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Mechanical Design Engineering Portfolio

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Mechanical Design Engineering Portfolio

  1. 1. Mechanical Engineering Design Portfolio Nikhil Kulkarni - MS Mechanical Engineering Arizona State University nkulkar5@asu.edu +1 (480) 634 3323
  2. 2. CONTENTS SL No TITLE PAGE NUMBER 1. Introduction and About me. 3 2. Jigs and fixture for ERU crutch fairing [Intern – HAL]. 4 3. Structural assessment and analysis of TVC hydraulic 8 system flight filter manifold. 4. Design for Autodesk. 15 5. Automatic basketball machine. 17 6. Automatic surveillance vehicle. 20 7. Orange picker. 23 8. Human powered paper bike. 25 9. Transfer wheelchair. 28 10. Miscellaneous. 31
  3. 3. Introduction: Welcome, and thank you for taking the time to view my portfolio. My name is Nikhil Kulkarni. I am currently a final year graduate student majoring in Mechanical engineering with focus on product design and simulation at Arizona State University. The aim of this portfolio is to provide you with a deeper insight into my design skills and experiences that I have acquired over a period of time. The Masters degree has helped me develop sufficient foundation of knowledge so as to stamp my dominance in my field as a leading professional. About me: The word mechanical resembled a magical world to me in my childhood days, but an unseen force which made the world around me work, the passivity of a circuit and yet achieving tasks that otherwise would have involved a lot of physical labor, resembled a land of Arabian nights for me a fairy tale in the making. Maybe the child in me still lives on but the curiosity of discovering this seemingly intangible world of mechanical engineering remains. True I excelled in all my subjects during my school years and could have just been an equally successful financial analyst or journalist but the prospects of those professions never stimulated my passion or imagination. And I believe without passion and a dream in ones field of work, it stays just that, work. It was in my due interest of mechanisms of gadgets around me especially motor bikes, mechanical components of toys, mechanical devices with which I have grown up with that fueled me to pursue my bachelors and now masters in Mechanical engineering. Having realized that the world is increasingly becoming a digital world today and even the simplest of advancements in this field affects our day-to-day lives. More importantly any latest breakthroughs in the field of information technology or the telecommunication world are a direct consequence of developments of the Design front. Thus my desire to be involved with technological advancements at the grassroots level or at a level that has far reaching impact, has made me keen to take my specialization in Product Design and simulation [CAE] at the Masters level. Besides my focus on academic excellence I made it a point to have a more thorough understanding of my subjects as compared to my peers. Whenever opportunities have come my way I have always made it a point to make the best use of them and involved in many implant trainings like “Hindustan Aeronautics Limited- Research and Development Department” which is one off the top aerospace company in India during my undergraduate to get an insight into the practical nuances of the theory learnt in the classrooms. The project on “Design and Fabrication of Drill Jig and Fixtures for a Fighter Jet Aircraft” was highly appreciated and was even selected to be sponsored by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. The richest of all the experiences has been working on the design projects during my graduate studies. Now that I am about to graduate and will be soon awarded my masters degree, I am looking forward towards having a successful career in Mechanical design engineering. If given an opportunity I promise you that not only will I give my best, but strive to become an asset. Introduction and About me 3
  4. 4. Jigs and fixture for ERU crutch fairing Hindustan Aeronautics Limited I worked as an Design engineering Intern in Tooling department at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalore, India. The project assigned took about 8 weeks to complete of which 4 weeks was spent at HAL. Objective: To design and analysis jigs and fixture for ejector release unit [ERU] crutch fairing to improve the accuracy of machining, to decrease the cost and time consumed for manufacturing and to have interchangeability. Assembly requirements: • The position of 4 holes to be drilled on top of the ERU crutch fairing must have constant pitch maintained between them. • Riveting on the ERU crutch fairing must be done in proper positions at 16*4 places [as shown in the drawing]. • The bulkheads must be positioned correctly inside the ERU crutch fairing. • The 2 positions for the support arms must be maintained correctly using locating pins. • Fairing skin must be properly and accurately trimmed so that when attached with the pylon housing it fits perfectly. 4
  5. 5. Jigs and fixture for ERU crutch fairing Setup1: To drill 4 holes of 14mm dia. at different locations on the skin/fairing using the drill template. The drill templates are fastened onto the base plate of the fixture at the first location. Then the drilling operation is carried out, the center of this drilled hole are ensured to be in line with the axis of the hole present in the bulk head. The bushes provided on the drill template acts as guide for the movement of the drilling tool. The drill templates are removed from their place only after completion of drilling in that location. After removing the drill template it is fitted on the next consecutive location. This procedure is repeated till all the 4 holes of 14 mm dia. are drilled. The drill template is removed from the fixture; then the fixture assembly is cleaned ensuring that there is no waste chip present on the fixture assembly. 5
  6. 6. Jigs and fixture for ERU crutch fairing Setup2: To position and clamp the rivet hole templates and to carry out drilling pilot holes of 2mm dia. then enlarge this hole size to 3.2mm dia. The rivet hole templates are fastened onto the base plate of the fixture at the first location. The drilling of pilot holes are carried out one after the other, totally 16 holes are drilled at this location. Since the pitch distance between the holes are same the drilling operation is carried out using the same template. The drill templates are removed from their place only after completion of drilling in that location. After finishing at one place the template is fastened onto another location. Hence a total of 64 holes are drilled using this template on the ERU fairing. These pilot holes are then increased in diameter to 3.2 mm using separate drilling tool other than the one chosen earlier. 6
  7. 7. Jigs and fixture for ERU crutch fairing Setup3: Use the end contour blocks as reference to mark the trimming lines on the fairing using height gauge and trim the unwanted part to finish all operations. The templates are removed from the fixture, the height gauge is mounted on the table. Taking the upper surface of the stopper block as reference a trimming line is drawn throughout the fairing using the height gauge assembly. The trimming operation at this marked line and the deburring operation is carried out to finish all the operations. Results: • A total cost of machining the ERU assembly for an aircraft was reduced by of 600$. • Dimensional accuracy, repeatability and interchangeability of assemble was achieved. • Cycle time was improved by 40% 7
  8. 8. STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THRUST VECTOR CONTROL (TVC) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FLIGHT FILTER MANIFOLD The project was a part of MAE 546: Advance CAE. Objective To qualify the assembly as an aerospace component by performing pressure analysis for normal operating, proof and burst pressure cases, acceleration and random vibrations analysis in X,Y and Z directions so as to obtain the margin of safety and calculating fatigue damage ratio. Also, the projects secondary objective was to optimize inner radius of the filter using parametric study, response surface and design of experiments so as to minimize the maximum stress inside the filter bowl. The analysis was performed in ANSYS 16.0 and for the filter model Design modeler was used. Model Preparation A fillet radius of 0.475 in is considered in the beginning to study if the assembly qualifies as an aerospace component. The fittings in the model were replaced with a solid with negligible density. To compensate for their masses point masses are applied at the CG of the fittings. This helps in minimizing the complexity of the geometry. Also, the point masses is an effective method to balance the pressure loads that are being acted on the assemble. To account for tension in the bolts that fix the filter assemble, fixed support boundary condition is applied to circular regions under the manifold surface. The fluid that applies on the inner surface of the filter is not modeled, but the mass of the fluid is taken into account by adding 2/3rd of the mass to the mass of filter bowl and 1/3rd of the mass to the mass of the manifold. Appropriate contact surfaces are also added. Fixed support TVC filter manifold assembly 8
  9. 9. STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THRUST VECTOR CONTROL (TVC) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FLIGHT FILTER MANIFOLD Convergence study A convergence study is successfully carried out on the assembly to justify that the location of the maximum stress by locally refining the faces of the valve manifold and the filter bowl where the maximum stress is obtained when the assembly is meshed at 0.2 inches element size. The following data provides the convergence study wherein the maximum von-mises stress converges at a local mesh size 0.0125 inches with an error present of less than 4% as per the specifications. The material is safe as the maximum stress induced is within the yield strength of the material properties. The images show the area where the mesh is locally refined. 0.025 in mesh size - Manifold TVC Filter Manifold Assembly Finite Element Mesh Convergence Study - Manifold Mesh size Manifold Stress Combined Stress % Error 0.2 20600 20673 0.1 21944 27925 6.12% 0.05 24318 29918 9.70% 0.025 24615 31025 1.20% Convergence Study - Filter Mesh size Filter Stress Combined Stress % Error 0.2 20673 20673 0.1 29673 29673 5.77% 0.05 27960 27960 9.30% 0.025 30860 30860 0.30% Convergence Study 0.025 in mesh size - Filter Manifold Pressure Filter Pressure 9
  10. 10. STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THRUST VECTOR CONTROL (TVC) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FLIGHT FILTER MANIFOLD Force balancing During the static cases, force reaction is checked by applying a reaction probe at the fixed support of the assemble. Force imbalance is observed in the Y – direction due to the gaps and anomalies in the geometry of the model assembly arising due to the model modification done initially to simplify the simulation of the TVC filter assembly. Reaction probe applied at the fixed supports depicts the force imbalance in the assembly. The total reaction force in along each component of the direction is required to be lesser than 5 lb. As per the specified requirements. Therefore, this imbalance in the force is balanced by applying 96 psi of additional pressure to the inner to surface of the filter bowl to obtain the net reaction force within the specified requirements. The maximum von-mises stress induced in the system in then recorded for the qualification of the assemble Test Specification Pressure cases Random Vibration • Normal operating pressure case: 3200 psi Longitudinal: X - direction • Proof pressure case (1.5 * NOP): 4800 psi Tangential: Y - direction • Burst Pressure case (2.5 * NOP): 8000 psi Radial: Z - direction Acceleration cases +1g acceleration applied in X, Y, Z directions. Scaling factor for MS and FDR calculations • 6.22 x Result for X – directional analysis • 2.00 x Result for Y and Z – directional analysis NOTE: All tests require material to be Characterized at maximum flight environment temperature: 135 deg C Random Vibration requirements 10
  11. 11. STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THRUST VECTOR CONTROL (TVC) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FLIGHT FILTER MANIFOLD Margin of safety for flight acceleration – Longitudinal flight axis Margin of safety for flight acceleration – Tangential flight axis Margin of safety for flight acceleration – Radial flight axis Margin of Safety for Assembly Components under Proof Pressure Margin of Safety for Assembly Components under Normal operating pressure Margin of Safety for Assembly Components under Burst Pressure 11
  12. 12. STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THRUST VECTOR CONTROL (TVC) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FLIGHT FILTER MANIFOLD Maximum Von- Mises Stress – Normal Operating Pressure Maximum Von- Mises Stress – Proof Pressure Maximum Von- Mises Stress – Burst Pressure Maximum Von- Mises Stress – Axial (X) Acceleration Maximum Von- Mises Stress – Lateral (Y) Acceleration Maximum Von- Mises Stress – Lateral (Z) Acceleration 12
  13. 13. STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THRUST VECTOR CONTROL (TVC) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FLIGHT FILTER MANIFOLD Results: Random Vibrations 3 sigma stress in Z direction 3 sigma stress in X direction 3 sigma stress in Y direction 13
  14. 14. STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THRUST VECTOR CONTROL (TVC) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FLIGHT FILTER MANIFOLD Clockwise from top right to left: Mode shapes 1 to 6 for Random Vibration analysis Response Surface plots for fillet optimization Margin of safety and FDR ratio calculations Conclusion The TVC filter manifold assembly achieved all the required margin of safety as positive values and all fatigue damage ratios were less than the design limit of 1. Therefore, the TVC filter qualified as an aerospace component. 14
  15. 15. Design for Autodesk Design for Autodesk is a program by Autodesk design academy which encourages students to learn and model in their latest CAD software Fusion 360. Project requirements: 1. Project must be created exclusively using Autodesk Fusion 360. 2. Project must include 15+ individual unique parts (this does not include fasteners such as nuts, bolts, screws, etc.). 3. You must be the sole owner of the project and all materials submitted to Autodesk, and no third party (including your school) should have any rights of any materials you submit. Projects sponsored or funded by third parties may not be used. 4. All individual components of your mechanism must be modeled by you. You cannot import existing CAD data into your design. (Standard parts may be accessed through the McMaster Carr library.) 5. You must combine the mechanism parts into an assembly. 6. The project requires the modeling of the externals and internals of the model/assembly. 7. Prismatic shaped models such as boxed furniture or architecture will not be accepted. I have successfully submitted one of my CAD models and I am in the process of completing my second CAD model. The design program helped me gain a valuable opportunity to learn 3D modeling in one more new software. 15
  16. 16. Design for Autodesk 6 Speed - BLENDER 16
  17. 17. Automatic Basket Ball Machine This design challenge project was a part of MAE 540: Advance product design methods course. Challenge For amateur players most of the practice time is spent retrieving the basketball after it goes careening off the rim or backboard or after it falls through the basket. As a result, there was a need to allow players to maximize shooting time by minimizing the time spent retrieving basketballs. The design challenge was to design a system that returns a thrown basketball to the place of the shooter without manual rotation of the shooting return device. The targeted players were in 10-16 years of age. The shooter could be as far away as 24 ft. The system designed must not block the shooter's access to the basket. It must be easily set up on a hoop and court. It must fit any kind of hoop that a young player might have (e.g., hoops that are set up on home courts, garages or are free-standing). It should be easily transportable and storable in a small space. It should be affordable by the average family. Design My design was rated the highest in the class and was regarded as an unique idea. I was successful in analyzing the problem and designing a device that met all the requirements . The design process implemented to solve the challenge was learnt in the MAE 540 class. Also, during the design process I learnt and used 2 new software's, to formulate the problem statement and objective tree I used ‘Problem formulator’ developed at Arizona State University and for idea generation I used ‘Ideation-space’. The CAD models was created using Solidworks and Catia V5. Design process Problem formulation Objective Tree, Requirements, User scenario, Function decomposition Brain storm, Morph chart, Concept sketches Modeling and Analysis Documentation: CAD models, simulation, BOM 17
  18. 18. Automatic Basket Ball Machine Morph chart Concept sketches 18
  19. 19. Automatic Basket Ball Machine Final Design Collection - The basketball thrown towards the basket hoop is collected using a net frame. The net frame was designed large enough so as to account even for air ball [ if the ball misses the basket board that is behind the hoop]. Once the ball is detected in the net frame a linear actuator stops the ball from entering into the return mechanism. Sensing/Detection - The second stage makes use of 2 main sensors, an IR motion sensor that detects user position on the court and an ultrasonic sensor that detects the distance of the user from the return mechanism. Return - Based on the inputs from the 2 sensors the return mechanism rotates and aligns itself to the user position. Now the linear actuator releases the basket ball into the return mechanism. The 2 rollers in the return mechanism rotate at a certain speed based on the distance data from ultrasonic sensor. Figures showing basketball collection and return 19
  20. 20. Automatic surveillance vehicle This was the second design challenge project which was a part of MAE 540: Advance product design methods course. Objective: To design and build a functional device that is can automatically steer and surveys two buildings in ‘8’ pattern and then stops at the midpoint in-between the two buildings. Problem formulation Objective Tree, Requirements, User scenario, Function decomposition Brain storm, Morph chart, Concept sketches Modeling and Analysis Documentation: CAD models, simulation, BOM 1 2 96” 48” 48” Requirements • The vehicle must start at and stop at or near the reference indicated in the diagram. • The vehicle must fit within a 6x6xl2 inch box. • The vehicle must be powered by one or two Radio Shack DC motors (part number 273-223, 258 or 047) and compatible batteries. No other energy source shall be included within the vehicle. • The vehicle must have an index mark which is to be used to position the vehicle in the starting position and will be used to measure the distance between the index mark and the reference when the vehicle stops. • Within one minute the vehicle must be placed in the starting position and motion initiated by a "switch" on the vehicle. Once started, no communication of any kind shall be transmitted to the vehicle. • The vehicle must travel around building 1, cross the reference point, and travel around building 2, then come to a stop at or near the reference point. • Micro-controllers or any type of CPU is NOT allowed; however non-programmable electronic or electrical components can be used. • You are NOT allowed to place any guide chutes or tracks on the plywood outside the 6x6x12 envelope. Design process: 20
  21. 21. Automatic surveillance vehicle Final Design The surveillance vehicle fabricated made use of two motors, one for steering and other for forward movement. The device contained 2 clocks which was used as switches to open and close the circuits. The device was powered by 2 7 volt batteries. Pre calculations: • The time taken by the device to go around building 1. • Time taken by the device to complete the entire ‘8’ pattern. • The angle at which the front tires must be turned to go around the building 1 and building 2. 21
  22. 22. Automatic surveillance vehicle Turning mechanism: The pre calculated time taken by the device to go around building 1 was around 10 sec, which was set on the first clock. After 10 seconds the second hand on the clock makes contact with a switch that closes a circuit. This triggers the first motor and turns the wheels which is set at an angle such that it makes a perfect circle around the building 2. Stopping mechanism: The second clock is set for 18 seconds which was pre calculated time taken by the device to go around both the buildings. After 18 seconds the second hand on the clock breaks the contact with a switch that opens the circuit. Thereby the power supply to the second motor that is used for forward movement is stopped. Since there is no breaking mechanism the power supply to the second motor is stopped 2 seconds before it approaches the center point in order to account for inertia. 22
  23. 23. Orange Picking Device This design assignment was a part of MAE 540: Advance product design methods course. Objective To design a orange picking device that can be used in a backyard to harvest oranges from large, thick and mature trees. Final design The design made use of nested pipes to reach out to the oranges on the tree. A cup with an inflatable rubber tube holds the orange in place. The cup then rotates to pluck the orange from the tree. Then rubber tube deflates and drops the orange in a net. All the oranges rolls down through the net and are collected at the bottom. The device is controlled by a joystick provided at the bottom. Morph chart Conceptual Designs 23
  24. 24. Orange Picking Device Figures showing orange picking and collection 24
  25. 25. Human Powered Paper Bike Arizona State University is all about finding new or innovated ways to accomplish a task. This design challenge was a part of EGR 535: Engineering Innovation and entrepreneurship. Satellite view of race path for the paper bike race. Challenge The challenge for the paper bike race is to build a human-powered vehicle out of paper products (e.g. cardboard, paperboard) to carry a rider and be pushed or pulled by another team member. The bike must be built in a two week time frame and the team will be racing against 5 additional teams. The race is played on a circular path with two sets of two laps each (Figure 1). The goal is to win the race. The race rules are as follows: • The paper bike must fully support one rider during the race. • The paper bike must be powered by a single puller or pusher. • Race consists of two heats of two laps each. • One or more team members can participate as the ‘power source’ or ‘passenger’ in one or more laps. Functional Constraints • Bike must support the weight of one team member. • The bike must be powered by one team member. • The rider and the driver must wear head protection while operating the bike. • Rider cannot operate the bike. Physical Constraints • The bike must fit within a 5’ x 3’ x 3’ box when fully assembled. • The bike must be constructed with paper products and wood glue only. • Vehicle has a budget of $0. Therefore materials must be provided or recycled from elsewhere. 25
  26. 26. Human Powered Paper Bike Functional Requirement Metric Rationale The bike must hold one team member and they may not aid the movement of the bike. critical The base of the bike will have a back support and foot support for the rider so he can sit comfortably and not interrupt the motion of the bike. Only one team member may push or pull the bike and a different team member must remain stationary on the bike. The bike must be able to move swiftly. Cardboard wheels of sufficient thickness (layers of cardboard) will be latched on an axle attached to the base. Additionally the wheels will be smoothened to avoid friction. By providing tape over the circumference of the wheels, friction will be greatly reduced. The bike must be able to easily make turns. Turn right at 90 degrees within a few seconds. The course around campus only has right turns The bike must be able to finish 2 heats (4 laps) around the course successfully. critical The course is a rectangular course of ‘insert dimensions here’. This is a requirement to win the race. The pusher must be able to easily support the bike with the passenger while operating it. critical A third wheel will be added to the back support to help carry the load. There will be two runs and the pusher will be switched between races. Therefore each member must be able to operate the bike with the lightest rider. Physical Requirement Metric Rationale The bike must remain intact (avoid failure) while the operator pushes/pulls during the race. The base of the bike will be made with several layers of cardboard to ensure strength and reinforced with very sturdy cylindrical cardboard pipes as the back support. The strength to weight ratio must be high to ensure easy push/pull and completion of the race. Bike must be constructed entirely with paper products. critical Paper products are products consisting of at least 50% paper by mass. This is a paper bike race, so the bike must be made of paper. One side of the bike must be longer than the other two. Much like a dolly. The back support will be the chosen longer side as this can allow the passenger to lean comfortably while being pushed/pulled. Bike must be able to fit within a 5’ x 3’ x 3’ box when fully assembled. Bike must be lightweight. Bike still must be strong and meet requirements of the race. Provide easier control of the bike and requiring lesser effort by operator. Easy to build and disassemble Fewer than 5 separate parts. Bike should easy take apart when finish racing Functional Requirement Physical Requirement Critical Component One critical function for our paper bike is to be able to continuously withstand a minimum payload (the human rider) of roughly 130 pounds. In order to accomplish this the bike’s frame must be structurally sound. Utilizing material from previous paper projects we built the bike frame for our critical function prototype (Figure). The bottom platform will support the rider and the ladder like backing will aid the rider in remaining stationary on the bike while the pusher is operating it. 26
  27. 27. Human Powered Paper Bike Figures showing human powered paper bike 27
  28. 28. Objective To help disabled person to transfer onto the bed from the wheelchair without anyone assisting the user. To help the disabled person to become independent. 28 Problem Statement: In our current modern technological world there are very few transfer device that helps disabled people to transfer them from a wheelchair to any other seating surfaces like bed, a chair or a toilet etc. The major problems associated with these few devices are that they are heavy, expensive, complex, dependent, not user friendly, not ergonomic. Therefore there is an immense need for an innovative device that is simple and inexpensive and that gets the job done. A lot of wheelchair users [disabled people] have the urge to do simple tasks like lying down on the bed, using toilet or even as simple as sitting on any other surface to do it on their own, without anyone assisting them. Therefore the innovative transfer device must be designed that helps make the disabled people independent and thereby helping them make their life better. This is an innovation challenge which is my current project I am working on as a part of EGR 535: Engineering Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Transfer Wheelchair
  29. 29. 29 Design thinking process Morph chart Business Model Canvas Transfer Wheelchair Requirements https://canvanizer.com/canvas/wm696qEoAkQ
  30. 30. Transfer Wheelchair 30 Design Concept
  31. 31. Miscellaneous Mouse Catia V5 surfacing design project 31

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