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Deodorant & Antiperspirant

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Deodorant & Antiperspirant

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  2. 2. Presented By: Najiur Ruman Southeast University Department of Pharmacy 2
  3. 3. Overview • Deodorant and Antiperspirant • Properties • Differences • Components of sweat • Odor & Methods of Reduce it • Ingredients & Formulation of Deodorants • Evaluation of Deodorants • Formulation of Antiperspirant Sticks • Active Ingredients & Evaluation of Antiperspirant 3
  4. 4. Overview • Choosing Deodorant over Antiperspirant • Consciousness • Perfume & Its Classification • Talcum Powder & Its Merits 4
  5. 5. Deodorant and Antiperspirant • A deodorant is a products applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits , feet , and other areas of the body and do not reduce wetness. • A subgroup of deodorant , antiperspirant , affects odor as well as prevent sweating by affecting sweat glands . 5
  6. 6. Properties of Deodorants and Antiperspirant • It should not be irritant to the skin . • It should not deteriorate clothing. • It should be safe and nontoxic. • Easy to use and adhere well on skin. • Mask body odor with perfume. • Absorb perspiration or inhibit the activity of gram+ ve bacteria , which cause body malodour. 6
  7. 7. Difference between Deodorants and Antiperspirant 7
  8. 8. Components of Sweat Ethnicity: hypotonic liquid form of blood plasma. Acidic substance which is the degree of acidity is between 4 and 6. It consists mainly of 99% water and some mineral salts, which are sodium chloride, potassium, and bicarbonate. It also contains inorganic compounds such as lactic acid, urea, and ammonia which secreted by sweat glands. 8
  9. 9. Deodorants and Antiperspirants: 9
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  12. 12. Odor Numerous odors substances are responsible: • decomposition of the proteins • lower fatty acids, steroids and lactones(have no smell , but they fix the odor • combined action of food • physical and psychological conditions • individual property (dog detection) 12
  13. 13. Method to reduce or control auxiliary odor 1-Reduce apocrine sweating 2-Remove the secretions 3-Impede bacterial growth 4-Absorb body odor 13
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  15. 15. Deodorant Action ● According to Gomes, Drucker & liley, infections caused by anaerotic bacteria often produce strong odor due to production of short chain fatty acids, sulfur compounds, ammonia & polamines. ● Chlorine through its lethal activity on micro organism & oxidative action on dead tissue & bacterial products, eliminate the fetid odor produced by necrosis. 15
  16. 16. Deodorants/ Ingredients Antibacterial agents: -benzethonium chloride -chlorhexidine acetate -trichloro-hydroxy diphenyl ether (Triclosan) Formulation forms: • Aerosols • Sticks • Creams • Roll-On • Soaps 16
  17. 17. Formulation Deodorant Stearic acid 14.0 Bees wax 2.0 Liquid paraffin 1.0 Tween 80 5.0 Al-chlorhydrate 12.0 Cetrimide 1.0 Water to 100 Deodorant stick Stearic acid 3.4 Sodium hydroxide 0.6 D.water 1.0 Glycerol 7.5 Cetrimide 0.75 Ethanol 75 17
  18. 18. Evaluation of Deodorants: • Both in vivo and in vitro methods are available. But In vitro techniques do not provide a reliable indicator of clinical effectiveness. • The two principal methods for the in vivo evaluation of deodorant efficacy are- 1. Determination of the effect of treatment on the skin microflora; 2. Olfactory assessment of the effects on skin odours. • In the other method, olfactory assessment of the effect of deodorants on body odours may be performed by direct armpit sniffing or by indirect sniffing of pads. 18
  19. 19. Formulation of Antiperspirant sticks Antiperspirant sticks consist of • The active drug ingredients that control perspiration; • Gelling agents that form the stick matrix;and • Other ingredients, such as fragrance or colorants, that make the product aesthetically pleasing. 19
  20. 20. Antiperspirant Action Active ingredient will diffuse into the sweat & apocrine glands & insoluble hydroxide gel will be produced in sweat pores & thus physically blocking the release of secretory products by constricting the opening of the sweat gland ducts. 20
  21. 21. Active ingredients • The FDA publishes an Over the Counter (OTC) Drug monograph that lists which ingredients are approved for use • The ingredients on this list are limited to: - natural antimicrobial agents: aluminum chlorhydrate, aluminumdichlorhydrate - aluminum chloride (must be non aerosol) and - aluminum zirconium complexes. • of these compounds, the most commonly used is aluminum zirconiumtetrachlorohydrex glycine. • Most of these materials are supplied as powders, and they are typically used at levels of 8-25%based on the weight of the finished product. 21
  22. 22. Alcohol • Alcohol is an ingredient present in some roll-ons, aerosols and gels. • The active ingredients of antiperspirants and deodorants are often dissolved in alcohol because it dries quickly once applied to the skin and gives an immediate sense of coolness. 22
  23. 23. Gelling Agent • The bulk of the formulation consists of waxy or fatty materials that are gelled to form a solid stick. • Common examples include: - stearyl alcohol - cetyl alcohol - hydrogenated castor oil, and glyceryl stearate. • These waxy materials are blended with lubricating oils and emollients such as cyclomethicone, • In addition, talc, starches, or other powders may be added to control stick consistency and to give the product a dry feel. 23
  24. 24. Other Ingredients : • Fragrance and colorants may be added to the formula to improve its odour or appearance. • Some additives as calcium pantothenate may be added,Calcium pantothenate in antiperspirants is claimed to soothe irritated skin and to promote wound healing, which often occurs with underarm shaving. 24
  25. 25. Quality control: 25
  26. 26. Evaluation of Antiperspirant: • Antiperspirants aim to bring about a temporary decrease in sweatproduction in the axillae. • The most widely used procedure for efficacy te sting of antiperspirants is a gravimetric method which involves the collection and weighing of axillary sweat under controlled conditions. 26
  27. 27. Why choose a Deodorant over an Antiperspirant? • Deodorants work by neutralizing the smell of the sweat and by antiseptic action against bacteria. • Deodorants are preferable because they don't interfere with sweating, a natural cooling process. • Antiperspirants, because of their ability to reduce perspiration and thus diminish the medium that is a factor in the development of axillary odour, can also claim to be a deodorant. • However, because a deodorant product only reduces the body odour and does not reduce perspiration it can only be labeled as a deodorant. 27
  28. 28. Healthy effect 1. Aluminum toxicity Aluminum itself adversely affects the blood – brain barrier, is capable of causing DNA damage, and has adverse epigenetic effects. 2. Breast cancer 2004 and 2005 studies led by researcher Philippa Darbre, hypothesizes that particular substances in deodorants, such as preservatives called parabens, or bolts such as aluminum chloride used in antiperspirants, get into the bloodstream or accumulate in breast tissue, where they enhance or emulate the effects of estrogen, which stimulates the growth of cancerous breast cells. 28
  29. 29. Healthy effects 3. The agency warns people with renal dysfunction to consult a doctor before using antiperspirants containing aluminum. 4. Deodorant crystals containing synthetically made potassium alum were found to be a weak irritant to the skin. Alcohol-free deodorant is available for those with sensitive skin. 29
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  31. 31. Perfume # Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animal, food objects and living spaces a pleasant scent. # It has been used for centuries by mankind. # Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of freshness. # Initially it was only used for religious purpose but now it has become an ornament of sophistication for both men and women. 31
  32. 32. Classification of Perfume • Perfumes are classified into five major groups on the basis of concentration of fragrance and duration of lasting: Class of aromatic compound % Duration(hours) Perfume(perfume) 20-30 6-8 Eau de perfume 15-20 4-5 Eau de toilette 5-15 2-3 Eau de cologne 2-4 2 32
  33. 33. • Perfumes can further be classified into following classes: 1. Bright floral: Fragrance from one or several flowers. e.g. Estee lauder’s Beautiful 2. Green: Fragrance from cut grass or leaf. e.g. Calvin Klein’s Eternity 3. Aquatic: A clean smell reminiscent of ocean. e.g. Davidoff Cool Water 4. Citrus: Has freshening effect. E.g. Faberge Brut 5. Fruity: Aromas of fruits other than citrus. E.g. Ginestet Botrytis 6. Gourmand: Scent with edible or desert like qualities. E.g. Thierry Mugler’s Angel. 33 Classification of Perfume
  34. 34. AROMATIC SOURCES Fragrances used in perfume can be found from following sources: a) Plant Source: Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin, roots, seeds, woods etc. b) Animal Source: Musk, civet, honeycomb etc. c) Synthetic Source: Calone, synthetic terpenes etc. INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC REACTION 1.Sandalwood Fragrance: Hypersensitivity. 2.Limonene: Slightly astringent smell Irritates the skin. 3.Benzyl alcohol: Fixative Skin irritant causing redness and pain. 4.Benzyl Benzoate:Fixative; sweet balsamic odor. Skin irritation like blister . 5.Acetone Solvent Inhalation cause dryness of mouth & throat. 6.Ethyl Acetate Solvent Defatting effect on skin & may cause drying & cracking 34
  35. 35. MANUFACTURING PROCESS Perfumes can be manufactured by following steps: I. Collection II. Extraction III. Blending IV. Aging I. Collection: Before manufacturing process begins the sources of suitable fragrances are collected in the manufacturing centre. II.Extraction: Oils are extracted from plants and other substances by several methods like: a. Steam distillation: steam is passed through plant materials held in a still, whereby the essential oil turns to gas. 35
  36. 36. This gas is then passed through tubes, cooled, liquefied and collected. b. Solvent extraction: The flower parts are dissolved in benzene or petrolatum that retains the fragrance of the flower. Alcohol is used to dissolve the fragrance and heated to obtain it after evaporation of alcohol. c. Enfleurage: Flowers are kept in glass sheet with grease that absorb the fragrance of flowers. d. Expression: The citrus fruits or plants are manually or mechanically pressed until all the oil is squeezed out. 36
  37. 37. Talcum powder Talcum powder is the refined, powdery form of the softest mineral on earth: talc. Talc is an “inert” ingredient, meaning it does not generate a chemical reaction when ingested or used on the skin. People have taken advantage of its natural smoothness, safety and absorbency since ancient Egyptian times. Talc is found in rock deposits all over the planet and is mined like many other minerals. Only pharmaceutical grade talc is used in our baby powder. 37
  38. 38. How is talcum powder made? Once it is taken from the earth, talc is partially crushed, sorted and assigned a grade. The talc ore that meets our standards is then milled to a powder, tested for particle size and confirmed to meet Johnson & Johnson’s purity requirements. 38
  39. 39. Is Talc Safe? 1.Talc has been used for centuries. It’s the softest mineral on earth, and has been used for a variety of applications dating back to ancient Egypt. 2.Talc is more common than you think. It’s in the foods we eat, including chewing gum, rice and olive oil, and many products we use every day (like makeup, soap and antiperspirant.) 3.Talc is safe. Research, clinical evidence and nearly 40 years of studies by independent medical experts around the world continue to support the safety of talc. 39
  40. 40. 4.Talc has been studied by independent authorities around the world. Government and non-governmental agencies, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel have all investigated the potential harmfulness of talc and determined that talc is safe. 6.Talc does not cause cancer. The National Cancer Institute’s Physician Data Query Editorial Board concluded that the weight of evidence does not support an association between perineal talc exposure and increased risk of ovarian cancer 40
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