2. Project time management
It includesthe processesto managethe timelycompletion ofthe project,
1. Planschedule management:
2. Define activities
4. Estimateactivities resources
5. Estimateactivity durations
6. Develop schedule
7. Control schedule
3. D ine Activities
2. Plan Scope
3. Baseline EEF
2. Rolling Wave
3. Expert Judgment
1. Activity List
3. Milestone List
• process of identifying & documenting specific actions to be performed to
produce the project deliverables.
• It’s key benefit is to break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for
estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring & controlling the project work.
4. •Comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required.
•it alsoincludes the activity identifier &scope of work description for
eachactivity in sufficient detail
•Eachactivity should haveunique title that describes its placein
the schedule evenif it’s displayedoutside the context of project
• Are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering and sorting the
planned schedule activities in various ways within reports
• Activity identifier
• Successor activities
• Activity description
• Logical relationships
Leads and lags
• Resource requirements
•Amilestone is asignificantpoint or event in a project
•It identifies all project milestones &indicates if the milestone is mandatory
(required bycontract), or optional (based upon historical information).
Define Activities -Output
5. 3. Sequence Activities
2. Activity List
4. Milestone List
5. Project Scope
3. Leads & Lags
1. Activity List
• The process of identifying & documenting relationship among the project activities.
• it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all
6. Sequence Activities – T&T(2)
2. Dependency Determination
- Mandatory dependencies
Contractual or inherent in the nature ofthe work
Limitations(Foundationbefore building)/ calledasHardlogic
Project team decides, Preferred logic, softlogic
Forfasttrackingthese shouldbe reviewedandconsidered for modification or
Relationshipbetween project andnon project activities
Outside ofthe project team’s control
7. Sequence Activities – T&T(3)
Aleadmaybe used to indicatethat anactivitycanstart before its
predecessor activityis completed.
Example: Codingmaystart fivedaysbefore thedesign
Lagisinserted waitingtime betweenactivities
Example:Wait three daysafter pouring concrete before constructing the frame
8. 4. Estimate Activityresources
2. Activity List
5. Risk Register
6. Activity Cost
1. Expert Judgment
5. Project Management
1. Activity Resource
2. Resource Breakdown
3. Project Documents
• The process of estimating the type & quantities of material, human
resources, equipment, or supplies needed to perform each activity.
• It identifies the type, quantity, and characteristics of resources required to
complete the activity which allows more accurate cost & duration
9. 5. Estimate Activityduration
2. Activity List
4. Activity Resource
5. Resource Calendars
6. Project Scope
7. Risk Register
8. Resource Breakdown
1. Expert Judgment
2. Analogous Estimating
3. Parametric Estimating
4. Three-point Estimating
5. Group Decision
1. Activity Duration
2. Project Documents
• The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete
individual activities with estimated resources
• It provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete (which is a
major input into the Develop Schedule process.
10. Estimate Activity Durations – T&T
1. Expert judgment
atechnique for estimating the duration of cost using historical data from asimilar activity/project.
It uses parameter from previous similar project such asduration, budget, size, weight, &
It is agross value estimating approach (sometimes adjusted for known differences in
complexity), it is frequently used to estimating project duration where there is alimited detailed
info on the project.
It is generallycost less &less time consuming but also less accurate
3. Parametric estimating
an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data &project
parameters. It uses statistical relationship between historical data &other variables.
Activity duration canbe quantitatively determined bymultiplying the quantity of work to be
performed by labor hours per unit of work.
4. Three-point estimating
the accuracy of single point activity duration estimate can be improved byconsidering uncertainty &
risk.This concept originates from Program Evaluation &reviewTechnique(PERT).
11. 6. Develop Schedule
1. Schedule Management
2. Activity List
4. Project Schedule Ntwk
5. Activity Resource
6. Resource Calendars
7. Activity Duration
8. Project Scope Statement
9. Risk Register
10. Project StaffAssignments
11. Resource Breakdown
1. Schedule Ntwk
2. Critical Path Method
3. Resource Optimization
6. Leads & Lags
1. Schedule Baseline
2. Project Schedule
3. Schedule Data
4. Project Calendars
5. Project Mgmt Plan
6. Project Documents
• The process of analyzing activity sequences,
durations, resource requirements & schedule
constraints to create the project schedule model
• It’s key benefit is that by entering schedule activities
durations, resource availabilities, and logical
relationship into scheduling tool, it generates a
schedule model date of completions.
12. Develop Schedule – T&T
isatechnique used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scopein order
to meet schedule constraints. They are:
Crashing: used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost byadding
resourcesby approvingovertime, expedited shipping or bringing in additionalresources.
Crashing works only on the critical path where additional resources will shorten activity
duration. It maynot be alwaysviablebecause it increasesrisks &costs.
Fast tracking: aschedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally
done is sequence are performed in parallel for at least aportion of their duration.
Fast tracking mayresult on rework &increased risk &only work on activities that can be
overlapped for example: construction of foundation before completion of architectural
Automated scheduling tool contain the schedule model &expedite the schedule bygenerating
start &finish dates based on the inputs of activities, network diagrams, resources &activities
durations using schedule network analysis.
This can be done manually or using a project management software
14. Cost & Project Cost Management?
Cost is a resource
value sacrificed or
foregone to achieve a
specific objective, or
something given up in
usually measured in
monetary units eg. $,
processes required to
ensure that the project
is completed within an
15. Project Cost Management
It includes the processes involved
budgeting and controlling cost
so that the project can be
completed within the approved
16. Drivers of Cost Management
Costing is done on the resources required to accomplish
Identification and planning of resources required for the
project costing are:
• Materials needed to complete the work
• Quantity of the needed resources
• Schedule when the resources are needed
Applying Expert judgment to evaluate and analyze the
resources that the project needs
17. Project Cost Management - Overview
Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning,
estimating, budgeting and controlling costs so that the project can be
completed within the approved budget.
• Plan Cost Management – Establishing the policies, procedures
and documentation for projectcost.
• Estimate Costs – Developing an approximation of the costs ofthe
resources needed to complete projectactivities
Budget – Aggregating the estimated costs of
activities or work packages to establish a cost
• Control Costs – Influencing the Factors that create cost variances
and controlling changes to the projectbudget
These Processes interact with each other and with the processes of other
knowledge areas like Time Management, Procurement Management,
Scope Management , Communication Management and Integration
18. Estimate Costs
Processofdevelopinganapproximationofthe monetary resources needed to
complete project activities.
Cost estimates are aprediction that isbased on the information known at a given
point in time.
Identification and consideration of costing alternatives to initiateand
complete the project.
Cost trade-offs andrisksmust be considered, suchasmakeversusbuy,buyversus
lease, andthe sharingof resources.
Costs for all resources that will be chargedto the project include labor, materials,
equipment, services, andfacilities, aswellasspecialcategoriessuchasaninflationallowanceor
22. 7.4. Control Costs: Tools & Techniques
1. Earned ValueManagement
• Integrates technical performance requirements,
resource planning, and cost accounting with schedule
• Provides insight into project status
• Provides “EARLYWARNINGSIGNALS”for
Provides a disciplined means of
managing the project