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Great emphasis has been put on the Knowledge Society Agenda, however one needs to understand the term as well as the lenses behind it. To get a clear description of what the knowledge society agenda is, one needs to break down the concept. According to the Cambridge learners’ dictionary, the concept is defined as follows:Knowledge is the ‘understanding of or information which a person gets by experience or study and which is either in a person’s mind or known by people generally’.
A society is a large group of people who live together in an organized way, making decisions about how to do things and sharing the work that needs to be doneAn agenda is a list of matters, aims or objectives that need to be discussed in order to be met in future An example of people who share and believe in the same practice regarded as knowledge to their own society. Music and dance is vital in this group. Remember the definition of knowledge and society. In this way the goal towards knowledge society is to ensure that every member in society is included in the transmission of knowledge. The benefits for these include a knowledgeable and sound environment where educated people are able to live together sharing information. By the end of the given date this objective needs to be achieved
Knowledge society agenda is therefore an outline plan of how information can be transmitted to a group of people within a given context. This plan stresses the effectiveness of sharing information within and throughout societies. In this regard, knowledge is seen as an agent of social change in society through the notions of justice, peace, solidarity and democracy (UNESCO).
This agenda also stresses the effectiveness of incorporating technology which will be another way of sharing information that will benefit every participant in society. The knowledge society agenda is concerned with the relationship between schools and the society. In this regard teachers are expected to be qualified, corporative and inclusive in their profession (IFIP) in order to teach what is relevant.
Technology is the study and knowledge of the practical and industrial use of scientific discoveries such as computer. In this way science and technology are related as one thing is discovered it needs to be implemented and proved.
Technology is not just a term but a meaningful concept that looks at the holistic view of scientific discoveries. The pervasiveness of technology is based on the emerging trends of technological tools used in everyday life to communicate information in any context. These technological advances include the desktop computer, kitchen appliances, as well as other mobile gadgets
This is a term that defines the current situation of and changes in technologyEnables people to use digital representations of information in a given context and understand the effect of such as well as engage freely with technological tools.Creates less physical work for people by making processes very effective and time cautious.
There is a distinctive shift in the implementation and use of technology throughout the country. These technological advances in computing and telecommunications makes things a easier and is not time consuming like using the old ways of communication and for work related reasons. In someschools, teaching and learning has become more interesting, effective and collaborative because of technology. It is a step of moving forward and gone are the days where learners were overcrowded in wood benches that have been rained on, or learning under a tree using the lap as the desk, however some learners still experience this in rural areas. The introduction of ICT Information communication tools initiative can be seen as one measure to take necessary steps in bringing about change in such schools with the introduction of technology based tools. http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Environment/Pix/columnists/2011/10/28/1319809609061/Solar-classroom-007.jpgThere is a distinctive shift in the implementation and use of technology throughout the country. These technological advances in computing and telecommunications makes things a easier and is not time consuming like using the old ways of communication and for work related reasons. There is a variety of technological systems; some of these features are components of the other meaning technology interconnected. Here are some examples: computer system, mobile telephone and television sets, to mention but a few
Education is a basic need for everyone especially in a universe that is reigned by what is known and proved to be knowledge. The Education for all goals is a response plan to ensuring that every persons in a society receive some form of education regardless of their offerings. The “Education For All” goals is based on the educational objectives that need to be met by 2015 in South Africa.It looks at education in an overview perspective (inclusivity main concern).Is a holistic plan that involves both young and old as members of the changing education system
Unlocking past injustices and creating a brighter future that accommodates diversity is at the basis of educational goals. To create and maintain a high standard of education for every member of the society regardless of their economic background, race, gender or any other segregate description.
According to the EFA Global Monitoring Report by the year 2015 the following objectives must be met:To ensure the expansion of early childhood care and education.Ensure that education is free and compulsory to allEncourage young people and adults to learn about life skillsIncrease the number of adults who are literate by at least 50%Achieve gender equality To provide improved standards of education
A happy teaching and learning environment. Where students have access to learning resources and teachers have the necessary skills and teaching aid. A free space to promote equality where learners are able to participate. Feeding schemes in schools for learners as well as parental involvement in the activities taking place at school.
Unemployment People have qualifications but still remain unemployed, the issue to consider with corrupt officials in the public sector allowing for only desired persons to get employment who may not even have the required qualificationEducational challenge An increased educational budget would help achieve the goal for black learners to receive an education of high standards. This will mean providing necessary study material, adequate qualified teachers and build more schools in rural and informal schools. Health issuesUnder normal circumstances health care is at basis of every person’s needs in a society. However it is still the case that people get unfair treatment while seeking medical attention in the public health services. More needs to be addressed to counteract this problem
Education for All Global Monitoring Report, 2010) reported that there are still children living under unsuitable conditions having multiple difficulties that supress them. These difficulties include living in poverty, having little or no access to health care services and to education. The scale adds up to approximately 72 million children who do not attend school because of disadvantages such as slower economic growth and familial problems. As a responsive measure to this problem, national and international initiatives are being implemented.
TheNational Planning Commission has been assigned to work together in joint force with government organisation to lay down the objectives of the future. The study recognises that there has been a distinctive progress in reducing poverty through the Reconstruction Development Programme; however, there are still other reoccurring challenges in education and in other sectors of the country. To meet these needs, the Department of Basic Education in South Africa has also set up a strategic plan that foresees change in education for the duration of three years known as the National Strategic Goals. These goals are mentioned below;Redress injustices of the pastCollaboration between private and public sectorsParticipation and benefits of all persons in the country especially the poorImprove education standards for black learnersImprove the public health system Augment poor service delivery especially public services Create more employment for the unemployed
Implemented in the year 2011, this three year long term goal is concerned with counteracting the following challenges in South African education:According to the NationalStrategic Plan (2011-2014), the challenges in education still include the lack of competent educators as well as the shortage of study material. These challenges are evident in most informal areas where there is also a shortage of schools as well as havingovercrowded classes. South Africa is also one of the countries with the poorest performances in schools. The proposed goals in this study include:To improve the quality of teaching ad learningTo encourage teachers to undergo regular assessment to keep up with the knew trends of educationPut more emphasis on and improve the quality of early childhood developmentEnsure that the education system is accountable, outcomes-focused and credible
Teaching is a profession that requires one to have pedagogical content knowledge, it is not just a practice or transmission of information from the teacher to the learner. In this way it is important for teachers to be open to continuous assessment that will help them improve their profession. The main aim of these National and international Initiatives is to critically develop teachers into effective educators of both the present and future.
UNESCO ICT COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHERSIn full description: The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Information and Communication Tools (ICT) competency framework for educators is an international framework which serves as a guideline to assess teacher competency. According to this document all countries need to meet the following goals:Building workforces that have ICT skills and are reflective, creative as well as adapt problem solving in order to maintain and generate knowledge.Encourage citizens to be full participants in society and have a say on decisions that affect themPromote diversity through learning and understanding as well as the effectiveness of peaceful conflict resolutionsEncourage citizens to be knowledgeable and resourceful by providing life skills development programs
In order to achieve all these, the teacher can be a useful and reliable body to help transmit knowledge throughout the society. In this way it is very important for the teacher to also be motivated through means such as the UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers. To get futher training regarding these new technological tools in order to incorporate them in his or her daily lessons.
Understanding ICT in education: based on the teacher trying other means of giving information to assist learners understand the importance of what they are expected to do (activities, projects or assignments). Curriculum and assessment: allows the teacher to be a curriculum designer and interpreter in the essence of them being flexible enough to go beyond what is know as the school curriculum to including what they have proved to be relevant for addition into the school curricular. Pedagogical knowledge: because of changes in the school curricular to include ICT the teacher is now able to use materials that they were not exposed to previously such as internet video clips, music and other media that they have now been trained to use.ICT :the teacher receives a laptop computer, internet video clips, data capture devises, spreadsheet software etc as well as supervision before he or she can introduce these to his pedagogical knowledge in his lesson plans.Organisation and administration: now the teacher can use the computer to capture learners’ information such as mark lists, register, and other measures.Teacher professional learning: teacher is open to a variety of collaborative online tutoring and discussion with colleagues, attends teacher development workshops and the like.
ICT engagement and promotion of the ICT skills acquisition will benefit both the learner and teacher in the classroom. This initiative target the teacher and other persons with low ICT skills or non at all. The aim is to rejuvenate the way of transmitting knowledge and allow for new skill development in technological tools.http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=unesco+competency+frmaework+for+teachers&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=W27AHxV4iAEHCM&tbnid=2oJ_vWDZpmFihM:&ved=0CAQQjB0&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.flacso.edu.mx%2Fcompetencias%2Findex.php%3Foption%3Dcom_mojo%26Itemid%3D25%26cat%3D6%26paged%3D2&ei=IeMlUe7wFNHY0QXlsYGQDw&bvm=bv.42661473,d.d2k&psig=AFQjCNHoZisbhxLY9i99sCv41mm-5hqvng&ust=1361523681930186
A book written to emphasize Information communication tools. This book titled “Teaching Secondary Science Using ICT”book was written by David Sang and Roger Frost. The interesting thing about this book is that it is subject specific in that it has been designed to help the teacher in the science major. Just as teacher professional development programmes should be subject specific in order to give the relevant insights about ICT to the specific teacher.
According to the Guidelines for Teacher Training and Professional Development in Information Communication ToolsICT integration into the South African curriculum delivery is vitalThis guideline is a scope in addition to the subject emphasized in UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for TeachersIt explains ICT to be a useful tool of the inclusion of both knowledge and technology, incorporating the two to create extensive meaning.
Again this scope recognizes that in order for the curriculum to be well emphasized and taught it requires understanding from the teacher and the classroom situation needs to be changed. In this ay the learner and the teacher need to be creative in using ICT in order for teaching and learning to be interested.
The things to consider when using ICT:ICT will become the vehicle with which knowledge is transported from the teacher to the learner as well as reflective from the learner to the teacher.ICT should be used in addition to other tools of information to create knowledgeICT should be used to achieve measurable and realistic outcomesICT is in the middle of teaching and learning, it is there to facilitate what is already available as information in schools not to substitute textbooks or other publications of information..
According to the Guidelines for teacher training and professional development in ICTThe educational goals should focus on developing ICT skills. Teacher development programmes should contextualize learning experiencesThese programmes should be designed to cater for particular subject or learning area needs Teachers must receive continuous support and assessments to ensure improvement Teacher development programmes should run all year round in order to integrate the constant change in technological tools
The introduction and inclusion of ICT in the curriculum is to foster learning towards achieving educational goals proposed by initiatives. It is used to support the current curriculum by improving it to meet current needs in educationICT will be useful in terms of the administration concerns which is normally time consuming for educators
ICT is not only used by teachers only but also other members within a given context.What happens in a school also does not necessarily remain in school, the school is within a society/community and both learners and teachers are part of the school and community. Therefore parents as well are in this regard part of the school and society. The teacher development programmes should be made to benefit the whole community not only the specific individuals within the school. Knowledge taught to one should be transmitted to others.In this way all these members are open to learning and the teacher does not exercise his power over the learner instead creates a collaborative environment open for learning- learning centered.
The entry levelThe introduction phase of the course, the teacher is able to use computers however ICT is broad and programmes introduced here may course frustrations or lack of understanding.Adoption levelIs the second stage which will normally be expected of the teacher to be able to use computers for administrative purposes, teaching and learning as well as teaching learners how to use ICTAdaptation levelAt this level the teacher is able to use ICT to support everyday classroom activities which has now been included in the curriculumAppropriation levelTeacher has a broad understanding of ICT, he or she is confident in the insights of ICT and is able to reflect back his experience. ICT now plays a role in his or her teaching strategies to make informed decisions on the particular subject or learning area.Innovation levelTeacher is now entirely able to propose new learning situations that are ICT inclusive and creates new learning experiences influenced by technology.Guidelines for Teacher Training and Professional Development in ict 2007
Teacher training programs have already taken off in other countries with the main emphasis on developing and improving teacher skills through using Information Communication Tools.
The ICT enhanced Teacher Standards for Africa is an initiative developed under the guidance of UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa established in 1999. it is a scope of both the Guidelines for Teacher Training and Professional Development in ICT and ICT Competency Standards for Teachers (UNESCO, 2008) as they all put focus on the professional development of the teacher.
A STUDY BASED ON FUTURE OBJECTIVESTHAT NEED TO BE MET IN A DESIGNATEDDURATIONP R E S E N T A T I O N B Y P A U L I N A N K U N A2 0 1 1 1 4 4 9 8National Strategic Imperatives
IntroductionIn a developing country such as South Africa there is aneed for long term realistic goals that will helpmaintain and reach towards the expected standardsin future.This presentation provides insights on the currentchallenges facing the country as well as the attemptsmade to counteract them through specific nationaland international initiatives.
Overview of this study Knowledge Society Agenda Pervasiveness of technology “Education for All” goals Present future national strategicobjectives National and international initiativesfor teacher professional development
Knowledge Society AgendaKnowledge is the „understanding of or informationwhich a person gets by experience or study andwhich is either in a person‟s mind or known bypeople generally‟.Society is defined as a large group of people who livetogether in an organized way, making decisionsabout how to do things and sharing the work thatneeds to be doneCambridge learners‟ dictionary
Arts andculture groupPicture taken at Women for Peace community centre in Daveyton, Etwatwa.
So what is this Knowledge Society Agenda?Outline PlanFuturesuccessImprovements
Knowledge Society Agenda continued… Takes into perspective the parties involved in asociety Considers both teachers and learners to be activeparticipating bodies in the transformation ofeducation Concerned about the change that knowledge bringsabout in a society Sees technology as another means of sharinginformation
Pervasiveness of technology There world can be seen in one global view through aminimized scale online or on publication. A person in South Africa can communicate live withsomeone in China through video calls andconferences. Internet dating, internet surfing, online tutoring, etc.BUT HOW IS IT POSSIBLE? It is all in the era of technology
Technology Technology is not just a term but a meaningfulconcept that looks at the holistic view of scientificdiscoveries. The pervasiveness of technology is based on theemerging trends of technological tools used ineveryday life to communicate information in anycontext. These technological advances include thedesktop computer, kitchen appliances, as well asother mobile gadgets
Pervasiveness of Technology continuation This term defines the current situation of andchanges in technology. Enables people to use digital representations ofinformation in a given context and understand theeffect of such as well as engage freely withtechnological tools. Creates less physical work for people by makingprocesses very effective and time cautious.
Technology in our classroomshttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2011/oct/28/solar-powered-internet-school-children-africaPhotographer: Jeremy Glyn
“Education for all” goals As part of the National Global Imperatives‟concern, education is a global challenge, howeverto counteract this there are six “Education for All”goals that have been outlined. This is a layout ofeducational objectives aimed to cater for allindividuals by the year 2015, (EFA GlobalMonitoring Report).
Education for allwww.buildafrica.client.fatbeehive.com www.guardian.co.za
Basic “Education for All” goals Accessibility of free and compulsory education for all To provide improved standards of education Increase adult literacy Promote life skill programs for young people andadults Eliminate poverty Promote gender equality
Present Future National Goals : The Currentproblem in South AfricaPoor standardsof education forblack peopleLess people areemployedPublic servicedelivery is verypoorSpatialchallenges stillmarginalize thepoorShortage ofqualifiedteachers
Present Future National Strategic Goals ingeneral Redress injustices of the past Collaboration between private and public sectors Participation and benefits of all persons in thecountry especially the poor Improve education standards for black learners Improve the public health system Augment poor service delivery especially publicservices Create more employment for the unemployed
Present Future National Strategic Goalseducation based Improve quality of teaching and learning Provide enough study resources Encourage educators to continuously go for teacherassessment programs Improve early childhood development
National and International Initiatives forTeacher Development“Some people think teaching is an easy job. According tothem, the teacher must just make the lesson fun andensure that the work is explained clearly. But if teachingwas that simple, almost anybody could be a teacher.”Robinson and Lomofsky (2010).
National and International Initiatives forTeacher Professional Development continuedUNESCO ICT Competency Framework for TeachersWhat is this framework?The UNESCO ICT is an international teacher frameworkthat looks at countries worldwide through its planningand implementation of initiatives that will bettereducation, information transmission and the economyworldwide. This document was published in 2011 andintroduces ICT to educators worldwide.
ICT International initiativeAbout the framework: It is concerned with curriculum, pedagogy,assessment, information and communication tools.What the teacher is expected to do includesknowledge deepening, knowledge creation andtechnology literacy. How then can a teacher achieve these?Through the means of being an active accomplice inteacher assessment workshops and developmentprograms
UNESCO ICT Competency Framework forTeachers continuedThe six aspects of a teachers work1. Understanding ICT in education2. Curriculum and assessment3. Pedagogical knowledge4. ICT5. Organisation and administration6. Teacher professional learning
ICT Competency Standards for Teachers(UNESCO, 2008)www.flacso.edu.mx
ICT subject and learning area specificwww.amazon.co.uk
ICT : a different approachAccording to the Guidelines for Teacher Training andProfessional Development in InformationCommunication Tools ICT integration into the South African curriculumdelivery is vital This guideline is a scope in addition to the subjectemphasized in UNESCO ICT Competency Frameworkfor Teachers It is the inclusion of both knowledge and technology,incorporating the two to create extensive understanding
Guidelines for Teacher Training andProfessional Development in ICT Learner is taught and able to use ICT The teacher understands ICT, it‟s effectiveness andincorporates it in his classroom practices The teacher is comprehensive and allows forindependent thinking from the learners The teacher trusts learners to be creative andcollaborative throughout the use of ICT in theclassroom
Integrating ICT in South African classroomsICTLearnersTeachers
Principles for ICT in teacher development Educational goals should focus on developing ICTskills Teacher development programmes shouldcontextualize learning experiences These programmes should be designed to cater forparticular subject or learning area needs Teachers must receive continuous support andassessments to ensure improvement Teacher development programmes should run allyear round in order to integrate the constant changein technological tools
Implementation of ICTWhat it means to be a teacher in the 21st century: The teacher is able to accommodate ICT into thecurriculum Recognizes that ICT is not a substitute but is anactive agent of change in education thus will helpreinvent the purpose of learning The teacher is able to illustrate the ICT knowledge,skills, values and attitudes The teacher recognizes and appreciate that ICTallows for teacher flexibility during lessonpreparation and presentation
Information Communication Tools in ContextICTTeacherCommunityLearnerSchool
ICT teacher development courseAt an international level all educators need to acquirecertain skills throughout the course, the differentlevels are mentioned below: The entry level Adoption level Adaptation level Appropriation level Innovation level
Teachers in action: developing ICT skillswww.gwhatchet.com
ICT-enhanced Teacher Standardsfor Africa (ICTeTSA) This is an international initiative that looks atdeveloping teachers in Africa. It is concerned with the development ICT for thesecountries in order to improve the standard ofteaching and learning. The difference with this approach is that it targetsAfrican which are at the current stage of havinglittle or no access to ICT tools
ConclusionThis presentation has provided a study based onNational and International Strategic Imperatives thatfocus on the development of knowledge in schools aswell as teacher professional development. Thediscussion has been expanded from the KnowledgeSociety Agenda to the National and internationalinitiatives for teacher professional development.
ReferencesConley, L.; de Beer, J.; Dunbar-krige, H.; du Plessis.;Gravett, L.;Lomofsky, L.;Merckel, V.;November, I.; Osman, R.; Peterson, N.; Robinson, M.& Van der Merwe, M. (2010). Becoming ateacher. Cape Town: Heinemann.Danish National IT and Telecom Agency (2007). ICT Skills in Denmark’s population(Summary of the report submitted to the Danish National IT and Telecom Agency.Policy and Business Analysis.EFA Global monitoring Report. (2008). Education for All . Southern Africa: Oxford University Press.Mowlana, H & Wilson, L. (1988). Communication Technology and Development. Paris, UNESCO.
Referenceswww.buildafrica.client.fatbeehive.com (Retrieved 19 February 2013).http://www.unesco.org/new/typo3temp/pics/8b48222f65.jg (Retrieved 16 February 2013)www.flasco.edu.mx (Retrieved 19 February 2013).Department of Education. (2011). Strategic Plan. South Africa: Department of BasicEducation.UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers. (2011). Paris: UNESCO.UNESCO (2005). Capacity building of Teacher-Training Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.Paris: UNESCO.