Making Clouds: Turning OpenNebula into a Product

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What does it takes to bring innovations like private clouds to small and medium enterprises? In the course of this talk we will present our experience in creating a self-service toolkit for creating a complete virtualization and cloud platform based on OpenNebula, as well as our experience gathered in tens of installations of all sizes. From scalable storage (with benchmarks!) to autonomic optimization, we will present what in our view is needed to bring private clouds to everyone, what components and additions we created to better solve our customers’ problems (from replacing industrial control systems to medium scale virtual desktop infrastructures), and why OpenNebula has been chosen over other competing cloud toolkits.

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Making Clouds: Turning OpenNebula into a Product

  1. 1. Making clouds: turning OpenNebula into a product Carlo Daffara, CloudWeavers
  2. 2. The Cloud extends the traditional advantages of“ ” virtualization platforms to scale-out software. It is an opportunity to rethink hardware deployment ... …it does not means that all clouds need to be public
  3. 3. http: updates 2013 09 23 why-we-moved-away-from-aws.html// / / / / /
  4. 4. Why OpenNebula?
  5. 5. Four major platforms: • CloudStack • Eucalyptus • OpenNebula • OpenStack Lots of minor ones: Proxmox, Ovirt, Ganeti, OpenQRM, Enomaly, Archipel...
  6. 6. Let's debate first about what architecture we are aiming for. OpenStack & Eucalyptus are modeled and structured around AWS EC2, that is the clear market leader in/ the public cloud market.
  7. 7. Service Manager database 8-core 2.66 gigahertz (GHz) CPU 8 gigabytes (GB) of RAM 80 GB of available disk space RAID Level 1 or Level 10 drive* Service Manager management server 4-Core 2.66 GHz CPU 8 GB of RAM 10 GB of available disk space Service Manager console 2-core 2.0 GHz CPU 4 GB of RAM 10 GB of available disk space Data warehouse management server 4-Core 2.66 GHz CPU 8 GB of RAM 10 GB of available disk space Data warehouse databases 8-core 2.66 GHz CPU 8 GB of RAM 400 GB of available disk space RAID Level 1 or Level (1+0) drive Self-Service Portal: Web Content Server with SharePoint Web Parts 8-Core 2.66 GHz CPU 8-core, 16GB RAM, 80 GB of available hard disk space http: en-us library hh524328.aspx// / / /
  8. 8. CloudStack 3.22MLoc Eucalyptus 1.43MLoc OpenStack 1.67MLoc OpenNebula 190KLoc
  9. 9. I O Access pattern/ I O Characteristics/ Typical Applications Streaming Reads 100 Reads; Large contiguous requests; 1-64% concurrent requests. May be threaded. Media Servers ( ideo on-demand, etc.).V irtual Tape Libraries ( TL), ApplicationV V Servers Streaming Writes 100 Writes; Large contiguous requests; 1-64% concurrent requests. May be threaded. Media Capture, TL, Medical Imaging,V Archiving, Backup, ideo Surveillance,V Reference Data OLTP Typically 2KB 16KB request sizes; Read modify,– write, verify operations resulting in 2 reads for every write; Primarily random accesses. Large number of concurrent requests. When running SQL statements in parallel, Database will perform typically large random I Os./ Databases (SAP, Oracle, SQL), Online Transaction Servers File Server Moderate distribution of request sizes from 4KB to 64KB, however 4KB and 64KB comprise 70 of% requests; Primarily random; Generally 4 reads for every write operation. Large number of concurrent requests during peak operational periods. File and Printer Servers, e-mail (Exchange, Notes), Decision Support Systems Web Server Wide distribution of request sizes from 512 bytes to 512KB; Primarily random accesses; Large number of concurrent requests during peak operational periods Web Services, Blogs, RSS Feeds, Shopping Carts, Search Engines, Storage Services Workstations Primarily small to medium request sizes; 80% sequential and 20 random; Generally 4 reads for% every write operation. 1-4 concurrent requests. Business Productivity, Scientific Engineering/ Applications http: wiki data storage input output access pattern// / / _ / _ _ _
  10. 10. Some additional tips for Windows: • K M badly interacts with Windows 7 8 clock drivers, causing high cpuV / consumption. Use: bcdedit /set {default} useplatformclock true and RAW = [ type= "KVM", data = "<clock offset='localtime'/>" ] • “Default cirrus GA driver unsuitable for Windows due to pathologicalV performance issues in text mode” This is not a problem in latest K M, however having vga std is betterV = anyway • For Windows servers with lots of small files: fsutil behaviour set disablelastaccess 1 (equivalent to noatime on linux) fsutil behaviour set mftzone 2 (adds another 12.5 disk space to the MFT zone)% • Disable 8.3 namespace creation: fsutil.exe behavior set disable8dot3 1 (huge boost for dirs, files with matching initial names)
  11. 11. Some useful additions: GateOne (https: liftoff GateOne// / / ) a very efficient web SSH interface, similar to vncproxy. Works well added as a link in Sunstone.
  12. 12. M ray (https: coriolis vmxray): a pure javascript MV X // / / V explorer, allows to enter inside of an image, view and extract files.
  13. 13. Some additional tools: LibGuestFS (http: /) the swiss army knife of M images. AllowsV for copy in and out of a M, file operations, mount guest filesystem on host,V Windows registry editing... S3QL (http: p s3ql// / / /) a FUSE filesystem that mounts and operates on Amazon S3, Google storage and OpenStack-compatible storage. Supports compression, encryption and deduplication. Quite useful if you want to move images to-from Amazon or Google. IPOP (http: wiki index.php IPOP// / / / ) IPOP (IP over P2P) is an open-source research development project that provides a decentralized,/ distributed overlay virtual network. It allows users to easily deploy PNsV across multiple domains, and is used in applications including virtual private clusters for cloud grid computing./ Only thin features added directly to the platform...“ ”
  14. 14. We use Ms to provide additional features:V Guacamole (http: projects guacamole// / / /) exceptional gateway that turns RDP into HTML5. Allows for pure web-based access to Windows desktops from everywhere: Other examples: Zenoss for agentless monitoring (or Hyperic for agent-based monitors), backup tools like OpenDedup...
  15. 15. A special note on DI:V Jerry Chen of Mware is generally credited with coining the term DI whichV “V ” led to the redefinition of an entire industry. Mware had 10,400 employees.V Of that group, about one-third of them use DI-based virtual desktops as theirV primary production work desktops. About 1,000 of them use a thin-client device as their only corporate-issued client device. First problem: Microsoft licensing. “dedicating an entire Remote Desktop virtual server to just one single user is cheaper than most DI scenarios and gives users the same benefits, namelyV having their own Desktop M where they can do what they want. This single‘ ’ V ‘ user terminal server scenario is with about 475 per user (6 years) not only’ – $ 60 cheaper, but less complicated and legally more safe than standard MS% DI licensing. Decoding the Microsoft DI Licensing Arcanum, LoginV " V Consulting
  16. 16. A useful trick: on hook RUNNING increase the readahead of the rotative“ ” medium (blockdev --setra 2048 or higher); you can reduce the boot time of a Windows7 machine by 35 . You time it to return to much lower values% after a predetermined interval.
  17. 17. Apps are moving to be pure webapps, no client installation needed so“ ” – you can skip Windows. Having the M ready to use also facilitates theV adoption of new tools, and lots of experimentation. Locally hosted Ms thatV export a web application are becoming the norm, and you can remote the remaining Windows apps through RDP, so you are actually free to build your desktop as you like. Royal Academy of Engineering, The future of computing , 2012“ ”
  18. 18. We have our own thin desktop based on Linux called EveryDesk ( that requires just 90MB of ram per desktop, or for the more daring users:
  19. 19. can use ChromeOS from Google. There is an unofficial build for 86X and x86 64 available daily here (_ that runs perfectly within OpenNebula. You create the images as non-persistent, and destroy them later on. Bt using a WB cache and snapshots to create the non-persistent images you end up with most of the pages already in cache, so boot is nearly instantaneous. Write are small and sparse, so you are basically CPU-bound and can run reasonably well 10-15 ChromeOS desktops per core.
  20. 20. 38 , 5W, no moving part. Use Android aSPICE as a client+Autostart$
  21. 21. The MTBF of a standard PC is 30,000 hours or 3.4 years; for every 10c temperature increase, MTBF is cut in half. Since in many pc closet the“ ” temperature is 10 to 20 degrees higher, we assume a MTBF of 1yr. 4pc cloud: 4 failures yr, Ms on failed node are down for 5-10 mins - 20/ V > to 40 min year, 99.99 assuming available power/ % Availability per day per month per year 99.999% 00:00:00.4 00:00:26 00:05:15 99.99% 00:00:08 00:04:22 00:52:35 99.9% 00:01:26 00:43:49 08:45:56 99% 00:14:23 07:18:17 87:39:29
  22. 22. Thanks! Carlo Daffara Twitter: cdaffara