3. Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially serious
infectious disease that mainly affects the
Tuberculosis is a clinical condition that is
caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium
tuberculosis. As it affects multiple vital
organs, it is described as a multi-systemic
Tuberculosis is sometimes called Koch’s
4. A total of 1.5 million people died from TB in
2020 (including 214 000 people with HIV).
Worldwide, TB is the 13th leading cause of
death and the second leading infectious killer
after COVID-19 (above HIV/AIDS).
In 2020, an estimated 10 million people fell
ill with tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. 5.6
million men, 3.3 million women and 1.1
million children. TB is present in all countries
and age groups. But TB is curable and
5. The World Health Organization estimates that
there were over 2.79 million cases of
tuberculosis in 2016 in India. This is quite a
high number and is rather alarming.
8. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria
(Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often
affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and
TB is spread from person to person through
When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or
spit, they propel the TB germs into the air. A
person needs to inhale only a few of these
germs to become infected.
9. The primary cause of tuberculosis is a rod-
shaped bacteria called Mycobacterium
The bacteria that causes tuberculosis can be
easily identified due to a number of different
These bacteria are dependent on oxygen for their
growth and hence flourish in areas where there is
a good amount of oxygen and nutrients.
They are slow-growing bacteria. Once it affects a
particular area, it leads to the formation of a
lesion that is called a granuloma.
10. Anyone can get TB, but those at greatest risk
who live in, come from, or have spent time in a country
or area with high levels of TB
in prolonged close contact with someone who's infected
living in crowded conditions
with a condition that weakens their immune system,
such as diabetes
having treatments that weaken the immune system,
such as chemotherapy or biological agents
who are very young or very old – the immune systems of
people who are young or elderly tend to be weaker than
those of healthy adults
in poor health or with a poor diet because of lifestyle
and other problems, such as drug misuse, alcohol
misuse, or homelessness
11. TB disease usually develops slowly, and it may take
several weeks before the patient notices their
Coughing with bloody sputum
Shortness of breath
Urine discoloration ( Cloudy and reddish urine)
lack of appetite and weight loss
a high temperature with chills
extreme tiredness or fatigue
It's called active TB if patient has these symptoms.
Sometimes the infection does not cause any
symptoms. This is known as latent TB.
12. Broadly classified, there are two types of
Active tuberculosis, the individual who is carrying
the organism has active symptoms and can
transmit the infection to other people.
Latent tuberculosis, the individual carries the
bacteria but does not exhibit any symptoms
This is because immunity fights the infection
and is able to suppress it to an extent.
Individuals suffering from latent tuberculosis
cannot transmit the illness to others. However, at
some point in their life, the bacteria can get
reactivated and the infection can become active
13. Another way of classifying tuberculosis is
based on the organs affected.
2. Pleural Tuberculosis
3. Skeletal Tuberculosis
4. Brain Tuberculosis
5. Bladder and Kidney Tuberculosis
6. Joint Tuberculosis
7. Gastrointestinal Tract Tuberculosis
8. Miliary Tuberculosis
10. Lymphnode TB
14. The first step in making a diagnosis of TB is a
Once the clinical suspicion of tuberculosis
exists, further investigations are required to
confirm the diagnosis.
15. A Mantoux test is a skin test for tuberculosis.
Here, an extract that is made from dead
mycobacterium is injected right under the
surface of the skin.
This injection leads to an allergic response
characterized by swelling, redness and
firmness of the injected area. The presence of
all three of these in a significant manner is a
16. A chest x-ray is a very useful test in the
diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
In those who have active tuberculosis, there
can be presence of patches in the upper part
of the lung which are rather diagnostic of the
In miliary tuberculosis, the infection can be a
lot more widespread and appears like
multiple patches all through the lung fields.
17. A specific test called the erythrocyte
sedimentation rate or ESR is markedly
These days newer blood tests such as
adenine deaminase (ADA) have emerged as
more specific markers for tuberculosis.
In those who have tuberculosis affecting the
liver, there may be abnormal liver function
tests. If the kidney is affected, the kidney
function tests will be abnormal.
18. An ultrasound scan is a useful way to
determine if there is any infection or
abnormality within the abdomen. In
tuberculosis, there may be certain specific
changes that can be seen in the liver and
other vital organs if they are affected by the
19. 5. Urine Test:
The urine will show the presence of pus cells.
6. CT Scan of the Brain:
When tuberculosis affects the brain, a CT scan
can help determine the extent to which it is
affected. Sometimes, an MRI scan may be
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