Introduction to
Digital Set Top Box (STB)
Namith CM
What is STB?
 A digital set-top box is a device that connects to an
external signal source and decodes that signal into
c...
STB Business - Stake holders
 Usually, STB’s are designed and supplied by OEM’s to the operators, with many
stake-holders...
Software Architecture (generic)
Data flow (generic) - Broadcast with PVR
Frontend
Demux
Descrambler
Audio
Decoder
Video
Decoder
Graphics/
UI
Scaler
&
Mixe...
Data flow Explained
 Frontend (NIM)
 The tuner is the input/source point for the data/media stream. It could be
a satell...
Data flow Explained (contd.)
 Audio Decoder & Output
 The audio PES is parsed, and the audio ES is passed to the audio b...
Hardware Connection Diagram (example)
Common Peripherals in an STB hardware
 Front-panel display
 LED’s, button controls, RCU/IR receiver, etc.
 Memory
 LMI...
Thank You!
http://linkedin.com/in/namithcm
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Set Top Box

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Introduction to STB, with basic data flow diagram for DVB broadcast STB and sample peripheral hardware connections.

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie

Set Top Box

  1. 1. Introduction to Digital Set Top Box (STB) Namith CM
  2. 2. What is STB?  A digital set-top box is a device that connects to an external signal source and decodes that signal into content that can be presented on a display unit such as a TV.  Initially the term “STB” was used to represent all such devices, including digital media receivers, Windows Media extenders, gaming consoles, etc too, but gradually got limited to be used only for broadcast TV content viewing devices.  STB’s are categorized in different ways:  Based on source: cable box, satellite box, IP box, etc.  Based on recording capability: zapper box, PVR/DVR box, etc.  Based on return channel: one-way (broadcast), two-way, hybrid, etc.
  3. 3. STB Business - Stake holders  Usually, STB’s are designed and supplied by OEM’s to the operators, with many stake-holders in the supply-chain:  OEM’s:  Pace, Cisco, Technicolor, Humax, etc.  Chipset/SoC vendors:  Broadcom, ST, MStar, etc.  CAS vendors:  Latens/Pace, NDS/Cisco, Nagra, etc.  Middleware/Application vendors:  Google, NDS/Cisco, Nagra, Zenterio, Cubiware, SeaChange, TiVo, etc.  OTT service vendors:  Netflix, Amazon, Plex, Roku, etc.  Third-party system integrators (optional):  Red Embedded, etc  Manufacturers:  Flextronics, Jabil, etc.  Headend vendors:  ARRIS, Cisco, Teleste, Tandberg, Ericsson, etc.  Operators:  DIRECTV, Comcast, TataSky, Hathway, etc.  Content aggregators/partners, VoD partners, billing systems, etc… and more!
  4. 4. Software Architecture (generic)
  5. 5. Data flow (generic) - Broadcast with PVR Frontend Demux Descrambler Audio Decoder Video Decoder Graphics/ UI Scaler & Mixer DAC & Amp HDD / Storage HDD / Storage Tuner Demod TV / Display out Speaker CAS / smartcard CC / Teletext SI / EPG / Private Data RF- in Media input SW-TS TS PES (enc) PES (clear) A A A V V V G CW ECM EMM
  6. 6. Data flow Explained  Frontend (NIM)  The tuner is the input/source point for the data/media stream. It could be a satellite/cable/terrestrial tuner to tune to signals coming in over the RF input feeds.  The demodulator converts the modulated signal into baseband signal (with error correction modules).  In IPTV case, this module would be replaced by IP/LAN/network module.  Demultiplexer  The demux module can filter out video/audio/data using PID, TID, mask, etc.  Descrambler  This module descrambles encrypted signals into decrypted signals. The diagram shows the more common case of PES-level descrambling, while TS-level descrambling is also possible.  CAS / smartcard (shown in red)  The CAS system supplies the decryption keys to the descrambler module, if the client STB is has the necessary subscription rights.  CAS can also control encryption & decryption in case of PVR recordings.
  7. 7. Data flow Explained (contd.)  Audio Decoder & Output  The audio PES is parsed, and the audio ES is passed to the audio bit buffers. Then audio decoding and PCM mixing is performed and output through S/PDIF, PCM or DAC interfaces, onto the speakers and/or audio output ports.  Video Decoder & Output  The video PES is parsed, and the video ES is passed to the video bit buffers. Then video decoding is performed and the display frame buffers generated are presented on the video display layers, which are then composited by the video/graphics mixer for final presentation onto the panel and/or video output ports.  PVR/DVR & Stored Media Playback (shown in green)  Takes care of recording of live content, playback of recorded content, buffering (pause/review), movie-on-demand/VOD, Ad-insertions, USB media playback, etc.  Closed Captions, Sub-titles, Teletext  Allows text data to be embedded into the video, for foreign language movie viewing, aiding hearing-impaired people, news/weather/score updates, etc.  PSI/SI, EPG, DSMCC, OTA upgrade, Graphics  The applications and middleware uses these modules extensively for value-added features such as showing the program guide, service
  8. 8. Hardware Connection Diagram (example)
  9. 9. Common Peripherals in an STB hardware  Front-panel display  LED’s, button controls, RCU/IR receiver, etc.  Memory  LMI  DDR SDRAM  EMI  NOR flash  NAND flash  EEPROM  Front-end modules  Tuner hardware, and sometimes external demod IC’s.  Special Audio/Video chips  Sometimes external microcontroller chips are used for analog audio/video input/output.  External connectivity  USB, PHY, SATA, e-SATA, HDMI, S/PDIF, smartcards.  Debugging ports  JTAG, UART/RS232
  10. 10. Thank You! http://linkedin.com/in/namithcm

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