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Near Field Communication
It's got the potential to change how we pay for things
and even open doors (and all by using our
smartphones), but what is NFC and how does it work?
Mobile has emerged from a device that was used for mere calling other people
to a device that includes powerful apps that have capabilities for almost anything one
can imagine of :
High definition graphics (Tegra 3 )
Artificial Intelligence (SIRI)
Cloud Printing (Cloud Print)
Secure payment transaction (NFC)
NFC is a proximity wireless communication technology which enables data transfer with zero click
sharing at a distance of 4cm or less and operating at 13.56 MHZ.NFC is based on and extends on
RFID(Radio frequency identification).
Global mobile transactions predicted to be US$241 billion in 2011 growing to more than $1 Trillion by 2015
While the rest of the world trial/dream of payment by mobile, in Japan it is already a way of life.
ComScore (February 2011) research indicates that in December 2010 alone, 9.8 million of Japanese mobile
subscribers used their mobile wallet to make a purchase
Global sales of NFC-equipped smartphones increased tenfold to 30 million units in 2011, according to a
report from Berg Insight. The research firm estimates that by 2016 there will more than 700 million handsets
with NFC capabilities
ENOUGH OF NFC – LETS TALK ABOUT
NFC works in the 13.56MHz radiofrequency spectrum, using less than 15mA of power to
communicate data over distances that are usually far less than 20cm. Tags typically store
between 96 and 512 bytes of data and transfer data using at speeds of 106Kb/s, 212Kb/s,
424Kb/s or 848Kb/s – enough to move small pieces of information virtually instantaneously,
as is essential in high-volume transport applications.
The real value of NFC, however, comes not from its technical workings but from the protocols
that have been built around it. By setting standards and building layers of abstraction on top
of core NFC functionality, smartphone platform vendors can give developers a rich set of
interfaces for interacting with the NFC ecosystem.
At the moment the two major players in the smart card market, NXP Semiconductors and Sony ,
have implemented a proprietary encryption for their products:
1. Sony – Felica
2. NXP – Mifare
Sony felica encryption key is dynamically generated each time mutual authentication is performed.
Current Adoption - Triple DES algorithm
Future - FeliCa announced in June 2011 will have enhanced security adopting the Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES) encryption.
NXP mifare uses AES-128 bit encryption algorithm .
The NFC technology is almost exclusively used for mobile payment and ticketing. Therefore,
it is necessary to develop tools and techniques to assess and improve the security of NFC-
devices and services
AES- Cryptography Algortithm :
1. KeyExpansion—round keys are derived from the cipher key using Rijndael's key schedule
2. Initial Round
1. AddRoundKey—each byte of the state is combined with the round key using bitwise xor
1. SubBytes—a non-linear substitution step where each byte is replaced with another according
to a lookup table.
2. ShiftRows—a transposition step where each row of the state is shifted cyclically a certain
number of steps.
3. MixColumns—a mixing operation which operates on the columns of the state, combining the
four bytes in each column.
4. Final Round (no MixColumns)
The given application presented here can be used to Encrypt
any data using AES cryptography on Android platform .
Secure Mobile Wallet is the product belonging to the latest technology trends in mobile
communications and IT security. The aim of the design is to provide people a more flexible way to
use cash and credit cards securely.
Future Work :
Our research and development in the near future will include:
1.Developing Applications on top of core NFC functionality. Biometric Authentication system
Improving Security on Mobile Payments.
2.Integrating NFC with Surface Computing to reach one step further in field Communications.
Transfer small files between devices (e.g. phone -> desktop) via NFC
Automatically lock/unlock desktop when you tap the computer with your phone
Tap credit card on computer to automatically pay for an item or autofill cc details on checkout
3. Integrating NFC(Android) with Point Cloud Library to make further enhancements in the field of
 Ernst Haselsteiner and Klemens Breitfuß, “Security in Near Field Communication (NFC)”
 Hao Zhao, Sead Muftic,” The Concept of Secure Mobile Wallet”
 CollinMulliner,“Vulnerability Analysis and Attacks on NFC-enabled Mobile Phones”
 Riti Chowdhury and Debashis De, “Secure Money Transaction in NFC Enabled Mobile
Wallet Using Session Based Alternative Cryptographic Techniques”
 Lishoy Francis, Gerhard Hancke, Keith Mayes, Konstantinos Markantonakis,
” Practical Relay Attack on Contactless Transactions by Using NFC Mobile Phones”