“International negotiation is more complex than domestic negotiation.
Differences in national cultures and differences in political, legal and
economic systems often separate potential business partners.
Consequently, most international negotiators find it necessary to modify
the negotiation styles of their home country. If they wish to succeed in
the multinational arena, they must develop a style of international
negotiation based on the flexible application of sound negotiating
Using the above introduction of the role of global negotiations,
critically evaluate this statement, providing relevant theory and
research to support your arguments.
Your analysis should:
• Identify some of the complex ways that cross-cultural
differences can manifest themselves in the negotiation
• Identify possible strategies to alleviate or avoid these
• Apply the differences/similarities in several cultures to add
value to your analysis.
Breaking it Down
• What did the statement say?
– International is more complex than domestic
– Differences in national cultures, political, legal and
economic systems (Week 2)
– Modifying (adapting) negotiation style
– Need to be flexible
Breaking it Down
• What did the question say?
– Critically evaluate
– Relevant theory and research
– Broad array of examples
– Complex ways culture is in negotiation
– Strategies to deal with this
– Doing this via examples
Negotiation and Culture
• Domestic v International Negotiation
– Start with negotiation
– Clearly spell out how international negotiation is
> Political, legal and economic
> National Culture
– Look at the steps to negotiation
> I don’t want you to take me through them but they are
a good place for clues
9. Cultural Differences in Preference for a
• Cultural Differences
– Negotiation goal (contract or relationship)
– Formal or informal communication
– Direct or indirect communication
– Sensitivity to time
– Forms of agreement (specific or broad)
– Team organisation (one or many)
Strategies to Deal
• What are the implications for managers?
• How are they going to deal with these different
• Lay out strategies for dealing with these issues.
• Maybe some are located on the lecture slides
Tips for Assignment
1. Read the essay topic carefully
– Keep topic next to you while writing.
– Make sure you address all aspects of the topic.
– Plan your answer.
– Don’t lose focus.
> Does every paragraph help address the question?
> If not, replace it with a better one.
– Follow logical structure.
Tips for Assignment (Cont.)
– Size 12 Font Times, Size 11 Calibri
– Double spaced
– Be consistent
– No headings / sub-headings
– 2 or 3 paragraphs per page
– Proof reading / editing is very important
Tips for Assignment (Cont.)
– At least 15 references
– APA style
– Only use reliable sources
> Do not rely on text books or lecture slides
– Integrate references to for arguments
– Reference list in alphabetical order
– Use Q-manual for guidance
Breakdown of Marks
• Abstract 10% (separate page 150-200 words)
– Summary of what you found
• Introduction 15%
– Intro into the topic area and what you will cover
• Body 50%
– Paragraphs etc
• Conclusion 15%
– Summarising everything and recommendations
• Presentation 10%
– References, what it looks like, English
Essay Feedback - Paragraphs
• Have the essay question in front of you the whole time
• In the first two sentences of your paragraphs I should know
how it links to the question
• This is not Game of Thrones, I shouldn’t have to keep
guessing what is coming next
• Each paragraph should be a building block to make your
• At the end of the paragraph ask “does this answer the
• You need to do the analysis – not expect me to work out how
it all links together
Essay Feedback - Writing
• “It’s obvious” and “widely known” that you shouldn’t say this
• Etc is too tacky, such as … is better
• Have bridging sentences
– not Idea A. Idea B. Therefore C
– more Idea A. Idea B. Idea A and B. Therefore C.
• If you Are going to have capital Letters make Sure they are
– e.g. Human Capital or human capital
• Organizations are in America, Organisations are in Australia
• Should you have rhetorical questions in your essay?
Essay Feedback – Referencing Slide
• When you are talking about a theory, analyse it. There is no
point spending a paragraph just explaining a theory
• Please reference Hofstede directly
• Instead of cited in…. just go to the original source
• Don’t reference the lecture slides
• Theorists say …… (who are they?)
• Bad websites
– e.g. Big Dog Little Dog Blog