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MYINT OO ID BIT COURSEWORK

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MYINT OO ID BIT COURSEWORK

  1. 1. Interaction Design 1 Student Name: Myint Oo @ Amirul Hassan UOG Student Registration ID: 000805763 Coursework Title: Interaction Design COMP1649: Interaction Design Coursework coordinator: EurIng Dr Mary Kiernan Due Date: 28 April 2014 Center: KMD (Yangon, Myanmar) Word Counts: 6010
  2. 2. Interaction Design 2 Table of Content Acknowledgement ...................................................................................................................................4 1. Feasibility Study 1.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................5 1.2 Objectives.............................................................................................................................5 1.3 Assumption and Constraints..............................................................................................5-6 1.4 Two similar mobile applications ..........................................................................................6 1.5 Why these two applications are chosen................................................................................6 1.6 Selection of principles and guidelines 1.6.1 Android’s developers design principles............................................................7 1.6.2 Apple’s guidelines .........................................................................................7-8 1.7 Research on user experience design..................................................................................8-9 1.8 User Groups..........................................................................................................................9 1.8.1 New Students....................................................................................................9 1.8.2 Their Parents...................................................................................................10 1.9 Summary ............................................................................................................................10 2. Foundation 2.1 Understanding the problem area.........................................................................................11 2.2 Conceptual model...............................................................................................................11 2.2.1 Conceptual model based on activities.................................................................11 2.2.2 Conceptual types to be used ...............................................................................12 2.2.3 Conceptual model to physical design .................................................................12 2.3 Cognitive Psychology and Mobile applications.................................................................12 2.3.1 Attention .............................................................................................................12 2.3.2 Perception and recognition .................................................................................12 2.3.3 Memory...............................................................................................................12 2.4 Evaluating the design principles with cognitive psychology ........................................13-15 2.5 Evaluating the existing mobile applications with guidelines ........................................15-18
  3. 3. Interaction Design 3 2.5.1 Accessibility and Usability Checklist....................................................................18 2.5.2 Evaluation of checklist..........................................................................................18 2.6 Task Analysis ................................................................................................................18-19 2.7 Multimedia types and its importance .................................................................................20 2.8 Multimedia used in the existing applications .....................................................................20 2.9 Summary ............................................................................................................................20 3. Engineering 3.1 Low Fidelity Prototype.......................................................................................................21 3.2 Evaluating low level prototype...........................................................................................22 3.3 Summary ............................................................................................................................22 4. Deployment 4.1 High fidelity prototypes......................................................................................................23 4.2 Evaluating high fidelity prototypes with cognitive psychology and guidelines...........23-25 4.3 Multimedia types used and its purpose ..............................................................................25 4.4 Summary ............................................................................................................................26 5. Testing 5.1 Checklist.............................................................................................................................27 5.2 Feedback Evaluation ..........................................................................................................27 5.3 User Testing .......................................................................................................................27 6. Conclusion 6.1 Project Evaluation ..............................................................................................................28 6.2 Knowledge we got from this coursework...........................................................................28 6.3 References ..........................................................................................................................28
  4. 4. Interaction Design 4 Acknowledgement I would like to provide my sincere thanks and gratitude to my lecture, Mr. Francis Murphy for his excellent guidance, monitoring and encouragement to complete this coursework on time. Without his guidance it will not be possible to finish the coursework. The guidance and help provided by him time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to embark. I would also like to thank my parents who always support and encourage me with their best wishes and blessings.
  5. 5. Interaction Design 5 Feasibility Study 1.1 Introduction In order to create a mobile high fidelity prototype for KMD, I am going to research on these two mobile applications called Texas University and James Cook University mobile applications and one website called KMD official website. They are developed to provide the information such as the university background, events, campus information, sports, facilities, programs and directory. Everyone can have access to these applications and website. I am going to create a similar mobile prototype for KMD based on the above two applications, cognitive psychology, standards and guidelines and design principle because these make the applications ease of use and fast of use for various users. So, I will make a deep analysis on the usability and accessibility which is very important for applications to be successful. These two applications will be tested with heuristics evaluation checklist in order to meet the specified requirements. 1.2 Objectives - Researching on the existing mobile applications - Evaluating them with cognitive psychology and guidelines - Finding the usability and accessibility issues from the existing applications - Creating a low fidelity prototype - Creating a high fidelity prototype - Checking the low fidelity prototype and high fidelity prototype with heuristics checklist 1.3 Assumption and Constraints Assumption It is assumed that new students and their parents will have the required skills of browsing the internet and using mobile applications. They are also supposed to be able to understand the metaphor used on KMD mobile application and access it by using a Smartphone or tablet. As a developer I will develop this KMD application for both iOS and Android. So, the above users are also assumed that they are familiar to one of these platforms to use the application well.
  6. 6. Interaction Design 6 Constraints Making a plan before starting a project is very important for the success of a project. What most important is to choose a right methodology for the project to manage the development process and finish within the specified timebox. So, I will choose and apply DSDM because it focuses on six factors called quality, scope, time boxing, financial plan, resources and risks which will leads the project to a successful one. Prototype is widely used to ensure all interested parties get the clear understanding of all aspects of the application. 1.4 Two similar mobile applications 1.5 Why these two applications are chosen These two applications are selected as these are the similar apps and are developed for universities to offer its information to the new students and parents where I can use these to create a high fidelity prototype for KMD. These applications have their own good points and bad points which will be discussed below by using design principles and guidelines.
  7. 7. Interaction Design 7 1.6 Selection of guidelines and design principles 1.6.1 Android developer’s design principles As the use of Smart phones and tablets around the world are increasing day by day, the world can be called a mobile place. Most of people are using Android platform in comparison to other platform such as iOS, Window Phone, Blackberry etc. So, developers around the world are targeting Android as it has gained the higher market. Because of mobile popularity, a lot of mobile guidelines and design principles are available such as W3C, Android’s design principles, Apple’s guidelines and many more to provide easy use of the applications. Out of them, I selected Android’s developer’s design principles and Apple’s guidelines because they have the very good sets of guidelines which can make an application suitable for different users. By using these two guidelines, I will create a high fidelity prototype for KMD to provide its information to the new students. There are more than 17 design principles in the Android developer’s. I am going to use the following 4 principles because they focus on the basic necessities of good interface design. I will check the above two similar applications to make sure that they are developed using the following principles and guidelines. Only then I can know how to create a good high fidelity prototype. The following are some principles of Android developer. These are referenced from Developers (2014) Design Principles, Available at: http://developer.android.com/design/get- started/principles.html (Accessed: 12 April 2014). 1. Keep it brief – Use short phrases with simple words 2. Delight users in surprising ways – Use attractive background surface, well-placed animation or well-timed sound effects 3. Make important things fast – Decide what's most important in the application and make it easy to find and fast to use 4. Only show what users need when they need it – Show the specific information on user’s action, but don’t show all the information at once 1.6.2 Apple’s Guidelines These guidelines are referenced from Petter Silfver (2012) Apple’s 27 Guidelines for Mobile User Experience Design, Available at: http://www.significantpixels.com/2012/04/23/apples-27-guidelines-for-mobile-user-experience- design/ (Accessed: 14 April 2014).
  8. 8. Interaction Design 8 Apple is one of the most successful leading IT companies which produce 27 guidelines for developers. Among them, I am going to use the following 3 guidelines because they focus on usability and fundamental requirements of a good application which will be discussed in the next sections. These guidelines will also be used to check the existing applications to ensure the use of selected principles and guidelines while developing them. The following are some guidelines of Apple 1. Minimize the Effort Required for User Input 2. Make Search Quick and Rewarding 3. Entice and Inform with a Well-Written Description In conclusion, in order to develop a successful mobile application, it’s very important to make analysis on the similar apps and use the right principle and guidelines to avoid the unexpected errors and problems. 1.7 Research on user experience design User experience is all about ease of use, perception of the value of the system, effectiveness in carrying out the tasks. As a developer, I specified a new student group to research on user experience for the above two existing applications to improve the proposed application and gave their views and preferences in the following. The following are referenced from Jacob Gube (2010) What Is User Experience Design? Overview, Tools And Resources, Available at: http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2010/10/05/what-is-user-experience-design-overview-tools-and- resources/ (Accessed: 17 April 2014). How they perceive these two applications? According to the group views, the home pages of these two applications are simple and clear enough to know easily what information include. They don’t contain many icons and unnecessary information so that they are not confused and complicated in using them. Icons are well designed and well structured. The use of color and background is also suitable for them. So, these applications can be perceived easily to use.
  9. 9. Interaction Design 9 Do these applications give the group value? Based on the group views, because of simplest design and having enough information that the new students need for their future study and clear explanation of information, so it can be said that these applications can give the new students value. Are the existing applications easy and pleasure to use? The group said that the applications are quite easy to use because of having a categorized menu where they can easily find specific information they want by using each category in a faster way. Sub categories of each menu are also well displayed. The icon and its texts used are also pretty clear and realistic. As these applications can offer the correct and specific information they need about their studies and ease of use of the applications, they could found them pleased to use. 1.8 User Groups These are two types of user groups who will be interested in using the applications. The way the information they require from the application will be different. The following are the different types of users 1. New students 2. Their parents 1. New Students They are supposed to be at the age of 18 between 25. The information they may need from the application are as follow 1. Way of learning at UOG 2. Programs information 3. Contact information 4. Events and activities 5. Use of library 6. Campus life
  10. 10. Interaction Design 10 2. Their parents They are supposed to be at the age of 30 between 70. These are the users who needs more information rather than the first users. The need of information will be unique 1. University background 2. Programs information 3. News 4. Way of teaching 5. University ranking Summary In this feasibility study, introduction and objectives on what will be done to create high fidelity prototypes is explained. Explanation on choosing the right methodology, two similar mobile applications, two different types of principles and guidelines and why they are chosen for creating high fidelity prototypes are clearly given. Then, it’s discussed on research on user experience design to improve the high fidelity prototypes. Finally, user group are specified.
  11. 11. Interaction Design 11 Foundation 2.1 Understanding the problem area In order to develop a successful mobile application, it’s better to investigate the preferences of users on interaction design and know how to create a good interface design and what styles will be used such as icons, commands and form, buttons and menu etc. It’s also important to try to clarity the usability and user experience goals. Only when understanding the nature of the problem space, better design decision could be made to avoid unexpected bugs or errors. Not only it assists formulate what it is we want to design but also think the complete structure of what will be developed and how this will be delivered to the users. For example: As I am going to create a high fidelity prototype for the UOG, I must try to know what new students would like to see in it as they will be the users of the application. Based on their preferences, I have to consider what interaction design, styles should be used. 2.2 Conceptual model It shows what a proposed application should be with its integrated ideas, concepts and structure so that users can easily understand. 2.2.1 Conceptual model based on activities Below is a scenario in which the things needed to focus on producing a conceptual model. University of Greenwich wants to develop a mobile application to provide its information to the new students. What’s required to develop a conceptual model? My Comments: Firstly, it’s required to ask what sort of information they would like to see on it. Generally, they may want to know much information such as joining the university, program information, school fees, facilities etc. Secondly, it needs to make sure that how easy they can use the application. Thirdly, it should be thought that how fast the specific information they have asked for can be provided by the application. Fourthly, it should be considered that what types of multimedia should be used and how they can effect on their use of application. Finally, the way the icons and information arranged and displayed.
  12. 12. Interaction Design 12 Conceptual type to be used There are many types of conceptual models such use case, hierarchical task analysis etc. hierarchical task analysis will be used because it is clear and more visible compared to use case and can easily be understood by everybody. Hierarchical task analysis will not be shown here for the proposed application of KMD because task analyses for the existing applications are shown in Task Analysis section. Conceptual Model to Physical design In order to convert this UOG conceptual model to physical design, prototyping will be used to create a physical design for UOG based on above facts and consideration, the selected guidelines and design principles and cognitive psychology. Only then a good application could be produced. 2.3 Cognitive Psychology and Mobile applications Cognitive Psychology is an essential aspect of human computer interaction and a major factor needed to think when optimizing application for their use by the users. It’s fundamentally about users how they think and learn things. It plays as an important role for the development of mobile application by the time users think and learn is then accommodated within the design and implementation of the application. There are many factors in the cognitive psychology which needs to be considered for users to learn and get knowledge and apply the acquired knowledge to use the application. They are: 1. Attention 2. Perception and recognition 3. Memory 4. Learning 5. Reading, speaking and listening 6. Problem solving, planning, reasoning and decision making
  13. 13. Interaction Design 13 I am not going to use the above all factors when evaluation with selected guidelines because some of them are not very related and important to the application which will be developed for KMD. I will use only THREE out of them are attention, perception and memory as these three focus on the key necessities in developing mobile applications. Android design principles will be used to evaluate with cognitive psychology as Android is mostly used worldwide and majority of people are familiar to Android. As a matter of fact, the application will be developed for android first then iOS. The following are the design principles of Android which will be evaluated with cognitive psychology. Evaluating Android design principles with cognitive psychology Remark: Based on the design issues of existing applications, this evaluation will be made to improve the proposed application. As I have limited time given to complete the coursework, I will not able to make evaluation for both selected principles and guidelines. Only android’s design principles will be used to evaluate with cognitive psychology. Issue-1 Although the texts used for each icon are shown in brief, the information described inside each icon is written very long without clear headings. Principle- Keep it brief Cognitive Psychology- Attention, Memory and Perception Getting user’s attention is the most important thing because new students will stay for long to use the application only if they have attention on it. There are many guidelines which help draw user’s attention for mobile applications. Principle 1 is one of them. So, in order to get user attention, the texts words used in the application should be short and simple. When the information is shown in brief, new students can perceive easily and remember and memorize it effortlessly. Showing much information at once can not only lose attention but also increase user’s effort to perceive and remember information. Many users including me leave the application as soon as we see long sentences. So, it is critical to consider for user attention, perception, memory before developing an application.
  14. 14. Interaction Design 14 Issue-2 The backgrounds of these two applications are nice but no animation and sounds effects used. Principle- Delight me in surprising ways Cognitive Psychology- Attention and Perception Using nice and beautiful background surface, animation and sounds effect in the application can catch user’s attention. It can only provide perception of the application to new students rather than using words and texts. So, they should be delighted in surprising ways such as carefully-placed animation or well-timed sound effect. But in these applications, no animation and sound effects used which can make users a little disappointed. However, these should be considered when developing mobile application for UOG. Issue-3 When new students want to see specific information on the existing applications, much information is displayed. It contains many unnecessary links in About Us tab such as donate. E.g., when users tab on “About Us”, it shows all the information at once for all three sections “Traditions”, “History” and “Donate”. As it shows many information and links, no path or button to go back directly to home screen, new students have to remember the path they came to where they are now. Principle- Only show what users need when they need it Cognitive Psychology- Memory and Perception It’s found in a research saying that many applications fail to get user satisfaction because of too many unnecessary functions shown to users and make users remember things to use the application. When much information and choices are displayed, new students can hardly perceive the information. Because of that, new students will likely leave the application. Almost all users would like to use the application with ease and comfort and they don’t want to remember and see many things while using the application. In order to make users satisfied, the application should only show what users need when they need it. Otherwise they will have no chances to master the application.
  15. 15. Interaction Design 15 Issue-4 In these two existing applications, all the information is shown in the same way. Likewise the icons arranged are. There are no such sections or marks for important information and functions to show fast at the home page or inside the pages. So, it’s difficult for new students to know which information, functions and icons are the most important for them to see. Principle- Make important things fast Cognitive Psychology- Perception and Memory In order to develop a good application, it should be thought that what information and functions are the most important to show fast e.g. in showing program information, name of study fields such as computing, business should be clearly described first including join university button then other information. It can not only provide ease to use the application but also new students can perceive the information easily and can remember and memorize it when required. The application should allow finding the specific information new students want in an easy way. Evaluating the first existing mobile application with guideline First of all, Android design principles will be evaluated with the first existing application. Then Apple’s guideline will be evaluated. Likewise second existing application will be done the same. Android design principles Keep it brief The application provides short and simple texts for both icons and headings to make new student get the information in an easy way. Users tend to skip sentences if they’re so long and hard to understand. Delight users in surprising ways An eye-catching background is used which can attract new students to see next pages of this application. But no such media such as animation, well-timed sound effect is used which can reduce new student’s satisfaction of using this application.
  16. 16. Interaction Design 16 Make important things fast New students can be confused to use the application because it doesn’t show which information and actions are important e. g no search box to find locations at the Map. So, they will have difficulties to use the application in an easy and faster way as it doesn’t provide what they need to see fast. Only show what users need when they need it Showing too much information more than the new student needs at a page can make them annoyed to use the application. The information provided is too long and isn’t spilt into chunks by using hide options. Apple Guidelines Minimize the Effort Required for User Input New students have to enter much personal information at the Ask Us form which is not very relevant to what they’re going to ask. It’s researched that many mobile users don’t want to type much on mobile devices because of its small keyboard. If they have to do, they just leave the application. So, for the flexibility of the students, only limit user input should be provided. Make Search Quick and Rewarding The search boxes used in the applications are quick enough to show what information that the new students has searched. Error messages used for search boxes are also clear and simply written. Entice and Inform with a Well-Written Description The application let the new students know for almost all actions they made with clear and well-written messages for instance, if there is no connection and the users tab on Map icon, it shows no internet connection or waiting on Network. So, new students can easily know what went wrong.
  17. 17. Interaction Design 17 Evaluating the second existing mobile application with guideline Android design principles Keep it brief This application also uses short and simple words to make the students understand what it is all about. Because of mobile screen size, users would like to see specific information on it .As there is not much information shown at all pages of the application which can make the students stay to continue using the application. Delight users in surprising ways The use of background and its color could make the students annoy their sights and they may likely to skip the application. No animation and sound effect is used. Make important things fast The most important news, information and other things such as events, sports etc are put at the top of the pages with clear headings and providing a calendar to make students see fast and get their up to minute information in an easy way. Only show what users need when they need it This application doesn’t show all the information actions without the student’s need. It only shows when they want to see by tabbing on related links from the given menu. So, students will not be annoyed and confused as information is shown on their needs. Apple Guidelines Minimize the Effort Required for User Input Apart from typing information or data for the use of search box, the application doesn’t ask the students to enter data. So, the students don’t need to give effort for use input. Make Search Quick and Rewarding The search box is made easy and quick to find the information. It can also recommend the relevant information and show the specific information what the students has searched with it.
  18. 18. Interaction Design 18 Entice and Inform with a Well-Written Description The application entices the students by showing understanding and clear descriptions of what is wrong with their actions. For example, the internet connection is cut off and the students tab on Academic calendar unknowingly and it shows “The internet connection appears to be offline”. Accessibility and Usability Checklist Remark: These ratings are given by the student group. As evidence, their signs will be attached. Criteria Ratings First Application Second Application Too much information at once 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Animation or sound effects used 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Beautiful surface used 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Easy to use/Fast to use 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Quick searching 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Clear descriptions and error messages 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Evaluation of checklist According to their ratings, no applications are that good at all. But in comparison with the first application, the second application is more suitable for them to use. Why not liking the first application is that it shows much information at once and no clear descriptions which make the students confused what to do next. Task Analysis The followings are “Task Analysis” which shows the skill of the new students to find via the two applications. As these two applications are quite similar, task analysis for the first application will be shown.
  19. 19. Interaction Design 19 0. Open application 1. Go to Map 1.1 Tab Townsville Campus 1.1.1 View Map 1.2 Tab Cairns Campus 1.2.1 View Map 1.3 Tab Singapore Campus 1.3.1 View Map 2. Go to Events 2.1 Choose options from the menu e.g. Academic dates 2.1.1 View dates by day and month 2.1.2 3. Go to Contacts 3.1 Search for people 4. Go to News 4.1 Choose a category e.g. Media releases 4.1.1 View/Read the news 5. Go to LearnJCU 5.1 Download 6. Go to Ask us 6.1 Find information 7. Go to Library 7.1 Choose a category 7.2 Search books with keywords 8. Go to Email 8.1 Choose email e.g. email for students or staff 8.2 Send email 9. Go to Videos 9.1 Choose a video 9.2 Tab watch video 10. Go to JCUSA 10.1 Download application by tabbing Free button
  20. 20. Interaction Design 20 Multimedia types and its importance Many developers around the world are using various multimedia types such as displaying animation, video, images, audio, etc for mobile applications to compete with each other and attract users to use them effectively. As the mobile technology is on the rise, Smart phones and tablets have become indispensible accessory for most people. They can provide information such as orientation, light intensity, surrounding, sounds, real images and many more. In comparison with words and texts, people can learn quick and easily through from multimedia. A research says that people remember only 20% of what they see, 30% of what they hear. When they see and hear it, they remember 50%. If interaction is included, they will remember 80% of it. Using of multimedia in the applications not only enhances enjoyment but also enable to users to control mobile web experiences. So, for the effectiveness of the applications, various types of multimedia should be used to develop mobile applications. Only then users can easily get and remember the messages of the application. Multimedia used in the existing applications There are not many multimedia types are used in both applications. The use of multimedia is videos and images from which students can know all the activities and events of the university. It’s very good for those students who don’t want to read much information on that. Summary In this foundation, firstly discussions on problems which will likely occur and how to avoid them in creating high fidelity prototypes are made. Secondly, Conceptual model is also clearly discussed based on a scenario. Thirdly, Explanation of cognitive psychology and evaluation of cognitive psychology with design principles and guidelines are given based on the issues of existing applications. Fourthly, evaluation of existing mobile applications with chosen design principles and guidelines are made including an accessibility and usability checklist. Fifthly, a task analysis is shown for the first existing application. Finally, discussion on the different types of multimedia, its importance and their uses in existing applications are made with examples.
  21. 21. Interaction Design 21 Engineering Low Fidelity Prototype These low fidelity prototypes are drawn based on cognitive psychology, principles and guidelines and existing issues of mobile applications. Many of the issues found in the existing mobile application have been considered while creating these low fidelity prototypes and a lot of issues are remained to be fixed in the high fidelity prototypes. In order to show how cognitive psychology, design principles and guidelines are followed while creating low and high level prototypes, evidence evaluation will be made as evidence in the high fidelity prototype section. Prototype - One Prototype - Two Prototype - Three See more prototypes in the Appendix Instruction Tab Student icon and Student’s Life will appear and then tab Accommodation and Accommodation page will appear. KMD Logo Icon and its text Home page link Multimedia Share tab Back butto n Heading Links to see Information Home screen page Share button Images shown Information shown Hide options used
  22. 22. Interaction Design 22 Remark: The following evaluation only describes where the elements such as multimedia, icons, logo etc are put, how well they are structured and organized and how some of the issues found in the existing application are fixed. Evaluation of low fidelity prototypes The KMD logo text is placed at the top of the home screen. The home button which is linked to the home screen is set every page of the application at left side of the bottom of the page by which new students can easily go to home screen by tabbing on it. So, they will lose while using the application. Six icons which new students may need are set at the middle of the home screen. All texts or words used for icons are short and simple. All the symbols used inside icons are realistic e.g. video symbol for multimedia icon and question mark symbol for Ask KMD icon. So, new students can easily get what the icons are about even without seeing icon texts. Video button and share button are set at the bottom of the home screen for ease of use of the application. All the back buttons are put at the top of the pages to be more visible so that new students can see it fast and go back to home screen. The headings information are written clearly and the information are written in brief to reduce the effort of the new students for reading it. No forms are used so that new students don’t need to make effort for input. There are many improvements need to be made in the high level prototypes. Summary Based on cognitive psychology, chosen principles and guidelines, low level prototypes are drawn and evaluations of low fidelity prototypes are made.
  23. 23. Interaction Design 23 Deployment High fidelity prototypes Home Screen Page Student Life Page Accommodation Page Instruction for the above prototypes Tab student life icon at the home screen, then student life page will appear. Tab Accommodation at the student life page, then accommodation page will appear where information will be displayed in brief with multimedia types. Evaluating high fidelity prototypes with cognitive psychology, principles and guideline Cognitive psychology, selected principles and guidelines will be used to evaluate the above high fidelity prototypes in order to show how these are followed to create above prototypes. Firstly, cognitive psychology will be discussed. Then, principles and guideline will be evaluated with high fidelity prototypes. Logo text Icons and its text Quick links Back button Tabs Information Display in brief Multimedia used used Hide option used Multimedia used
  24. 24. Interaction Design 24 How cognitive psychology is followed Attention: The icons are well arranged at home screen and the texts used for them are simple and clear. The information is also shown in brief and uses short sentences. So, it can catch new student’s attention. Perception: As all the error messages are clear and the headlines for each news and information are written in short and simple, new students can easily perceive all about the application and know what they should do next. Memory: The application let new students know where they are now, every action they did and what they should do next with clear descriptions e.g. if they are at news page, a title “News” is shown at the top of the page and home button is set at every page to go back to home screen directly. So, the application doesn’t make them remember things at all. How Android developer’s design principles are followed Keep it brief As the principle suggests that information should be shown in brief due to the small mobile screen, all the information shown in the application are short and brief to make new students get it in a quick way. Delight users in surprising ways The background, various types of realistic icons and animation, simple texts used in the application can make new students pleased and satisfied to use the application. Make important things fast Almost all news and information are shown with dates and time with the same color but the latest news and important information are shown with different color. So, new students can easily recognize what is important and what are not. A search box is also set at the top of the page which shows all the specific information they want in a faster way.
  25. 25. Interaction Design 25 Only show what users need when they need it All the information contains in a section such as student life is not shown at once which can make new students annoyed. It only shows when new student’s tab on sub categories such as accommodation, student’s union which are shown in the above high fidelity prototype to see related information. How Apple guideline’s are followed Minimize the Effort Required for User Input In this application, no user input is used so that new students don’t need to give effort by typing. But options and check boxes are provided to take their personal information. Make Search Quick and Rewarding The search box can show the information as soon as the new students have provided data in the search box. It can also suggest information on their given data. Entice and Inform with a Well-Written Description The application displays error messages with simple and clear explanation what to do next. e.g. “No internet connection” when internet connection cut off”. Multimedia types used in the high fidelity prototype There are three types of multimedia used in the application are video, pictures and radio or audio. Why they are used in the application is that some students don’t want to read much information but want to see videos and listen to audios and multimedia is more effective way of providing information to new students. Information or news without using multimedia can be forgotten easily. Video – To show KMD overview, what the old students say about KMD and teachers share their experiences, etc Pictures – To show what KMD and its campus and library look like Audio – To provide information in mp3 format
  26. 26. Interaction Design 26 Summary Based on low level prototypes, cognitive psychology, chosen principles and guidelines, high fidelity prototypes are drawn and evaluations of low fidelity prototypes are made. Then discussion on how cognitive psychology and design principles and guidelines are followed while creating high fidelity prototypes are clearly made with examples. Finally, explanation on multimedia types used for high fidelity prototype and their purposes are given.
  27. 27. Interaction Design 27 Testing Checklist for high fidelity prototypes The following checklist is drawn based on Android developer’s design principles and Apple’s guidelines to check the high fidelity prototypes whether the issues found in the existing applications are fixed in high fidelity prototypes or not. So, I had to ask for some of my friends to give their ratings on these prototypes. Their signs will be provided as evidence. No Criteria Ratings 1 Too much information at once 1 2 3 4 5 2 Animation or sound effects used 1 2 3 4 5 3 Beautiful surface used 1 2 3 4 5 4 Easy to use/Fast to use 1 2 3 4 5 5 Quick searching 1 2 3 4 5 6 Clear descriptions and error messages 1 2 3 4 5 According to their ratings, it can be said that the new interfaces are good and attractive and seems many issues aren’t included. The following section will be discussed on the suggestions provided by the specified student group to make some changes to high fidelity prototypes. Feedback Evaluation They said all the things are ok but logo size and icon and. They recommend that logo size should be small and the icon sizes are not the same, some are big and some are small. It may cut off new student’s concentration on the use of application and make them annoyed. They said the rest are ok. Anyhow, the application is well-built, they added. User Testing As the deadline of the coursework is limited, it will not possible to create all pages of the application for user testing. As an example, only the above two high fidelity prototypes will be tested. This is also done the same group. No Action Result Modification 1 Tab student life Student life page will appear No
  28. 28. Interaction Design 28 Conclusion Project Evaluation On the completion of the project, it is found that all the requirements are successfully met. The project has reached to what it is thought to be. It has gained much positive feedback from the specified group. As I have not that much experience to develop mobile applications, management of the project was poor planned, it wasted time on unnecessary things. It took time to find similar applications and related information from the internet as the internet connection was very poor. Evaluating the guidelines with cognitive psychology took much time as I was not clear about that and I had to ask from my teacher, Mr. Murphy again and again to have clear understanding of it. However, the decision and goal has already been set. Knowledge we got from this coursework Although this ID coursework is pretty similar to UID, some of the things are the same and some are completely different and new for me such as cognitive psychology. I didn’t know what the cognitive psychology is and its connection to the development of the applications. But by doing this coursework, I have got clear understanding of cognitive psychology and its importance and connection in developing applications. I only knew the website guidelines and standards but I come to know some new mobile guidelines such as Apple guidelines. So, this coursework brings me new knowledge which can be applied for my professional career in the future. References Book Reference Yvonne Rogers (2011) Interaction Design: Beyond Human - Computer Interaction, 3rd Edition edn., 605 Third Avenue, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. David Benyon (2010) Designing Interactive Systems, 2nd edn., Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England: Pearson Education Limited. Website References Kerry Hosking. 2014. Why is It Important to Study Cognitive Psychology? [ONLINE] Available at: http://psychology1.knoji.com/why-is-it-important-to-study-cognitive-psychology/. [Accessed 18 April 14].
  29. 29. Interaction Design 29 DPS (2012) Cognitive Psychology and Computer Applications, Available at: http://www.dpscomputing.com/blog/2012/04/10/cognitive-models-in-computing-applications/ (Accessed: 18 April 2014).

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