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Europe

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World Geography -- Europe

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Europe

  1. 1.   Mediterranean, Western, Northern, Eastern
  2. 2.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8brpoU_HNI
  3. 3. Peninsulas & Islands Mountains & Uplands Rivers Fertile Plains/Resources Northern Peninsulas Alps Danube Northern European Plain Southern Peninsulas Pyrenees Rhine Coal & Iron Ore Islands Uplands Oil & others
  4. 4. Peninsulas & Islands Mountains & Uplands Rivers Fertile Plains/Resources Northern Peninsulas Scandinavia -Norway, Sweden - thin, rocky soil Jutland - Denmark, Germany Alps - Most famous - Germany, Italy, Switzerland, France, Austria Danube - Cuts through Europe (9 countries) - Links Europe to Black Sea - Watery highway Northern European Plain - France, Belgium, Holland (interior) - Good farmland - Flat Southern Peninsulas Iberian - Spain, Portugal Italian - Italy Balkan - mountainous - cultural differences Pyrenees - separate Spain from France Rhine - Cuts through interior; north of Northern Sea - Watery highway Coal & Iron Ore - Lots of it - Used for steel production - Economic development Islands - located in North Atlantic Uplands - High hills or low mountains - Scotland, Spain, France Oil & others - Found beneath North Sea - Offshore drilling
  5. 5.  “God created the world, but the Dutch created Holland.”  Polders  Water is drained to create new farmland  40% of Netherlands once under the sea  Used windmills to pump water out
  6. 6.  The Canals of Venice  Venice a series of islands connected by canals  Flooding, pollution threaten canals
  7. 7.  Deforestation  Industrialization of 18th and 19th centuries  Acid rain damaging trees in Germany
  8. 8.  Portugal  Spain  Italy  Greece
  9. 9. Ancient Greece  Why do city-states arise?  Early form of democracy in Athens  Science, philosophy, drama still influential today  By 338 BC, conquered by Alexander the Great
  10. 10. Ancient Rome https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrIEwjgfbYs  Italian peninsula  Republic to Empire  Conquers Iberian and Balkan peninsulas  Christianity becomes official religion in 300s AD  Splits in 395 AD
  11. 11. Crusades  Series of holy wars to recapture Holy land from Muslims Renaissance  “rebirth”  Renewed interest in learning and the arts  Was it a thing? Spain’s Muslim Empire  700s AD; rule for more than 700 years  Catholics Ferdinand and Isabella retook throne in 1492
  12. 12.  Less industrial than Northern Europe  Fishing, agriculture  Growth of industry in late 20th century  Severe economic problems in Greece  Little energy resources in region  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tigaryz-1y4 (Greece John Green)
  13. 13. Political Turmoil  Rise of fascism in Spain and Italy in 1930s. Why?  Spain’s conflict with Basque people  Urbanization. Problems?
  14. 14.  France  Germany  Switzerland  Liechtenstein  Austria  Netherlands  Belgium
  15. 15. Charlemagne  Germanic king; conquered most of region in 700s AD  Empire split into small kingdoms  Germanic languages dominate in this region
  16. 16. Reformation (1500s) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1o8oIELbNxE (thought bubble)  Christians break from Catholic Church  Luther in Germany; Calvin in France  Hostility between Protestants and Catholics
  17. 17. Feudalism to Nationalism  Middle Ages: strong kings gain power over feudal lords  Nationalism: people should be loyal to those with whom they share land, culture, and history  By late 1600s-1700s, absolute monarchs give way to representative government  German unification in 1870s
  18. 18. World War I  Central Powers v. Allies  Harsh terms on Germany World War II  Axis Powers v. Allies  1945: Start of Cold War  A divided Germany  1989: Wall comes down & Cold War winds down  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snsdDb7KDkg wall comes down
  19. 19. Strong Economy  Rich in agricultural and energy resources  Heavy industrialization  Tourism & luxury goods
  20. 20.  United Kingdom  Ireland  Nordic Countries o Denmark o Finland o Iceland o Norway o Sweden
  21. 21.  795: Vikings conquer Northern Europe  1066: William the Conqueror (Normandy) captures England  1801: United Kingdom controls large empire  Colonies in America, Africa, Asia, Oceania  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNu8XDBSn10 UK
  22. 22. Representative Government  English monarchy loses power to parliament  1215: Magna Carta  Iceland’s parliament meeting since 930 Industrial Revolution  Iron ore and coal help Britain industrialize first
  23. 23. Modern Conflicts  UK heavily involved in both World Wars.  Post-WW II: most of empire gains independence  Fighting between Britain and Ireland in into 21st century  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nesd7KtZEMk (Bloody Sunday)
  24. 24.  Benefits from natural resources  Timber, fishing, North Sea oil, manufacturing  Nordic countries have strong social welfare programs paid for by high taxes.
  25. 25.  Albania  Bosnia & Herzegovina  Bulgaria  Croatia  Czech Republic  Hungary  Kosovo  Macedonia  Montenegro  Poland  Romania  Slovakia  Slovenia  Serbia
  26. 26.  Crossroads between rest of Europe & Asia  Diversity History of Conquest  Byzantine Empire  1300-1500s: Ottoman Empire  1700s: Austria, Hungary,
  27. 27.  Balkanization: larger region breaking into small, mutually hostile units  Serbian nationalist assassinate Archduke of Austrian Empire to start WW I https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NgPYgXnu-Aw  Under German and Soviet control before and during WW II  Cold War: Soviet satellite nations  Independence after Soviet Union collapses
  28. 28.  More rural than rest of Europe  Conflict between ethnic groups (i.e. Serbs v. Croats)  Discrimination against Jews, Muslims, and Romany  Economy still recovering from effects of communism  Violence, instability, and failing infrastructure plague region
  29. 29.  1929: Yugoslavia formed, made up of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes  1946-1980: Josip Tito dictator of Yugoslavia  Post-Tito: Milosevic wants a “Greater Serbia”  1992: Bosnian War  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ae_cTGvxYGI
  30. 30.  Heavy industrialization has caused environmental damage European Environmental Agency  Provides EU with reliable environmental data  Why must European countries cooperate to solve environmental problems?
  31. 31.  Economic alliance  A common currency  Problems with expansion?  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O37yJBFRrfg

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