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01 BIO460 C1 National Policies.pptx

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01 BIO460 C1 National Policies.pptx

  1. 1. BIO460 Biological Diversity CHAPTER 1 : NATIONAL POLICIES
  2. 2. Learning objectives: Towards the end of this chapter, students should be able to: • Define biological diversity • Describe National policy on biological diversity • Describe the rich diversity of Malaysian flora and fauna • Explain biodiversity crisis • Explain the conservation efforts
  3. 3. Biological diversity • from all sources including, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part of- this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. BioD : Variability among living organisms on earth
  4. 4. RICH DIVERSITY OF MALAYSIAN FLORA AND FAUNA • Malaysia is widely recognised to be one of the world’s few megadiversity countries. • There are an estimated 15,000 species of vascular plants in Malaysia. • The country’s faunal communities include 307 known species of mammals, 30 of which are endemic to Malaysia. • 785 species of birds from 85 families, 242 species of amphibians and 567 species of reptiles, as well as a total of 1951 species of freshwater and marine fishes.
  5. 5. National Policy on Biodiversity (NPBD) 2016-2025 • Objective : To conserve Malaysia’s biological diversity and to ensure that its components are utilized in a sustainable manner for the continued progress and socio - economic development of the nation. • The first National Policy on Biological Diversity was formulated in 1998.
  6. 6. 5 principles in NPBD PRINCIPLE 1 Heritage. BioD is a national heritage that must be sustainably managed and wisely utilised today and conserved for future generations. PRINCIPLE 2 Precautionary. The lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason to postpone measures to minimise threats of significant loss of biodiversity. PRINCIPLE 3 Shared responsibility. The conservation and sustainable utilisation of biodiversity are the shared responsibility of all sectors of society. PRINCIPLE 4 Participatory. Planning and management of biodiversity must be carried out in a participatory manner. PRINCIPLE 5 Good governance. Good governance, including accountability and transparency in decisionmaking, is crucial to biodiversity conservation.
  7. 7. 5 goals of NPBD (by 2025) 1) Empowered and harnessed the commitment of all stakeholders to conserve biodiversity : Create awareness across all segments of our society - Nurture participation amongst children and youth. 2) Significantly reduced direct and indirect pressures on biodiversity : Integrate biodiversity conservation into sectoral policies and plans - Recognise the economic value. 3) Safeguarded all key ecosystems, species and genetic diversity : By 2025, at least 20% of terrestrial areas and inland waters, and 10% of coastal and marine areas, are conserved.
  8. 8. …con’t 4) Ensured that the benefits from the utilisation of biodiversity are accrued equitable to all : institutionalising a national regulatory framework - Enhance capacity and awareness. 5) Improved the capacity, knowledge and skills of all stakeholders to conserve biodiversity : Strengthen the capacity of biodiversity-related agencies - Enhance the quality and quantity of research on Malaysia’s biodiversity - Establish comprehensive databases and monitoring programmes.
  9. 9. BIODIVERSITY CRISIS • Throughout Earth's history there have been six major Extinction Events. • These extinction events concern the sudden disappearance of many species. • The most 'infamous' event was the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.
  10. 10. Giant ground sloths. Disappeared along with the mammoths, mastodons, and many other large animals, at the end of the Pleistocene Epoch.
  11. 11. …con’t • The Sixth Extinction‘ (Holocene) : direct result of one species substantially modifying the planet at the expense of the other 11 million or so species. That species is US. At the current rate of habitat destruction it is estimated that within the next 100 years or so about half of the world's existing species may be extinct. The rate of species loss during 'The Sixth Extinction', is estimated to be somewhere between 100 and 1000 times greater than during any previous Extinction Events.
  12. 12. • One of the earlier and popularly-known examples of extinction in this period is the dodo bird. • The dodo bird lived in the forests of Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean, but became extinct around 1662. • It was hunted for its meat by sailors as it was easy prey because the dodo, which did not evolve with humans, would approach people without fear. • Introduced pigs, rats, and dogs, brought to the island by European ships, also killed dodo young and eggs. Skeleton of the extinct Dodo, endemic to Mauritius, on display at the Mauritius Natural History Museum
  13. 13. Steller’s sea cows, became extinct in 1768. The sea cow, first discovered by Europeans in 1741, was hunted for meat and oil.
  14. 14. Extinct species was hunted and suffered from habitat loss through the clearing of forests for farmland. Some are victims of hunting and overfishing. Japanese sea lion Carribean monk seal
  15. 15. Conservation efforts Conserve particular species (for example, the polar bear) or groups of animals (for example, tigers). Conserve entire habitats, such as the Amazon rainforest. Conservation natural resources - setting aside national parks and wildlife preserves.

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