It is always a pleasure to remind the fine people in the LLOYD Business School for their sincere guidance I
received to uphold my practical skills. First of all, thanks to my parent for giving encouragement, enthusiasm and
invaluable assistance to me. Without all this, I might not be able to complete this subject properly. Second, I
would like to thanks to Ms. Vandana Arora, Group Director to give us the opportunity. Thirdly, I also want to
express my deepest thanks to Prof. Ritika Khurana for teaching us the Organizational Behaviour.
Psychometric tests are a standard and scientific method used to measure individuals' mental capabilities and
behavioural style. Psychometric tests are designed to measure candidates' suitability for a role based on the
required personality characteristics and aptitude (or cognitive abilities). They identify the extent to which
candidates' personality and cognitive abilities match those required to perform the role. Employers use the
information collected from the psychometric test to identify the hidden aspects of candidates that are difficult to
extract from a face-to-face interview. In this report we will going to focus on the different type of psychometric
test and how these test calculated for analyzing the individual's behaviour.
TABLE OF CONTENTS…..
1. WHAT IS PERSONALITY?
2. PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING
3. MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
4. LOCUS OF CONTROL TEST
5. SELF ESTEEM TEST
6. LEADERSHIP TEST
7. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TEST
WHAT IS PERSONALITY?
Personality, a characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes,
and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral
characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be
observed in people’s relations to the environment and to the social group.
The term personality has been defined in many ways, but as a psychological concept two main meanings
have evolved. The first pertains to the consistent differences that exist between people: in this sense, the
study of personality focuses on classifying and explaining relatively stable human psychological
characteristics. The second meaning emphasizes those qualities that make all people alike and that
distinguish psychological man from other species; it directs the personality theorist to search for those
regularities among all people that define the nature of man as well as the factors that influence the course of
lives. This duality may help explain the two directions that personality studies have taken: on the one hand,
the study of ever more specific qualities in people, and, on the other, the search for the organized totality of
psychological functions that emphasizes the interplay between organic and psychological events within
people and those social and biological events that surround them. The dual definition of personality is
interwoven in most of the topics discussed below. It should be emphasized, however, that no definition of
personality has found universal acceptance within the field.
Because personality is so pervasive and all-important, it presents a clinical paradox of sorts: It is hard to
accurately assess one's own personality, yet impossible to overlook that of others. But since personality can
make or break one's relationships at home and at work—and because each person aspires to be grounded in
who they truly are—researchers will continue to dig deeper into why people are the way they are and how
personality influences each individual's behavior.
Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Test
The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire with the purpose
of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make
The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers.It is based on
the conceptual theory proposed by Carl Jung, who had speculated that humans experience the world using
four principal psychological functions – sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these
four functions is dominant for a person most of the time.
The MBTI was constructed for normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring
differences. "The underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we
construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation."
Although popular in the business sector, the MBTI exhibits significant scientific (psychometric)
deficiencies, notably including poor validity (i.e. not measuring what it purports to measure, not having
predictive power or not having items that can be generalized), poor reliability (giving different results for
the same person on different occasions), measuring categories that are not independent (some dichotomous
traits have been noted to correlate with each other), and not being comprehensive (due to missing
neuroticism). The four scales used in the MBTI have some correlation with four of the Big Five personality
traits, which are a more commonly accepted framework.
The 16 MBTI Personality Types
The MBTI questionnaire sorts people into 16 different personality types. The Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator® (MBTI®) Step I is based on Carl Jung’s theory of psychological type. It indicates your
personality preferences in four dimensions:
Where you focus your attention – Extroversion (E) or Introversion (I)
The way you take in information – Sensing (S) or Intuition (N)
How you make decisions – Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)
How you deal with the world – Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)
The four letters that make up your personality type can help you to understand yourself and your interactions
ESFJ PERSONALITY (“THE CONSUL”)
Encourage, lift and strengthen one another. For the positive energy spread to one will be felt by us all.
~ Deborah Day
People who share the ESFJ personality type are, for lack of a better word, popular – which makes sense,
given that it is also a very common personality type, making up twelve percent of the population. In high
school, ESFJs are the cheerleaders and the quarterbacks, setting the tone, taking the spotlight and leading
their teams forward to victory and fame. Later in life, ESFJs continue to enjoy supporting their friends and
loved ones, organizing social gatherings and doing their best to make sure everyone is happy.
Discussing scientific theories or debating European politics isn’t likely to capture ESFJs’ interest for too
long. ESFJs are more concerned with fashion and their appearance, their social status and the standings of
other people. Practical matters and gossip are their bread and butter, but ESFJs do their best to use their
powers for good.
LOCUS OF CONTROL
There is a concept in the psychological literature known as locus of control that is unfamiliar to most people,
even though, once defined, is commonly understood. Locus of control is an individual’s belief system
regarding the causes of his or her experiences and the factors to which that person attributes success or
This concept is usually divided into two categories: internal and external. If a person has an internal locus
of control, that person attributes success to his or her own efforts and abilities. A person who expects to
succeed will be more motivated and more likely to learn. A person with an external locus of control, who
attributes his or her success to luck or fate, will be less likely to make the effort needed to learn. People with
an external locus of control are also more likely to experience anxiety since they believe that they are not in
control of their lives. This is not to say, however, that an internal locus of control is “good” and an external
locus of control is “bad.” There are other variables to be considered, however, psychological research has
found that people with a more internal locus of control seem to be better off, e.g. they tend to be more
achievement oriented and get better paying jobs.
Locus of control is often viewed as an inborn personality component. However, there is also evidence that
it is shaped by childhood experiences—including children’s interactions with their parents. Children who
were raised by parents who encouraged their independence and helped them to learn the connection between
actions and their consequences tended to have a more well developed internal locus of control.
SELF ESTEEM TEST
Self-esteemis shaped by your thoughts, relationships and experiences. Understand the range of self-
esteem and the benefits of having a healthy opinion of yourself.
Self-esteem is your overall opinion of yourself — how you feel about your abilities and limitations. When
you have healthy self-esteem, you feel good about yourself and see yourself as deserving the respect of
others. When you have low self-esteem, you put little value on your opinions and ideas. You might
constantly worry that you aren't good enough.
Factors that shape and influence self-esteem –
Self-esteem begins to form in early childhood. Factors that can influence self-esteem include:
Your thoughts and perceptions
How other people react to you
Experiences at home, school, work and in the community
Illness, disability or injury
Role and status in society
Relationships with those close to you — parents, siblings, peers, teachers and other important contacts —
are important to your self-esteem. Many beliefs you hold about yourself today reflect messages you've
received from these people over time.
Range of self-esteem –
Self-esteem tends to fluctuate over time, depending on your circumstances. It's normal to go through times
when you feel down about yourself and times when you feel good about yourself. Generally, however, self-
esteem stays in a range that reflects how you feel about yourself overall, and increases slightly with age.
Consider how to recognize the extremes of your self-esteem:
Low self-esteem. When you have low or negative self-esteem, you put little value on your opinions and
ideas. You focus on your perceived weaknesses and faults and give scant credit to your skills and assets.
You believe that others are more capable or successful.
You might have difficulty accepting positive feedback. You might fear failure, which can hold you back
from succeeding at work or school.
Healthy self-esteem. When you have healthy self-esteem it means you have a balanced, accurate view
of yourself. For instance, you have a good opinion of your abilities but recognize your flaws.
When self-esteem is healthy and grounded in reality, it's hard to have too much of it. Boasting and feeling
superior to others around you isn't a sign of too much self-esteem. It's more likely evidence of insecurity
and low self-esteem.
Excellent leaders bring out the best in the people around them. It takes a certain natural tendency combined
with learned skills to be a good leader. While some people are certainly not cut out to head up a group,
others just need a boost from some leadership training courses.
The following assessment will evaluate your Leadership Skills and Style - whether you possess the
personality traits and skills that characterize good leaders. The following assessment will evaluate whether
you possess the personality traits and skills that characterize good leaders. In order to receive the most
accurate results, please answer each question as honestly as possible. If you come across a situation you
have never experienced before, answer according to how you think you would behave in such a situation.
Let's take a look at each quadrant in detail.
Impoverished Management – Low Results/Low People –
The Impoverished or "indifferent" manager is mostly ineffective. With a low regard for creating systems
that get the job done, and with little interest in creating a satisfying or motivating team environment , his
results are inevitably disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony.
Produce-or-Perish Management – High Results/Low People –
Also known as "authoritarian" or "authority-compliance" managers, people in this category believe that their
team members are simply a means to an end. The team's needs are always secondary to its productivity.
This type of manager is autocratic, has strict work rules, policies and procedures, and can view punishment
as an effective way of motivating team members. This approach can drive impressive production results at
first, but low team morale and motivation will ultimately affect people's performance, and this type of leader
will struggle to retain high performers.
She probably adheres to the Theory X approach to motivation, which assumes that employees are naturally
unmotivated and dislike working. A manager who believes people are self-motivated and happy to work is
said to follow Theory Y. You can learn more about these theories in our article, Theory X and Theory Y .
Middle-of-the-Road Management – Medium Results/Medium People –
A Middle-of-the-Road or "status quo" manager tries to balance results and people, but this strategy is not as
effective as it may sound. Through continual compromise, he fails to inspire high performance and also fails
to meet people's needs fully. The result is that his team will likely deliver only mediocre performance.
Country Club Management – High People/Low Results –
The Country Club or "accommodating" style of manager is most concerned about her team members' needs
and feelings. She assumes that, as long as they are happy and secure, they will work hard.
What tends to be the result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun, but where productivity suffers
because there is a lack of direction and control.
Team Management – High Production/High People –
According to the Blake Mouton model, Team management is the most effective leadership style. It reflects
a leader who is passionate about his work and who does the best he can for the people he works with.
Team or "sound" managers commit to their organization's goals and mission, motivate the people who report
to them, and work hard to get people to stretch themselves to deliver great results. But, at the same time,
they're inspiring figures who look after their teams. Someone led by a Team manager feels respected and
empowered, and is committed to achieving her goals.
Team managers prioritize both the organization's production needs and their people's needs. They do this
by making sure that their team members understand the organization's purpose , and by involving them in
determining production needs.
When people are committed to, and have a stake in, the organization's success, their needs and production
needs coincide. This creates an environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction,
motivation and excellent results. Team managers likely adopt the Theory Y approach to motivation, as we
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TEST
Conflict is inevitable—which isn’t necessarily a bad thing. Without conflict, there would be no diversity of
thought, no pushing the boundaries, no intellectual debates. We are built to overcome adversity, hopefully
gaining strength and a new sense of perspective in the process. However, it’s important to approach conflict
constructively to achieve optimal results for all parties involved. As with many interpersonal skills the first
step to conflict resolution is self-awareness.
How to score the Conflict Management Questionnaire:
As stated, the 15 statements correspond to the five conflict resolution styles. To find your most preferred
style, total the points in the respective categories. The one with the highest score indicates your most
commonly used strategy. The one with the lowest score indicates your least preferred strategy. However, if
you are a leader who must deal with conflict on a regular basis, you may find your style to be a blend of
Style Corresponding Statements: Total: The numbers represent the questions above.
Collaborating: 1, 5, 7 _______
Competing: 4, 9, 12 _______
Avoiding: 6, 10, 15 _______
Accommodating: 3, 11, 14 _______
Compromising: 2, 8, 13 _______
Brief Descriptions of the Five Conflict Management Styles
Accommodating: Cooperating to a high degree where you may have to give in to maintain relationships
Pros: Minimizes injury when we are outmatched; relationships are maintained
Cons: Breeds resentment; exploits the weak
Avoiding Style: Non-confrontational approach
Pros: Does not escalate conflict; postpones difficulty
Cons: Unaddressed problems; unresolved problems
Collaborating Style: Problems are solved in a way for all involved to get what they want and negative
feelings are minimized.
Pros: Creates mutual trust; maintains positive relationships; builds commitments
Cons: Time consuming; energy consuming
Competing Style: Authoritarian approach
Pros: Goal-oriented; quick
Cons: May breed hostility
Compromising Style: Middle ground approach
Pros: Useful in complex issues without simple solutions; all parties are equal in power
Cons: No one is ever really satisfied
A psychological test in reality is essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior.
Psychological tests are like the tests in any other science, insofar as observations are made on a small but
carefully chosen sample of an individual’s behavior. An important point to notice here is that psychometric
tests include both personality tests as well as the aptitude tests like verbal ability, numerical reasoning etc.
Keeping in mind the growing use of these psychometric tests by HR professionals all over the world.