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Adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in tuberculosis management

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Adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in tuberculosis management

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Adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in tuberculosis management

  1. 1. ADJUNCTIVE CORTICOSTEROID THERAPY IN TUBERCULOSIS MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of corticosteroids against M.Tuberculosis was studied earlier in animal models of tuberculosis & it was found that in those animals who didn’t receive any specific antituberculous therapy, the virulence of M.tuberculosis was enhanced markedly by corticosteroid administration. Corticosteroids when used in conjuction with effective antitubercular therapy has been benefecial in milliary tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis, tuberculous pericarditis.
  3. 3.  Corticosteroids improve the outcome in tuberculosis by suppressing the host mediated inflammation.  Adjunctive corticosteroid therapy may be life saving in patients with miliary tuberculosis, is little doubtful.  It has been appreciated that steroid therapy given to patients with untreated or unrecognized tuberculosis results in overwhelming disease and death.  Eleanor Roosevelt died of undiagnosed miliary tuberculosis while being treated with steroid for what was thought to be sarcoidosis.
  4. 4. When to use steroids in tuberculosisDefinite indications:  CNS tuberculosis  Pericardial tuberculosis  Adrenal insufficiency Other reasonable indications:  IRIS/Paradoxical response  Far advanced pulmonary TB with severe systemic and respiratory morbidity  Severe cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to anti-TB drugs  Persistent fever even after 3-4 weeks of T/t  Bronchial obstruction  Miliary TB with toxemia
  5. 5. Other indications:  BCG scar keloid  Sick/elderly/extensive primary TB with large pleural effusion  Tubercular pneumonia with acute respiratory failure  Tubercular sarcoidosis  Lymph node TB  ? Laryngeal TB  ? Genitourinary TB  ? TB in HIV positive patients
  6. 6. Steroids for TBM Corticosteroids improve outcome as these: • Decrease inflammation, especially in the subarachnoid space. • Reduce cerebral and spinal cord edema • Reduce inflammation of small bllod vessels and therefore reduce damage from blood flow slowing to the underlying brain tissue.
  7. 7. Corticosteroids therapy based upon urgent warning signs: Patients who are progressing from one stage to the next at or before the introduction of chemotherapy, especially if associated with any of the conditions – a. Patients with acute “encephalitis” presentation, especially if the CSF opening pressure is > 400 mmH2O or if there is clinical or CT evidence of cerebral edema. b. Exacerbation of clinical signs (eg. Fever, change in mentation) after beginning ATT.
  8. 8. c. spinal block or incipient block ( CSF proein >500 mg/dl and rising ) d. Head CT evidence of marked basillar enhancement or moderate or advancing hydrocephalus e. Patients with intracerebral tuberculoma, where edema is out of proportion to the mass effect and there are any clinical neurologic signs.
  9. 9. Recommended dosage regimen of corticosteroid in TBM  Stage 1 GCS score – 15, no focal neurological deficit  Total duration – 6 wks Inj. Dexamethasone .3mg/kg i.v. day1-7; .2mg/kg day8-14; .1mg/kg day15-21 f/b tab. Dexamethasone 3mg/day orally days 22-28 2mg/day orally days 29-35 1mg/kg orally days 36-42
  10. 10.  Stage 2&3 Stage 2 – GCS-11- 14; or focal neurological deficit present Stage 3 – GCS <11  Total duration 8wks Inj.dexamethasone .4mg/kg i.v. day 1-7; .3mg/kg day 8-14 , .2 mg/kg day 15-21; .1mg/kg day 22-28 f/b tab. Dexamethasone 4mg/day orally days 29- 35 3mg/day orally days 36- 42
  11. 11. Steriod in pericardial TB  In early stages of pericardial TB corticosteroid therapy decreases fluid accumulation, decrease need for procedure and even in late stage improve symptomatic & hemodynamic recovery.  In a study : active effusive TB pericarditis the mortality rate was 3% vs 14% & reduced need for reduced need for repeated pericardiocentesis 7of 76 vs 17 of 74.
  12. 12. Steroids for pulmonary TB The summary of 11 RCTs of steroids use in PTB is:  Clinical condition improve more rapidaly (effects more pronounced in severely ill)  Absence of long term benefecial effect  Faster radiological response  Minority of patient may have rebound if steroid discontinued too abruptly.  Steroids administration in the face of inadequate ATT appears harmfull to patients.
  13. 13. Steroids in pleural TB  Corticosteroids in pleural TB reduces the fibrotic sequele, early resolution of clinical symptoms & signs.  Steroids in pleural TB are reserved for patients with large effusions, dyspnoea &/or disabling chest pain and elder patient.  Benefits are more palliative and temporary and systemic steroids are superior to local steroids.
  14. 14. Steroids in HIV-TB disease  Significant decrease in generalized lymphadenopathy and cough at 2 months but undesirable increase in H.zoster and Kaposi sarcoma.  There was no difference in survival at 1 year.  Data do not support use of steroids in reducing morbidity and mortality due to TB directly or influencing survival due to slowing of HIV progression.
  15. 15. Steroids in milliary TB  Study from China in 1981 suggest non significant trend toward better outcome in steroid group than for controls.  Available data suggest a lack of effect of steroid on acute milliary TB & severely ill patient needs.
  16. 16. Adesonian crisis during ATT  some patients of post-primary TB may have true addison disease; stress of infection & use of ‘rifampicin’ may cause adrenal failure.
  17. 17. Steroid in endobronchial obstruction  Steroids causes reduction in bronchial compression; favourable response in radiographic & bronchoscopic appearance.  Use depends upon degree, site & nature of obstruction.
  18. 18. Steroids in lymph node TB  One third nodes involved in tubercular peripheral lymphadenopathy ‘flare’ with an exacerbation of pain & swelling after starting ATT.  Intralesional/Intralymphnodal depot steroid therapy may be benefecial in Hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathy with pressure symptoms.
  19. 19. Steroids in laryngeal TB  Laryngeal TB usually responds to voice rest & ATT.  Short course prednisolone may be use in severe pain.  There are lack of datas to support their use.
  20. 20. Steroids in ATT induced fever  Drug fever is not uncommon with use of ATT.  Fever is usually due to INH or Rifampicin.  Patients usually presents with fever, increase transaminases level & relative bradycardia.  Serial ESR measurement important.  ATT induced fever promptly responds to prednisolone.
  21. 21. Steroids in cutaneous hypersensitivity to drugs  Anti-TB drugs can cause SJ syndrome & TEN, severe reaction may require systemic steroids.

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