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Data structure

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- 1. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 1 Data Structures & Algorithms Represented By Nale Rajesh K. (Lecturer COE Malegaon (Bk)) Introduction To Data Structures
- 2. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 2 What is Data.? In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to move or process. Relative to today's computers and transmission media, data is information converted into binary digital form. Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way.
- 3. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 3 Data Objects Anything that exists in storage and on which operations can be performed. Examples include files, Programs and arrays.
- 4. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 4 Data Types The mathematical properties and internal representation of data and functions. An attribute used for defining data as numeric or character.
- 5. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 5 A Data Type is characterized by.. a set of values a data representation, which is common to all these values, and a set of operations, which can be applied uniformly to all these values
- 6. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 6 Abstract Data Types An Abstract Data Type (ADT) is: a user defined data type a set of values a set of operations, which can be applied uniformly to all these values.
- 7. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 7 ADT = properties + operations An ADT describes a set of objects sharing the same properties and behaviors The properties of an ADT are its data (representing the internal state of each object double d; -- bits representing exponent & mantissa are its data or state The behaviors of an ADT are its operations or functions (operations on each instance) sqrt(d) / 2; //operators & functions are its behaviors
- 8. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 8 Benefits Of ADT encapsulation: less to worry about division of labor promotes code sharing cheaper sub-contracts facilitates unit-testing
- 9. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 9 List Abstract Data Type (ADT) The List ADT models a sequence of positions storing arbitrary objects It establishes a before/after relation between positions Can be implemented in various ways: array singly-linked doubly-linked Accessor methods: first(), last() prev(p), next(p) Update methods: replace(p, e) insertBefore(p, e), insertAfter(p, e), insertFirst(e), insertLast(e) remove(p) convenience methods: isEmpty()
- 10. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 10 Data Structures Arrangement of data in computer’s memory. Goal: to organize data Criteria: to facilitate efficient storage of data retrieval of data manipulation of data Design Issue: select and design appropriate data types.
- 11. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 11 Primitive & Non-Primitive Primitive Data Structures Data can be structured at the most primitive level, where they are directly operated upon by machine-level instructions. At this level, data may be character or numeric, and numeric data may consist of integers or real numbers. Non-Primitive Data Structures Non-primitive data structures can be classified as arrays, lists, and files. An array is an ordered set which contains a fixed number of objects. A list, by contrast, is an ordered set consisting of a variable number of elements. A file is typically a large list that is stored in the external memory of a computer.
- 12. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 12 Linear & Non-Linear Linear Data Structure Linear data structure is linear if element is adjacent to each other. It has exactly two neighbors elements to which it is connected as its previous and next member Array , Linked List , Stack , Queuenumbers. Non- Linear Data Structures Non-Linear data structure is that if one element can be connected to more than two adjacent element then it is known as non-linear data structure.. Tree , Graph
- 13. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 13 Static Data Structures a simple data structure, the array is static data structure. They are linear only They're essentially fixed-size. They often use too much space.
- 14. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 14 Dynamic Data Structure Is one that can grow or shrink as needed to contain the data you want stored. That is, you can allocate new storage when it's needed and discard that storage when you're done with it. malloc(), calloc() functions in C language. Dynamic data structures generally consist of at least some simple data storage, along with a linkage to the next element in the structure. These links are often called pointers, or references.
- 15. Tuesday, March 28, 2023 15 Persistent & Ephemeral Persistent One that is continue in existence Ephemeral lasting or of use for only a short time; transitory