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FOOTSTEP POWER GENERATION USING PIEZOELECTRIC
SENSOR
Motichand1
Arun Kumar Rathore2
Vivek Kumar Sarthi3
Aashish Kumar Tamboli4
Indra Kumar5
Girish Gupta6
Dr. Giriraj Garhewal7
1,2,3,4,5
B.E. Student, 6
Assistant Professor, 7
Associate Professor
1,2,3,4,5,6,7
Department Of mechanical Engineering
1,2,3,4,5,6,7
J.K. Institute of Engineering College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract -Man has need and used energy at an increasing
rate for the sustenance and well-being since time
immemorial. Due to this a lot of energy resources have been
exhausted and wasted. Proposal for the utilization of waste
energy of foot power with human locomotive is very much
relevant and important for highly populated countries like
India where the railway station, temple et., are overcrowded
all round the clock. When the flooring is engineered with
piezo electric technology, the electrical energy produced by
the pressure is captured by floor sensors and converted to an
electrical charge by piezo transducers, then stored and used
as a power source. And this power source has many
applications as in agriculture, home applications and street
lighting and as energy source for sensor in remote locations.
This power is all about generating electricity when
people walk on the floor. Think about the forces you exert
which is wasted when a person walks. The idea is convert
the weight to electrical energy. The power generating floor
intends to trance- late the kinetic energy to electrical power.
The motto of this research work is to face this crisis
somehow. Thought it won`t meet the requirement of
electricity but as a matter of fact if we able to design a power
generating floor that can produce 100W on just 12 steps,
then for 120 steps we can produce 1000 watt and if we install
such type of 100 floors with this system then it can produce
1 Mega Watt. Which itself is an achievement to make it
significant.
I. INTRODUCTION
For an alternate electricity there are number of method by
which electricity can be produced, out if such methods
footstep energy generation can be an effective methods to
generate electricity.
Walking is the most common activity in human life. When
a parson walks, he loses energy to the road surface in the
form of impact, vibration, sound etc. due to the transfer of
his weight on to the road surface, thought foot falls on the
ground during every step. This energy can be tapped and
converted in the useable form such as in electrical form.
This device, if embedded in footpath, can be convert foot
impact energy into electrical form.
Human powered transport has been in existence since time
immemorial in the form of walking, running and swimming.
However modern technology has led to machines to
enhance the use of human power in more efficient manner.
In this context, pedal power is an excellent source of energy
and has been in use since the nineteenth century making use
of the most powerful muscles in the body. Ninety five
percent of the exertion put into pedal power is converted
into energy. Pedal power can be applied to a wide range of
jobs and simple, cheap, and convenient source of energy.
However, human kinetic energy can be useful in a number
of ways but it can also be used to generate electricity based
on different approaches and many organization are already
implementing human power technologies to generate
electricity to power small electronic appliances.
II. INITIATIVE
Working on the idea to harness human locomotive power,
MIT(USA) architecture students James Graham and
Thaddeus Jusczy recently unveiled what they`re calling the
“Crowd Farm “ a setup that would derive energy from
pounding feet in crowded places. This technology is a
proposal to harness human power as a source of sustainable
energy. Population of India and mobility of its masses will
turn into boon in generating electricity from its
(Populations) footstep. Human locomotion in over crowded
subway stations, railway stations, bud stands, airports,
temples or rock concerts thus can be converted to electrical
energy with the use of this promising technology.
The technology would turn the mechanical energy of people
walking or jumping into a source of electricity. The student
test case, displayed at the Venice Biennale and in a train
station in Torino, Italy, was a prototype stool that exploits
the passive act of sitting to generate power. The weight of
2
the body on the seat causes a flywheel to spin, which powers
a dynamo that, in turn, lights four LEDs. In each case, there
would be a subflooring system consisting of independent
blocks. When people walk across this surface, the forces
they impart will cause the blocks to slip slightly and a
dynamo would convert the energy in thus moments into
electric current. Students say that moving from this proof-
of-concept device to a large-scale crowd farm would
expensive, but it certainly sounds a great options.
III. MODEL OF FOOTSTEP ENERGY
GENERATION
Fig1: Storing Device for Foot Step Electric Energy
The working of foot stop electric convertor (FSEC) is
demonstrated in photographs shows. The foot touching the
top plate without applying weight. The left side photographs
shows the foot when full weight of the body is transferred
to the top plate. A 6W, 12V bulb connected to the output of
the alternator glows, to indicate the electric output when
foot load is applied. The unit is designed to generate full
power pulse when actuated by a parson weighing nearly
60kg. An experimental plot of voltage vs. time was
generated, by using an oscilloscope. Using voltage and load
(a resistor), a typical plot of power vs. time was generated.
Fig 2: Block Diagram of Footstep Energy Generation
 The basic working principle of our project is based
on the piezoelectric sensor.
 To implement this we adjust the wooden plate
above and below the sensors and moveable
springs.
 Non-conventional energy using foot step is
converting mechanical energy into the electric
energy.
 Foot step board it consist of a 16 piezo electric
sensor which are connected in parallel.
 When the pressure is applied on the sensors, the
sensors will convert mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
 This electrical energy will be storing in the 12V
rechargeable battery connected to inverter.
 We are using conventional battery charging unit
also for giving supply to the circuitry.
 This inverter is used to convert the 12V DC to
230V AC this 230V Ac voltage is used to activate
the loads.
 By using this AC voltage we can operate AC loads.
ENERGY STORING TABLE
The power generated bythe foot step generator can be stored
in an energy storing device. The output of generator was fed
to a 12V lead acid battery, through an AC-DC convertor
bridge. Initially, the battery was completely discharged.
Then, the FSEC was operated by applying foot load and
energy was stored in the battery. A 100 W, 230V bulb was
connected to the battery through an inverter. The
arrangement in shown in fig. 2. The duration of lighting, the
bulb for number of footsteps and corresponding energy
stored, are giving in table 1.
TABLE 1
No. of
footsteps
Duration lighting a
100 watt 230 Volt
bulb (s)
Total
energy (J)
Energy/
step (J)
250 6 600 2.4
500 12 1200 2.4
750 18 1800 2.4
1000 25 2500 2.5
The piezoelectric material converts the pressure applied to
it into electrical energy. The source of pressure in either
from weight of the moving vehicles or from the weight of
the people walking over it. The output of the piezoelectric
material is not a steady one. So a bridge circuit is used to
convert this variable voltage into a linear one. Again ac
ripple filter is used to filter out any further fluctuations in
3
the output. The output dc voltage is then stored in
rechargeable battery. As the power output from a single
piezo combination of both parallel and series connection is
employed for producing 40V voltage output with high
current density. From battery provisions are provided to
connect dc load. An inverter is connected to battery to
provide the provision to connect ac load. The voltage
produced across the tile can be seen in a LCD.
Fig3: Schematic Representation of the Working Model
IV. ANALYSIS OF FOOTSTEP ENERGY
GENERATION
1. NEED OF THAT SYSTEM
Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power
with human locomotion is very much relevant and important
for highly populated countries like India and China where
the roads, railway stations, bus stands, temple etc. Are all
over crowded and millions of people move around the clock.
This whole human /bi energy being wasted if can be made
possible for utilization it will be great invention and crowed
energy farms will be very useful energy sources in crowded
countries .walking across a “Crowd farm”, floor , then, will
be a fun for idle people who can improve their health by
exercising in such farms with earning. The electrical energy
generated at such farms will be useful nearby applications.
 The utilization of waste energy of foot power with
human motion is very important for highly
populated countries.
 India and China where the roads, railway stations,
temple etc. Are all over crowded and millions of
people move around the clock.
2. MAXIMUM THEORETICAL VOLTAGE
GENERATED
A force is applied on piezo material, a charge is generated
across it. Thus, it can applied to it. In this project, on one
tile, we connect 3 peizo in series connected in parallel. Thus
when 3 piezoelectric discs are connected in series, its
equivalent capacitance becomes
1
𝐶 𝑒𝑞
=
1
𝐶1
+
1
𝐶2
+
1
𝐶3
----- (1.1)
We know, Q = C × V
So, C =
𝑄
𝑉
----- (1.2)
Hence,
𝑉𝑒𝑞
𝑄
=
𝑉1
𝑄
+
𝑉2
𝑄
+
𝑉2
𝑄
Thus, 𝑉𝑒𝑞 = 𝑉1 + 𝑉2 + 𝑉3 ----- (1.3)
Hence, the net voltage generated in series connection is the
sum of individual voltages generated across each
piezoelectric disc. Output voltage from 1 piezo disc is 13V.
Now equation (1.3)
𝑉𝑒𝑞 = 13 + 13 + 13
𝑉𝑒𝑞 = 39V
Thus the maximum voltage that can be generated across the
piezo tile around 39V.
3. ANALYSIS DONE ON THE PIEZO TILE
People whose weight varied from 40kg to 75kg were made
to walk on the piezo tile to test the voltage generating
capacity of the piezo tile. The relation between the weight
of the person and power generated is plotted in figure 4.
Form the graph it can be seen that, maximum voltage is
generated when maximum weight/force is applied. Thus,
maximum voltage of 40V is generated across the tile when
a weight of 75kg is applied on the tile. Fig 4: weight V/s
power graph of piezo tile.
Fig 4: Weight v/s power of piezo tile
V. ELEMENTS OF FOOTSTEP ENERGY
GENERATION
1. SENSOR
A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and
converts it into a single which can be read by an observer or
by an instrument. For example, mercury coverts the
measured temperature expansion and contraction of a liquid
which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. At thermo
couple converts temperature to and output voltage which
can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are
calibrated against known standards.
4
1.1 PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR
A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric
effect to measure pressure, acceleration, strain or force by
converting them to an electrical single. Piezoelectric sensor
have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of
various processes. They are used for quality assurance,
process control and for research and development in many
different industries it was only in the 1950s that the
piezoelectric effect started to be used for industrial sensing
applications.
Since then, this measuring principle has been increasingly
used and can be recorded as a mature technology with an
outstanding inherent reliability. It has been successfully
used in various applications, such as in medical, aerospace,
nuclear instrumentation, and as a pressure sensor in the
touch pads of mobile phones. In the automotive industry,
piezoelectric element are used to monitor combustion when
developing internal combustion engines. The sensors are
either directly into additional holes into the cylinder head or
the spark /glow plug is equipped with a built in miniature
piezoelectric sensor.
Fig 5: Piezoelectric Sensor
The rise of piezoelectric technology is directly related to a
set of inherent advantages. The high modulus of elasticity
of many piezoelectric materials is comparable to that of
many metals and goes to 10e6N/m square (even though
piezoelectric sensors are electro chemical systems that react
to compression, the sensing elements show almost zero
deflection. This is the reason why piezoelectric sensor are
so rugged, have an extremely high natural frequency and an
excellent linearity over a wide amplitude range.
Additionally, piezoelectric technology is insensitive to
electromagnetic fields and radiation, enabling
measurements under harsh conditions some materials used
(especially gallium phosphate or tourmaline) have an
extreme stability even at high temperature, enabling sensors
to have a working range of op to 1000℃. Tourmaline shows
piezoelectricity in addition to the piezoelectric effect, this is
the ability to generate an electrical signal when the
temperature of crystal changes. This effect is also common
to piezoceramic materials.
Fig. 6: Piezoelectric Sensor Working Circuit
2. BATTERY
Battery (electricity), an array of electrochemical cells for
electricity storage, either individual linked and housed in a
single unit. An electrical battery in a combination of one or
more electrochemical cells, used to covert stored chemical
energy into electrical energy.
Batteries may be used ones and discarded, or recharged for
years is standbypower applications. Miniature cells are used
to power device such as hearing aids and wristwatches;
larger batteries provide standby power for telephone
exchanges or computer data centers.
Lead-acid batteries are the common in PV systems becomes
their initial cost is lower and because they are readily
available nearly everywhere in the world. There are many
different sizes and designs of lead-acid batteries, but the
most important designation is that they are deep cycle
batteries. Lead-acid batteries are available in both wet-cell
(requires maintenance) and sealed no-maintenance versions.
3. RECTIFER
The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It
converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. the rectifier may be a half
wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used
because of its merits like good stability and full wave
rectification. The bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts
and ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the
input ac voltage. The bridge rectifier circuit is shown in
figure. The circuit, has four diodes connected to a form a
bridge. The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally
opposite ends of the bridge. The load resistance is connected
between the other to ends of the bridge.
For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D1
and D3 conduct, whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the
OFF state. The conducting diodes will be in series with the
load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through
RL. For negative half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes
D1 and D4 conduct whereas, D1 and D3 remain OFF. The
5
conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the load
resistance RL and hence the current flow through RL in the
same direction as in the previous half cycle. Thus a bi-
direction wave is converted into unidirectional wave.
4. VOLTAGE REGULATOR
As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to
it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to
automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this
project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order
to obtain this voltage levels, 7805 and 7812 voltage
regulator are to be used. The first number 78 represents
positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the
required output voltage levels. This regulators can provide
local on-card regulation. Eliminating the distribution
problems associated with single point regulation each type
employs internal current limiting.
5. UNIDIRECTIONAL CURRENT CONTROLLER
As name indicates this circuit allows only one directional
current flowing. There are following some device on
unidirectional current.
1) Diode
2) Thermistors
In this project we are going to use diode as unidirectional
current control device. As we are already familiar with the
most common function of a diode is to allow an electric
current to pass in one direction (called the diodes forward
direction). While blocking current in the opposite direction
(the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be through of as
an electronic version of a check valve. The diode used in the
project D= 1N4007.
6. ADC (A/D or A to D)
An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A
to D) is a device that converts a continue quantity to a
discrete time digital representation. And ADC may also
provide and isolated measurement. The reverse operation is
performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC).
Typically, and ADC is an electronic devise that converts and
input analog voltage or current to a digital number
proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current.
However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic
devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered.
7. INVERTER
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct
current DC to AC the converted AC can be at ant required
voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate
transformers, switching and control circuits.
Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are used in
wide range of applications, from small switching power
supplies in computers, to large electric utility high, voltage
direct current applications that transport block power.
Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC
sources as solar panels or batteries.
There are two main types of inverter. The output of a
modified sine wave inverter is similar to a square wave
output except that the output goes to zero volts for a time
before switching positive or negative.
A pore sine wave inverter produces a nearly perfect sine
wave output (< 3%total harmonic distortion) that is
essentially the same as utility, supplied grid power. Thus it
is compatible with all AC electronic device. This is the type
used in grid-tie inverters.
VI. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION
VOLTAGE SAMPLER (SAMPLE & HOLD CIRCUIT)
Sample-and-hold (S/H) is an important analog building
block with many applications, including analog-to-digital
converters (ADCs) and switched, capacitor filters. The
function of the S/H circuit is to sample and analog input
signal and hold this value over a certain length of time for
subsequent processing.
Fig 7: Simple and Hold Circuit
Taking advantages of the excellent properties of MOS
capacitors and switches, traditional switched capacitor
techniques can be used to realize different S/H circuits. The
simplest S/H circuit in MOS technology is shown in figure,
where Vin is the input signal, M1is an MOS transistor
operating as the sampling switch Ch is the hold capacitor,
Ck is the clock signal , and Vout is the resulting sample-and
–hold output signal.
In the simplest sense, S/H circuit can be achieved using only
one MOS transistor and one capacitor. The operation of this
circuit is very straight forward. Whenever Ck is high, the
MOS switch is on, which is turn allows Vout to track Vin. On
the other hand, when Ck is low, the MOS switch is off.
During this time, Ch will keep Vout equal to the value of Vin
at the instance when ck goes low. CMOS sample-and-hold
circuits page. Unfortunately, in realty, the performance of
this S/H circuit is not as ideal as described above. The next
6
section of this paper explains two major types of errors,
charge injections.
And clock feed through, that are associated with this S/H
implementation. The section after that presents three new
S/H techniques, all of which try to minimize the errors
caused by charge injection and/or clock feed through.
As we know that pressure is directly proportional to amount
of power generated
P 𝛼 Wt
Here we take the constant of proportionality as K, then the
equation becomes
P = K Wt
Where, K - constant of proportionality
Wt - Weight
P – Power
We know that for Wt=kg,
We get the value of voltage V = 4v and I =0.015A
Then P = V*I = 4*0.015= 0.06w, means we can say that for
50kg we get power
(P) =0.06w
From this we can find the value of K
K = P/ wt =0.06/50=0.0012
VII. CONCLUSION
1. The project “POWER GENERATION USING
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR” is successfully tested and
implemented which is the best economical, affordable
energy solution to common people.
2. This can be used for many applications in rural areas
where power availability is less or totally absence as India
is a developing country where energy management is a big
challenge for huge population. By using this project we can
drive both AC as well as DC loads according to the force we
applied on the piezoelectric sensor. A piezo tile capable of
generating 40V has been devised. Comparison between
various piezo electric material shows that PZT is superior in
characteristics also, by comparison it was found that series-
parallel combination connection is more suitable. The
weight applied on the tile and corresponding voltage
generated is studied and they are found to have linear
relation. It is especially suited for implementation in
crowded areas. This can be used in street lighting without
use of long power lines. It can be also be used as charging
ports, lighting of pavement side buildings.
As a fact only 11% of renewable energy contributes to our
primary energy. If this project is deployed then not only we
can overcome the energy crises problem but this also
contributes to create a healthy global environmental change.
 Smart system.
 Produced 2000 watts of electricity.
 Durable
 Have a life of approx. five year.
REFERNECES
[1] Vibration based energy harvesting using
piezoelectric material, M.N. Fakhzam, Asan
G.A.Muthalif, department of Mechatronics
Engineering, international Islamic university
Malaysia, IIUM, Kuale Lumpur, Malaysia.
[2] Piezoelectric crystals: Future source of electricity,
international journal of scientific engineering and
technology, volume 2 issue 4, April 2013 third
year.
[3] Electricity from footsteps, S.S.Taniyan,
B.B.Biswas, R.K.Patil and G.P.Srivastava reactor
control division, electronics and instrumentation
group and T.K.basu IPR, Gandhinagar.
[4] Estimation of electric charge output for
piezoelectric energy harvesting LA-UR-04-2449,
strain journal, 40(2),49-58,2004; Henry A.
Sodano, Daniel J. Inmen, Gyuhae park.
[5] Center for intelligent material systems and
structure Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University.
[6] Design study of piezoelectric energy-harvesting
devices for generation of heir electrical power
using a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element
method IEEE transactions on ultrasonic,
ferroelectrics, and frequency controlled, vol. 57,
no. 2. February 2010. (7) Meiling Zhu, member,
IEEE, Emma Worthington, and Ashutosh Tiwari,
member IEEE. –
======00======

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Footstep power generation using piezoelectric sensor (autosaved)

  • 1. 1 FOOTSTEP POWER GENERATION USING PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR Motichand1 Arun Kumar Rathore2 Vivek Kumar Sarthi3 Aashish Kumar Tamboli4 Indra Kumar5 Girish Gupta6 Dr. Giriraj Garhewal7 1,2,3,4,5 B.E. Student, 6 Assistant Professor, 7 Associate Professor 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Department Of mechanical Engineering 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 J.K. Institute of Engineering College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India Abstract -Man has need and used energy at an increasing rate for the sustenance and well-being since time immemorial. Due to this a lot of energy resources have been exhausted and wasted. Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human locomotive is very much relevant and important for highly populated countries like India where the railway station, temple et., are overcrowded all round the clock. When the flooring is engineered with piezo electric technology, the electrical energy produced by the pressure is captured by floor sensors and converted to an electrical charge by piezo transducers, then stored and used as a power source. And this power source has many applications as in agriculture, home applications and street lighting and as energy source for sensor in remote locations. This power is all about generating electricity when people walk on the floor. Think about the forces you exert which is wasted when a person walks. The idea is convert the weight to electrical energy. The power generating floor intends to trance- late the kinetic energy to electrical power. The motto of this research work is to face this crisis somehow. Thought it won`t meet the requirement of electricity but as a matter of fact if we able to design a power generating floor that can produce 100W on just 12 steps, then for 120 steps we can produce 1000 watt and if we install such type of 100 floors with this system then it can produce 1 Mega Watt. Which itself is an achievement to make it significant. I. INTRODUCTION For an alternate electricity there are number of method by which electricity can be produced, out if such methods footstep energy generation can be an effective methods to generate electricity. Walking is the most common activity in human life. When a parson walks, he loses energy to the road surface in the form of impact, vibration, sound etc. due to the transfer of his weight on to the road surface, thought foot falls on the ground during every step. This energy can be tapped and converted in the useable form such as in electrical form. This device, if embedded in footpath, can be convert foot impact energy into electrical form. Human powered transport has been in existence since time immemorial in the form of walking, running and swimming. However modern technology has led to machines to enhance the use of human power in more efficient manner. In this context, pedal power is an excellent source of energy and has been in use since the nineteenth century making use of the most powerful muscles in the body. Ninety five percent of the exertion put into pedal power is converted into energy. Pedal power can be applied to a wide range of jobs and simple, cheap, and convenient source of energy. However, human kinetic energy can be useful in a number of ways but it can also be used to generate electricity based on different approaches and many organization are already implementing human power technologies to generate electricity to power small electronic appliances. II. INITIATIVE Working on the idea to harness human locomotive power, MIT(USA) architecture students James Graham and Thaddeus Jusczy recently unveiled what they`re calling the “Crowd Farm “ a setup that would derive energy from pounding feet in crowded places. This technology is a proposal to harness human power as a source of sustainable energy. Population of India and mobility of its masses will turn into boon in generating electricity from its (Populations) footstep. Human locomotion in over crowded subway stations, railway stations, bud stands, airports, temples or rock concerts thus can be converted to electrical energy with the use of this promising technology. The technology would turn the mechanical energy of people walking or jumping into a source of electricity. The student test case, displayed at the Venice Biennale and in a train station in Torino, Italy, was a prototype stool that exploits the passive act of sitting to generate power. The weight of
  • 2. 2 the body on the seat causes a flywheel to spin, which powers a dynamo that, in turn, lights four LEDs. In each case, there would be a subflooring system consisting of independent blocks. When people walk across this surface, the forces they impart will cause the blocks to slip slightly and a dynamo would convert the energy in thus moments into electric current. Students say that moving from this proof- of-concept device to a large-scale crowd farm would expensive, but it certainly sounds a great options. III. MODEL OF FOOTSTEP ENERGY GENERATION Fig1: Storing Device for Foot Step Electric Energy The working of foot stop electric convertor (FSEC) is demonstrated in photographs shows. The foot touching the top plate without applying weight. The left side photographs shows the foot when full weight of the body is transferred to the top plate. A 6W, 12V bulb connected to the output of the alternator glows, to indicate the electric output when foot load is applied. The unit is designed to generate full power pulse when actuated by a parson weighing nearly 60kg. An experimental plot of voltage vs. time was generated, by using an oscilloscope. Using voltage and load (a resistor), a typical plot of power vs. time was generated. Fig 2: Block Diagram of Footstep Energy Generation  The basic working principle of our project is based on the piezoelectric sensor.  To implement this we adjust the wooden plate above and below the sensors and moveable springs.  Non-conventional energy using foot step is converting mechanical energy into the electric energy.  Foot step board it consist of a 16 piezo electric sensor which are connected in parallel.  When the pressure is applied on the sensors, the sensors will convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.  This electrical energy will be storing in the 12V rechargeable battery connected to inverter.  We are using conventional battery charging unit also for giving supply to the circuitry.  This inverter is used to convert the 12V DC to 230V AC this 230V Ac voltage is used to activate the loads.  By using this AC voltage we can operate AC loads. ENERGY STORING TABLE The power generated bythe foot step generator can be stored in an energy storing device. The output of generator was fed to a 12V lead acid battery, through an AC-DC convertor bridge. Initially, the battery was completely discharged. Then, the FSEC was operated by applying foot load and energy was stored in the battery. A 100 W, 230V bulb was connected to the battery through an inverter. The arrangement in shown in fig. 2. The duration of lighting, the bulb for number of footsteps and corresponding energy stored, are giving in table 1. TABLE 1 No. of footsteps Duration lighting a 100 watt 230 Volt bulb (s) Total energy (J) Energy/ step (J) 250 6 600 2.4 500 12 1200 2.4 750 18 1800 2.4 1000 25 2500 2.5 The piezoelectric material converts the pressure applied to it into electrical energy. The source of pressure in either from weight of the moving vehicles or from the weight of the people walking over it. The output of the piezoelectric material is not a steady one. So a bridge circuit is used to convert this variable voltage into a linear one. Again ac ripple filter is used to filter out any further fluctuations in
  • 3. 3 the output. The output dc voltage is then stored in rechargeable battery. As the power output from a single piezo combination of both parallel and series connection is employed for producing 40V voltage output with high current density. From battery provisions are provided to connect dc load. An inverter is connected to battery to provide the provision to connect ac load. The voltage produced across the tile can be seen in a LCD. Fig3: Schematic Representation of the Working Model IV. ANALYSIS OF FOOTSTEP ENERGY GENERATION 1. NEED OF THAT SYSTEM Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human locomotion is very much relevant and important for highly populated countries like India and China where the roads, railway stations, bus stands, temple etc. Are all over crowded and millions of people move around the clock. This whole human /bi energy being wasted if can be made possible for utilization it will be great invention and crowed energy farms will be very useful energy sources in crowded countries .walking across a “Crowd farm”, floor , then, will be a fun for idle people who can improve their health by exercising in such farms with earning. The electrical energy generated at such farms will be useful nearby applications.  The utilization of waste energy of foot power with human motion is very important for highly populated countries.  India and China where the roads, railway stations, temple etc. Are all over crowded and millions of people move around the clock. 2. MAXIMUM THEORETICAL VOLTAGE GENERATED A force is applied on piezo material, a charge is generated across it. Thus, it can applied to it. In this project, on one tile, we connect 3 peizo in series connected in parallel. Thus when 3 piezoelectric discs are connected in series, its equivalent capacitance becomes 1 𝐶 𝑒𝑞 = 1 𝐶1 + 1 𝐶2 + 1 𝐶3 ----- (1.1) We know, Q = C × V So, C = 𝑄 𝑉 ----- (1.2) Hence, 𝑉𝑒𝑞 𝑄 = 𝑉1 𝑄 + 𝑉2 𝑄 + 𝑉2 𝑄 Thus, 𝑉𝑒𝑞 = 𝑉1 + 𝑉2 + 𝑉3 ----- (1.3) Hence, the net voltage generated in series connection is the sum of individual voltages generated across each piezoelectric disc. Output voltage from 1 piezo disc is 13V. Now equation (1.3) 𝑉𝑒𝑞 = 13 + 13 + 13 𝑉𝑒𝑞 = 39V Thus the maximum voltage that can be generated across the piezo tile around 39V. 3. ANALYSIS DONE ON THE PIEZO TILE People whose weight varied from 40kg to 75kg were made to walk on the piezo tile to test the voltage generating capacity of the piezo tile. The relation between the weight of the person and power generated is plotted in figure 4. Form the graph it can be seen that, maximum voltage is generated when maximum weight/force is applied. Thus, maximum voltage of 40V is generated across the tile when a weight of 75kg is applied on the tile. Fig 4: weight V/s power graph of piezo tile. Fig 4: Weight v/s power of piezo tile V. ELEMENTS OF FOOTSTEP ENERGY GENERATION 1. SENSOR A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a single which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, mercury coverts the measured temperature expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. At thermo couple converts temperature to and output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against known standards.
  • 4. 4 1.1 PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure pressure, acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an electrical single. Piezoelectric sensor have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries it was only in the 1950s that the piezoelectric effect started to be used for industrial sensing applications. Since then, this measuring principle has been increasingly used and can be recorded as a mature technology with an outstanding inherent reliability. It has been successfully used in various applications, such as in medical, aerospace, nuclear instrumentation, and as a pressure sensor in the touch pads of mobile phones. In the automotive industry, piezoelectric element are used to monitor combustion when developing internal combustion engines. The sensors are either directly into additional holes into the cylinder head or the spark /glow plug is equipped with a built in miniature piezoelectric sensor. Fig 5: Piezoelectric Sensor The rise of piezoelectric technology is directly related to a set of inherent advantages. The high modulus of elasticity of many piezoelectric materials is comparable to that of many metals and goes to 10e6N/m square (even though piezoelectric sensors are electro chemical systems that react to compression, the sensing elements show almost zero deflection. This is the reason why piezoelectric sensor are so rugged, have an extremely high natural frequency and an excellent linearity over a wide amplitude range. Additionally, piezoelectric technology is insensitive to electromagnetic fields and radiation, enabling measurements under harsh conditions some materials used (especially gallium phosphate or tourmaline) have an extreme stability even at high temperature, enabling sensors to have a working range of op to 1000℃. Tourmaline shows piezoelectricity in addition to the piezoelectric effect, this is the ability to generate an electrical signal when the temperature of crystal changes. This effect is also common to piezoceramic materials. Fig. 6: Piezoelectric Sensor Working Circuit 2. BATTERY Battery (electricity), an array of electrochemical cells for electricity storage, either individual linked and housed in a single unit. An electrical battery in a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to covert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries may be used ones and discarded, or recharged for years is standbypower applications. Miniature cells are used to power device such as hearing aids and wristwatches; larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers. Lead-acid batteries are the common in PV systems becomes their initial cost is lower and because they are readily available nearly everywhere in the world. There are many different sizes and designs of lead-acid batteries, but the most important designation is that they are deep cycle batteries. Lead-acid batteries are available in both wet-cell (requires maintenance) and sealed no-maintenance versions. 3. RECTIFER The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. the rectifier may be a half wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. The bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts and ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. The bridge rectifier circuit is shown in figure. The circuit, has four diodes connected to a form a bridge. The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. The load resistance is connected between the other to ends of the bridge. For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL. For negative half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D1 and D4 conduct whereas, D1 and D3 remain OFF. The
  • 5. 5 conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the current flow through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. Thus a bi- direction wave is converted into unidirectional wave. 4. VOLTAGE REGULATOR As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain this voltage levels, 7805 and 7812 voltage regulator are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels. This regulators can provide local on-card regulation. Eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation each type employs internal current limiting. 5. UNIDIRECTIONAL CURRENT CONTROLLER As name indicates this circuit allows only one directional current flowing. There are following some device on unidirectional current. 1) Diode 2) Thermistors In this project we are going to use diode as unidirectional current control device. As we are already familiar with the most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diodes forward direction). While blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be through of as an electronic version of a check valve. The diode used in the project D= 1N4007. 6. ADC (A/D or A to D) An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is a device that converts a continue quantity to a discrete time digital representation. And ADC may also provide and isolated measurement. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Typically, and ADC is an electronic devise that converts and input analog voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered. 7. INVERTER An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current DC to AC the converted AC can be at ant required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching and control circuits. Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are used in wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high, voltage direct current applications that transport block power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources as solar panels or batteries. There are two main types of inverter. The output of a modified sine wave inverter is similar to a square wave output except that the output goes to zero volts for a time before switching positive or negative. A pore sine wave inverter produces a nearly perfect sine wave output (< 3%total harmonic distortion) that is essentially the same as utility, supplied grid power. Thus it is compatible with all AC electronic device. This is the type used in grid-tie inverters. VI. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION VOLTAGE SAMPLER (SAMPLE & HOLD CIRCUIT) Sample-and-hold (S/H) is an important analog building block with many applications, including analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and switched, capacitor filters. The function of the S/H circuit is to sample and analog input signal and hold this value over a certain length of time for subsequent processing. Fig 7: Simple and Hold Circuit Taking advantages of the excellent properties of MOS capacitors and switches, traditional switched capacitor techniques can be used to realize different S/H circuits. The simplest S/H circuit in MOS technology is shown in figure, where Vin is the input signal, M1is an MOS transistor operating as the sampling switch Ch is the hold capacitor, Ck is the clock signal , and Vout is the resulting sample-and –hold output signal. In the simplest sense, S/H circuit can be achieved using only one MOS transistor and one capacitor. The operation of this circuit is very straight forward. Whenever Ck is high, the MOS switch is on, which is turn allows Vout to track Vin. On the other hand, when Ck is low, the MOS switch is off. During this time, Ch will keep Vout equal to the value of Vin at the instance when ck goes low. CMOS sample-and-hold circuits page. Unfortunately, in realty, the performance of this S/H circuit is not as ideal as described above. The next
  • 6. 6 section of this paper explains two major types of errors, charge injections. And clock feed through, that are associated with this S/H implementation. The section after that presents three new S/H techniques, all of which try to minimize the errors caused by charge injection and/or clock feed through. As we know that pressure is directly proportional to amount of power generated P 𝛼 Wt Here we take the constant of proportionality as K, then the equation becomes P = K Wt Where, K - constant of proportionality Wt - Weight P – Power We know that for Wt=kg, We get the value of voltage V = 4v and I =0.015A Then P = V*I = 4*0.015= 0.06w, means we can say that for 50kg we get power (P) =0.06w From this we can find the value of K K = P/ wt =0.06/50=0.0012 VII. CONCLUSION 1. The project “POWER GENERATION USING PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR” is successfully tested and implemented which is the best economical, affordable energy solution to common people. 2. This can be used for many applications in rural areas where power availability is less or totally absence as India is a developing country where energy management is a big challenge for huge population. By using this project we can drive both AC as well as DC loads according to the force we applied on the piezoelectric sensor. A piezo tile capable of generating 40V has been devised. Comparison between various piezo electric material shows that PZT is superior in characteristics also, by comparison it was found that series- parallel combination connection is more suitable. The weight applied on the tile and corresponding voltage generated is studied and they are found to have linear relation. It is especially suited for implementation in crowded areas. This can be used in street lighting without use of long power lines. It can be also be used as charging ports, lighting of pavement side buildings. As a fact only 11% of renewable energy contributes to our primary energy. If this project is deployed then not only we can overcome the energy crises problem but this also contributes to create a healthy global environmental change.  Smart system.  Produced 2000 watts of electricity.  Durable  Have a life of approx. five year. REFERNECES [1] Vibration based energy harvesting using piezoelectric material, M.N. Fakhzam, Asan G.A.Muthalif, department of Mechatronics Engineering, international Islamic university Malaysia, IIUM, Kuale Lumpur, Malaysia. [2] Piezoelectric crystals: Future source of electricity, international journal of scientific engineering and technology, volume 2 issue 4, April 2013 third year. [3] Electricity from footsteps, S.S.Taniyan, B.B.Biswas, R.K.Patil and G.P.Srivastava reactor control division, electronics and instrumentation group and T.K.basu IPR, Gandhinagar. [4] Estimation of electric charge output for piezoelectric energy harvesting LA-UR-04-2449, strain journal, 40(2),49-58,2004; Henry A. Sodano, Daniel J. Inmen, Gyuhae park. [5] Center for intelligent material systems and structure Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. [6] Design study of piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices for generation of heir electrical power using a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element method IEEE transactions on ultrasonic, ferroelectrics, and frequency controlled, vol. 57, no. 2. February 2010. (7) Meiling Zhu, member, IEEE, Emma Worthington, and Ashutosh Tiwari, member IEEE. – ======00======