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  1. 1. 112/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  2. 2. Supervisor: Habib Muhammad Nazir Ahmad Faculty of engineering(EEE) Name ID Nayan,Md.Habibur Rahman 11-19288-2 Group # :06 212/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  3. 3. Outline  Project Goal  Invention History  Advantages and Disadvantages of piezoelectric material  Block Diagram  Components/parts of the circuit  How Piezoelectric sensor Work  Working principle  Full-wave bridge rectifier  Controlling circuit & battery  Hardware Implementation  Simulation Results and Calculation  Accomplishment Through Project/Future work  References 312/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  4. 4. Project Goals  The main goal of the project is produce renewable energy to overcome the crisis of electricity in Bangladesh. To produce electricity from footstep using piezoelectric disk. To produce energy by a source that has no negative effect on environment. Figure: Footstep energy Harvesting. 412/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  5. 5. Invention History: Piezoelectricity was discovered in 1880 by Pierre and Paul-Jacques Curie, who found that when they compressed certain types of crystals including quartz, tourmaline, and Rochelle salt, along certain axes, a voltage was produced on the surface of the crystal. This effect is known as piezoelectric effect. Figure: Piezoelectric crystal (buzzer) 512/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  6. 6. Advantages and Disadvantages of piezoelectric material: Advantages: 1. Very high frequency response. 2. Self-generating, so no need of external source. 3. Simple to use as they have small dimensions and large measuring range. 4. Barium titanate and quartz can be made in any desired shape and form. It also has a large dielectric constant. The crystal axis is selectable by orienting the direction of orientation. 612/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  7. 7. Disadvantages: 1. It is not suitable for measurement in static condition. 2. Since the device operates with the small electric charge, they need high impedance cable for electrical interface. 712/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  8. 8. Block Diagram : Figure:Footstep general block diagram. 812/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  9. 9. Components/parts of the circuit:  Piezoelectric sensor  Full-wave bridge rectifier  Lead Acid Battery  Inverter load  Load 912/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  10. 10. How Piezoelectric sensor Work: A device which measures the force, pressure, strain and vibration and converts it into electrical signals is known as piezo electric sensor. These materials exhibit a property known as piezo electric effect in which force or vibration is produced an electric field is created which causes a potential difference across these materials and hence current start flowing through it. 1012/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  11. 11. Working principle : 1) Normally the charges in a piezoelectric crystal are exactly balances, even if they’re not symmetrically arranged. 1112/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  12. 12. 2) The effects of the charges exactly cancel out, leaving no net charge on the crystal faces.(More specifically, the electric dipole moments vector lines separating opposite charges-exactly cancel one another out). 1212/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  13. 13. 3) If we squeeze the crystal we force the charges out of balance. 4) Now the effect of the charges no longer cancel one another out and net positive and negative charges appear on opposite crystal faces. By squeezing the crystal we have produced a voltage across its opposite faces- and that’s piezoelectricity 1312/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  14. 14. Full-wave bridge rectifier: Full-bridge rectifiers are commonly used as rectifier circuits to convert the AC output of a piezoelectric into a DC voltage. The rectifying circuits consist of 4 diodes. The voltage needs to rectify due to the need for constant supply of voltage light up the series of LED placed in parallel. Figure: AC to Dc graph after rectification. Figure: Full wave bridge rectifier. 1412/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  15. 15. Battery and Load: Load: 3 volt Led light Different rating mobile batteries 5w AC bulb. Battery: We are using Lead Acid battery of 12 V and current of 1.2 Amp. We want to store charges so that we can use the power generated by foot step not only in busy hour but also in other part of the day. 1512/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  16. 16. Inverter: DC to AC 12/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh 16
  17. 17. Hardware Implementation: 12/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh 17
  18. 18. The main separate three parts: 12/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh 18
  19. 19. In 1 square ft. we are just use 12 piezo sensor in parallel mode. 1912/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  20. 20. This is External part of the device.Where we can stand up or give the preasure so that we can get our output voltage. 2012/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  21. 21.  Loads Part: Connected a High frequency DC LED(4V ) through the battery 2112/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  22. 22.  Connected three Mobile Phone at a time through USB charger(DC-DC) for charging . 2212/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  23. 23. 12/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh 23
  24. 24. 12/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh 24
  25. 25. Simulation Results and Calculation: In 1 square ft. we used 12 piezo sensor. As piezo sensors power generating varies with different steps, we get Minimum voltage = 1V per step Maximum voltage = 10.5V per step We used a load of 120 ohm. Across the output to measure the current, Current varies from 40mA to 90mA We took an average of 70Kg weight pressure from single person. Considering the steps of a 70Kg weighted single person, the average calculation are: It takes 800 steps to increase 1V charge in battery. So, to increase 12V in battery total steps needed = (12*800) = 9600 steps As we will implement our project in a populated area where foot step as source will available, we took an average of 2 steps in 1 second. For 9600 steps time needed = 9600/ (60*2) = 80 minutes. (Approximately) 2512/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  26. 26. Our battery has a rating of, Voltage = 12V Current = 1.3 Amp hour So, Total power = (12*1.3) = 15.6W It takes (80min=1.2 hour) to produce 15.6W So, Power will produce = 15.6 / 1.2 W = 13W In one day it will produce = (13*24) W = 312 or 0.312kW In one week we can produce = (0.312*7) kW = 3.184 kW 2612/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  27. 27. Here , when we connected a 4V LED DC light then it running 12 hours. Then if we connected 5W AC bulb then it running about 4 hours. And lastly we connected a USB port where, it’s discharging time about 6 hours. 12/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh 27
  28. 28. Future work with this project Charge controlling circuit: We will have arrangement of piezo sensors so that we want to control charging and discharging of the battery. In other words we want to protect the battery from over charging effects which could damage the battery. Amplifying input and output: In input, we want to amplify the current to charge the battery fast. we could design a circuit which will combination of such components, that will amplify our inverting output to run necessary 220v ac loads. 2812/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  29. 29. Future Application And Recent Research Energy Harvesting from Raindrop: It is possible to convert the kinetic energy of rain drops into electric power by using piezoelectric materials which converts the stress into electrical energy. Basically it is vibration energy. Because of rain drop impact is being converted to electrical energy the amount of rain and the size of the rain drop is very important. Harnessing rain drop energy is a very recent research. 2912/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  30. 30. Energy harvesting from Piezoelectric Insole: This piezoelectric insole is based on technology that generates electricity from mechanical energy. Basically, it works by subjecting special crystals stored in a capsule to a cycle of mechanical stresses. The pressure exerted on them electrically polarizes their mass, generating a difference in potential that results in the appearance of electrical charges on their surface. 3012/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  31. 31. Harvest Energy from Railway Passing Trains: A prototype of the energy-generating system was installed last year by the Technion University and Israel Railways in order to show the benefits of the technology. The project discovered that a railway track with trafficked by 10 to 20 ten-car trains could produce as much as 120 kWh, which could be used to power infrastructural systems such as signs and lights. Any surplus energy would then be uploaded to the country’s power grid. 3112/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  32. 32. Dance floor generates electricity at London's first eco-disco: The Club climate project is London’s first taste of eco-friendly clubbing, making clubbers happy in the knowledge that their organic beverage-induced booty shaking can generate 60% of the energy needed to run the club. 3212/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  33. 33. Piezoelectric Car: This car is made up of piezoelectric tires. These tires are equipped with piezoelectric cables, these cables consists of piezoelectric generator. So when the tires will rotate on the road, pressure on the tires continuously. Then they generate electricity. 3312/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  34. 34. References: [1] K A Cook-Chennault, N Thambi and A M Sastry, Powering MEMS portable devices—A review of non-regenerative and regenerative power supply systems with special emphasis on piezoelectric energy harvesting systems, Smart Mater. Struct. 1.7 (2008). 1-33 [2] S. P. Beeby, M. J. Tudor and N. M. White, Energy harvesting vibration sources for microsystems applications, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 (2006) R175–R195 [3] J. Kymissis, C. Kendall, J. J.Paradiso, and N. Gershenfeld, “Parasitic power harvesting in shoes,”in Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Conf.Wearable Computing, Los Alamitos, CA, Aug. 1998, pp. 132–139. [4] P. Glynne-Jones, S. P. Beeby, and N. M. White, “Towards a piezoelectric vibration-powered micro generator,” IEE Proc. Sci. Meas. Technol., vol.148, no. 2, pp. 68–72, 2001. [5] How piezoelectricity works. [Online] Available: http://cdn4.explainthatstuff.com/how-piezoelectricity-works.gif[accessed 19/11/2014] [6] Piezo material classification. [Online] Available: http://www.elpapiezo.ru/eng/piezoceramic_e.shtml[accessed on 19/11/2014] [7] (2011) Piezoelectric Transducer. [Online] Available: http://www.instrumentationtoday.com/wp- content/uploads/2011/07/Piezoelectric-Transducer.jpg [accessed on 21/11/2014]. 3412/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  35. 35. Question time ?? 3512/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh
  36. 36. 3612/6/2014 American International University- Bangladesh