed by doctor or trained nurse practitioner. Annually for women over 40 yrs. At least every 3 years for women between 20 and 40 years. More frequent examination for high risk patients.
  13. MAMMOGRAPHY It is a low-energy X-rays technique to examine the human breast, which is used as a diagnostic and screening tool. The goal is early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of masses and/or microcalcifications. Normal mammogram does not rule out possibility of cancer completely.
  14. GENETIC SCREENING The BRCA gene test is a blood test that uses DNA analysis to identify mutations in either one of the two breast cancer susceptibility genes — BRCA1 and BRCA2. Women who have inherited mutations in these genes are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer compared with the general population. The BRCA gene test is offered only to people who are likely to have an inherited mutation based on personal or family history, or who have a specific type of breast cancer.
  15. The BRCA gene test isn't routinely performed on women at average risk of breast and ovarian cancers. A BRCA gene test determines whether you carry an inherited BRCA mutation. If you do, your result is positive and your doctor can help you understand your cancer risk. If you don't have a mutation, this is considered a negative result. However, you may learn you have a gene variant that doctors aren't sure about. It may or may not be associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. This result is known as a variant of uncertain significance.
  16. SUCCESSFUL STORY  Angelina Jolie is an American actress, filmmaker, humanitarian and mother of six children.  In The New York Times she shared her personal experience. Her mother had breast cancer and she died of ovarian cancer at 56.  She said my children will never have the chance to know their grandmother and to experience how loving and gracious she was.  Her grandmother and aunt also died of cancers.
  17.  Since she had strong maternal family history of cancers, she had her own genetic testing and discovered that she carries a mutation of BRCA1 gene.  She said my doctor estimated that I had 87% risk of breast cancer and 50% risk of ovarian cancer.  So she made a decision to be proactive and to minimize the risk to develop cancer for sake of six children.
  18.  On Feb 2013, at age 37 she underwent preventive double mastectomy followed by reconstruction surgery and two years later she had bilateral oophorectomy. She said I can tell my children that they don’t need to fear that they will lose their mother of breast cancer. It is reassuring that they see nothing that makes them uncomfortable. They can see my small scars and that’s it. Everything else is just Mommy, the same as she always was. On a personal note, I do not feel any less of a woman. I feel empowered that I made a strong choice that in no way diminishes my femininity.
  19. In a piece she wrote for New York Times, Jolie said: “I went through what I imagine thousands of other women have felt”. She added that I am writing this because I choose not to keep my story private as there are many women who do not know that they might be living under the shadow of cancer. It is my hope that other women can benefit from my experience. Cancer is still a word that strikes fear into people’s hearts, producing a deep sense of powerlessness. But today it is possible to find out through a blood test whether you are at highly risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer, and then you will know that you have strong options." “I CHOOSE TO LIVE DIFFERENTLY”