2. Definition :
A disaster can be defined as : “ Any
occurrence that causes damage, ecological
disruption, loss of human life or
deterioration of health and health services
on a scale sufficient to warrant an
extraordinary response from outside the
affected community or area”. BY - World Health
“A disaster can be defined as an occurrence
either nature or manmade that causes human
suffering and creates human needs that
victims cannot alleviate without assistance”. BY-
3. When and Where it occurs ?
Anytime and anywhere, not confined to any
part of the world.
Some disasters can be predicted and
whereas some cannot be predicted.
Warfare is a special category, because it is
well planned and damage is the intended goal
4. Factors affecting Disaster :
• Immunization status
• Degree of mobility
• Emotional stability
• Physical Factors
• Chemical Factors
• Biological Factors
• Social Factors
• Psychological Factors
5. Effects of disaster :
Injury or Death
Risk of epidemic of diseases
Damage to infrastructure
Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.
6. Types of Disasters :
• Natural disasters :
volcanic eruptions, floods
• Man-made disasters :
industrial accidents, oil
spills and nuclear
and deliberate attacks
may also be put in this
9. Severity of the impact :
The severity of the impact depends upon many
1. Predictability : Some of the disasters such as
cyclones, floods can be predicted and the
degree of preparedness will be high.
2. Type of Disaster : In Earthquakes, the mortality
is high because the people get crushed below
the falling objects and collapsed buildings
3. Density and population distribution.
4. Opportunity of warning.
5. Condition of the environment.
10. The scale is a normalized function whose
variables are scope (S), topography (T), and
rate of change (D), expressed as :
Rohn Emergency Formula :
E = EMERGENCY = f(S,T,D)
Measuring the severity :
11. Morbidity and Mortality :
Earthquakes : Unpredictable, People get crushed because they
cannot escape and if it occurs in night, the people may even have
fracture pelvis, thorax or spine because they are lying in bed
Volcanic eruptions : Mudslides and glowing clouds
Bodies buried in volcanic
12. Morbidity and Mortality (contd..)
Floods : Collapsed dam or tidal waves.
Droughts : Protein-calorie malnutrition and vitamin
deficiencies (Particularly Vit.A) leading to
Xerophthalmia and blindness. Even dehydration and
diarrhoea may occur.
13. India’s Vulnerability to Disasters
57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Of these, 12% is vulnerable to severe
68% land is vulnerable to drought.
12% land is vulnerable to floods.
8% land is vulnerable to cyclones.
Apart from natural disasters, some cities in India are also vulnerable to chemical and
industrial disasters and man-made disasters.
Northern mountain region prone to land slides, snow–storms , earthquakes
Eastern coastal area prone to severe floods ,cyclones
Western desert prone to draughts
14. Who will work ?
Usually military force, police, BSF, volunteers from other region.
Disaster management is a specialised training & is provided by
local, state, federal and private organizations.
Undergraduate and Graduate degrees in disaster management or
a related field are provided. (Disaster Management Institute, Bhopal, M.P and
Disaster Mitigation Institute, Ahmadabad,Gujarat).
Certified Emergency Manager (CEM) the most important degree.
The National Emergency Management Association and the
International Association of Emergency Managers are twoexamples
of these professional organizations.
15. Principles of disaster
Comprehensive – disaster managers
consider and take into account all hazards, all
phases, and all impacts relevant to disasters.
Progressive – anticipate future disasters and
take preventive and preparatory measures
Risk-driven – use sound risk management
principles (hazard identification, risk analysis,
and impact analysis) in assigning priorities and
Integrated – ensure unity of effort among all
levels of government and all elements of a
Collaborative – create and sustain broad and
sincere relationships among individuals and
Coordinated – synchronize the activities to
achieve a common purpose.
Flexible – use creative and innovative
approaches in solving disaster challenges.
Professional – value a science and
knowledge-based approach for continuous
17. Phases of Management :
Recovery phase after
Risk reduction phase
before a disaster
18. Impact & Response :
Greatest need for emergency care is in 1st few hours
after the impact.
The management of mass casualties are divided into :
Search and Rescue
Identification of Dead
19. Search and Rescue & First-Aid
For search and rescue the team should be organised and
work as one. Even with a good team the search may be a
small fraction in major disasters.
The immediate help is usually obtained from the uninjured
20. Field care :
The injured people are brought to nearest health care
immediately by available means of transport and
people converge into health facilities.
The hospitals must get ready to deal with mass input
of injured with new priorities for bed availability and
Provision for food, shelter should be done.
A centre to respond for the enquiries from patient’s
relatives and friends.
Priority is given to :
a. victims identification and
b. adequate mortuary space.
21. Triage :
It consists of rapidly classifying the injured on
the basis of the severity of their injuries and their
likelyhood of their survival with prompt medical
The principle of “First come, first serve” is NOT
High priority is given to those whose immediate or
long term prognosis can be changed dramatically
with simple intensive care.
It is the only approach that can provide maximum
benefit to large population in a major disaster.
22. Colour coding in a Triage :
Red – High
Black – Dead or
Triage should be carried out
at the site of the disaster.
Local health workers should
be taught the principles of
triage as a part of disaster
People with minor injuries
should be treated in their
homes to avoid social
dislocation and drain the
resources which are needed
by severely injured person.
All persons should be
tagged with details – name,
age, place of origin, triage,
initial diagnosis and
25. Definition :
Man-made disasters are the
threats having an element of
human intent, negligence, or error
; or involving a failure of a
Human causation may be
accidental or intentional
26. Types of man made disasters
Sudden disasters : such as Chernobyl disaster
and Bhopal gas tragedy,
Insidious disasters : Chemical and radiation
exposure, global warming
28. Sociological hazards
Terrorism : The primary objective of a
terrorism is to create widespread fear.
E.g. : On 11 September 2001 the World Trade
Centre in New York City was destroyed by
crashing American airlines and killed 2,752.
29. War :
It is a conflict between relatively large groups of
people, which involves physical force by the
use of weapons .
Warfare has destroyed entire cultures,
countries, economies and inflicted great
suffering on humanity.
E.g. : World war I and II. Since world war II there
have been about 127 wars and
22 million war related deaths
30. Civil conflicts (riots):
Any incident that disrupts a community,
where intervention is required to maintain
eg: 1984 Sikh massacre, a riot against the
Sikhs in response to assassination of
Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards
More than 11,000 people were killed
31. Technological hazards
: Industrial disasters :
E.g.-The Nuclear Power
Plant Explosion in Chernobyl,
Russia : On April 26th 1986,
which resulted in the
atmospheric release of
radioactive material four
hundred times more
radioactive than Hiroshima.
Structural collapse :often
caused by engineering
failures E.g.: recently building
collapse in Bangladesh
,Kolkata and thane
32. Fire : mainly forest fire , mine fire.
E.g. : In 2003, fire at Iraqi sulphur
plant releasing Sulphur dioxide
which killed people by causing
respiratory problems and also
creates acid rain which destroys
Transportation disaster: air, Rail,
and Space disasters and traffic
E.g.: Mangalore air crash on
22 May 2010. Only eight
passengers survived in 160.
33. CBRN Disasters :
CBRN (chemical , biological , radiation and
nuclear ) disasters : release of CBRN hazardous
material into air, soil, water leads to serious
E.g. : Fukushima nuclear disaster on march
2011 which was triggered by earthquake and
tsunami in nearby Tohoku region.
34. Worst disasters in India
Bhopal Gas Tragedy :1984
Worlds worst man made disaster in which methyl
isocyanate gas was leaked at Union Carbide Pesticide
More than 20,000 people have been killed till date
Today, in Bhopal 1,20,000 people are suffering from
chronic diseases like Emphysema, Cancer etc.
35. Worst disasters in
In 1999, Orissa had super cyclone ,in which
thousands lost their lives
In 2001, Gujarat had a severe earthquake in
which 16500 people died and lakhs became
In 2004, Indian ocean earthquake and
Tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in
In 2008 ,terror attack in Mumbai
36. Prevention of man made
Tighter regulation of chemical plants and other
Chemical plants be built away from the dense
Appropriate engineering and technological
Early warnings and protection against human