Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

topical application.pptx

Nächste SlideShare
Forms of topical medicines
Forms of topical medicines
Wird geladen in …3

Hier ansehen

1 von 37 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Ähnlich wie topical application.pptx (20)


Aktuellste (20)

topical application.pptx

  1. 1. R.Jaya Bsc nursing Lecture Ganga college of nursing Topical Administration
  2. 2. Topical Administration • Topical medications are applied directly to the body surfaces, including the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, ears, nose, vagina, and rectum. • Topical medications differ from many other type of drugs because mishandling them can lead to certain complications in a patient or administrator of the drug. • Many topical medications are epicutaneous.meaning that they are applied directly to the skin.
  3. 3. Purpose • The purpose of using topical medicine is to deliver medication directly onto areas of the skin that are irritated, inflamed, itching, or infected. • Topical medicines are often applied directly onto a rash or a irritated area on the skin for rapid relief of symptoms.
  4. 4. Topical Administration • Topical medications may also be inhalational,such as asthma medication, or applied to the surface of tissues othre than the skin, such as eye drops applied to conjunctiva, or ear drops placed in the ear, or medication, topical medications applied to the surace of a tooth. Spong Tape Vapor Paste Tincture • Cream • Gel • Foam. • Transdermal patch • Powder • Solid
  5. 5. Topical Administration • There are many classes of topical medications, such as creams, ointments, lotions, patches, and aerosol sprays. • Medications that are applied to the skin to produce slow, controlled, systemic effect are also referred to as transdermal. • Medications that can be administered via a topical route include antibiotics, narcotics, hormones, and even chemotherapeutics. • This requires adherence to the ten "rights" of medication administration and three checks during the administration process to ensure the safe administration of these medications. • Also, the administration of the topical medications requires wearing gloves to protect the healthcare provider from accidental exposure and absorption of the medication. ‐ Topical medications should never be applied with the bare hands.
  6. 6. Cream • A cream is an emulsion of oil and water in approximately equal proportions. It penetrates the stratum corneum outer layer of skin wall. Cream is thicker than lotion, and maintains its shape when removed from its container. It tends to be moderate in moisturizing tendency. • For topical steroid products, oil-in-water emulsions are common. Creams have a significant risk of causing immunological sensitization due to preservatives and have a high rate of acceptance by patients. • There is a great variation in ingredients, composition, pH, and tolerance among generic brands
  7. 7. Foam/Lotion • Foam can be seen with topical steroid marketed for the scalp.  Lotions are similar to solution but are thicker and tend to be more emollient in nature than solution.  They are usually oil mixed with water, and more often than not have less alcohol than solution. Lotions can be drying if they contain a high amount of alcohol.
  8. 8. Gel • Gels are thicker than liquids. Gels are often a semisolid emulsion and sometimes use alcohol as a solvent for the active ingredient; some gels liquefy at body temperature. • Gel tends to be cellulose cut with alcohol or acetone. • Gels tend to be self-drying, tend to have greatly variable ingredients between brands, and carry a significant risk of inducing hypersensitivity due to fragrances and preservatives.
  9. 9. • Gel is useful for hairy areas and body folds. • In applying gel one should avoid fissures in the skin, due to the stinging effect of the alcohol base. • Gel enjoys a high rate of acceptance due to its cosmetic elegance.
  10. 10. Ointment • Metal case for Cruz Roja ointment from Mexico (beginning of the 20th century) from the permanent collection of the Museo del Objeto del Objeto. • An ointment is a homogeneous, viscous, semi-solid preparation, most commonly a greasy, thick oil (oil 80% - water 20%) with a high viscosity, that is intended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes. • Ointments have a water number that defines the maximum amount of water that they can contain. • They are used as emollients or for the application of active ingredients to the skin for protective, therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes and where a degree of occlusion is desired.
  11. 11. • Ointments are used topically on a variety of body surfaces. • These include the skin and the mucous membranes of the eye (an eye ointment), chest, vulva, anus, and nose. An ointment may or may not be medicated • Ointments are usually very moisturizing, and good for dry skin. They have a low risk of sensitization due to having few ingredients beyond the base oil or fat, and low irritation risk. • There is typically little variability between brands of drugs. They are often disliked by patients due to greasiness
  12. 12. • The vehicle of an ointment is known as the ointment base. The choice of a base depends upon the clinical indication for the ointment. The different types of ointment bases are: • Absorption bases, e.g., beeswax and wool fat • Emulsifying bases, e.g., cetrimide and emulsifying wax • Hydrocarbon bases, e.g., ceresine, microcrystalline wax, hard paraffin, and soft paraffin • Vegetable oil bases, e.g., almond oil, coconut oil, olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil • Water-soluble bases, e.g., macrogols 200, 300, 400
  13. 13. • The medicaments are dispersed in the base and are divided after penetrating the living cells of the skin. • The water number of an ointment is the maximum quantity of water that 100g of a base can contain at 20 °C. • Ointments are formulated using hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or water- emulsifying bases to provide preparations that are immiscible, miscible, or emulsifiable with skin secretions. • They can also be derived from hydrocarbon (fatty), absorption, water-removable, or water-soluble bases. • Drug content • Release of medicament from base • Medicament penetration • Consistency of the preparation • Absorption of medicament into blood stream • Irritant effect • Stability • Penetrability • Solvent property • Irritant effects • Ease of application and removal
  14. 14. Methods of preparation of ointments • Fusion: In this method the ingredients are melted together in descending order of their melting points and stirred to ensure homogeneity.[citation needed] • Trituration: In this finely subdivided insoluble medicaments are evenly distributed by grinding with a small amount of the base followed by dilution with gradually increasing amounts of the base. • Paste • Paste combines three agents - oil, water, and powder. It is an ointment in which a powder is suspended.
  15. 15. Powder/Shake lotion • Powder is either the pure drug by itself (talcum powder), or is made of the drug mixed in a carrier such as corn starch or corn cob powder (Zeosorb AF - miconazole powder). Can be used as an inhaled topical (cocaine powder used in nasal surgery). • A shake lotion is a mixture that separates into two or three parts over time. Frequently, an oil mixed with a water-based solution needs to be shaken into suspension before use and includes the instructions: "Shake well before use"
  16. 16. Solid • Medication may be placed in a solid form. Examples are deodorant, antiperspirants, astringents, and hemostatic agents. Some solids melt when they reach body temperature (e.g. rectal suppositories).
  17. 17. Sponge/Tape • Certain contraceptive methods rely on sponge as a carrier of a liquid medicine. Lemon juice embedded in a sponge has been used as a primitive contraception in some cultures. • Cordran tape is an example of a topical steroid applied under occlusion by tape. This greatly increases the potency and absorption of the topical steroid and is used to treat inflammatory skin diseases.
  18. 18. Tincture • Atincture is a skin preparation that has a high percentage of alcohol. • It would normally be used as a drug vehicle if drying of the area is desired. • If you are using the spray, shake the container well before using. • Do not use large amounts, use this product more often, or use it for a longer time than directed.Your condition will not clear faster, but the chance for side effects may be increased. • Do not use this product in children younger than 6 months without talking to the doctor first. • Do not drink or swallow this product. Avoid contact in or around the eyes.
  19. 19. Topical solution • Topical solutions can be marketed as drops, rinses, or sprays, are generally of low viscosity, and often use alcohol or water in the base.These are usually a powder dissolved in alcohol, water, and sometimes oil; although a solution that uses alcohol as a base ingredient, as in topical steroids, can cause drying of the skin. There is significant variability among brands, and some solutions may cause irritation, depending on the preservative(s) and fragrances used in the base.
  20. 20. Topical solution • Aluminium acetate topical solution: This is colorless, with a faint acetous odour and sweetish taste. • It is applied topically as an astringent after dilution with 10-40 parts of water. This is used in many types of dermatologic creams, lotions, and pastes. • Commercial premeasured and packed tablets and powders are available for this preparation. • Povidone iodine topical solution: This is a chemical complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone. The agent is a polymer with an average molecular weight of 40,000. The povidone iodine contains 10% available iodine, slowly released when applied to skin. This preparation is employed topically as a surgical scrub and non irritating antiseptic solution; its effectiveness is directly attributed to the presence and release of iodine from the complex. Commercial product: Betadine solution
  21. 21. Transdermal patch • For short-term relief of acute pain after surgery: Adults—Your doctor will decide which dose of the patch you need based on your present daily narcotic dose. • The patch is applied by your healthcare provider to your upper outer arm or chest. • Nitroglycerin transdermal patches are used to prevent episodes of angina (chest pain) in people who have coronary artery disease (narrowing of the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart)
  22. 22. Vapor Some medications are applied as an ointment or gel, and reach the mucous membrane via vaporization. Examples are nasal topical decongestants and smelling salt.
  23. 23. Application to skin • Definition: • it is the application of medication locally to the skin or mucus membranes in the form of lotion ointments or lininment. • Purposes: • to protect, soothen or soften surfce area. • to warm an afeectrd area and also for mucles relaxation. • to relieve itching. • to check the growth of micro organisms • Transdermal patches are applied topically, and therefore are considered under the umbrella of topical medication. These patches adhere to the skin with an adhesive base, and they typically contain a time-release mechanism, allowing the skin to absorb a consistent, constant amount of medication throughout the course of hours or even days. •
  24. 24. Application to skin Procedure: • Before application always wash and dry your hands thoroughly. • Topical should be applied directly to the skin. • Apply a thin layer of the cream, spreading evenly over the affected area. They should be spread gently on the skin, not smoothed or rubbed.
  25. 25. Application to skin • The finger-tip unit is the classical measure of the quantity of a topical medication and corresponds to the amount pushed out of a tube onto the region of the distal phalanx of the index. • This amount is sufficient for an area corresponding to two palms, or both elbow or knee folds. • Amedication with a gauze improves the persistence of the topical on the skin avoiding the dispersion on the clothes. • The application with cellophane (occlusion) increases the penetration of the drug in the skin. • In the case of using moisturizers and topical medications, first apply the moisturizer and after a few minutes the topical medication.
  26. 26. Side Effects • Stinging, burning, and redness may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly. • A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
  27. 27. Inunction • It is the act of rubbing an oily or fatty preparation into the skin to produce local effect such as cleaning soothing disinfecting or relieving a local inflammation. • Lotion and ointment are used for inunction .
  28. 28. General instruction • The skin area should be thoroughly cleaned before . • Should follow sterile techniques. • They should be rubbed in instead of ‘painted on’to achieve the therapeutic effect • Alotion should be shaken well. • The lotions tend to flake and fall off .they have to be re applied if necessary. • The skin should be observed frequently. • Take sufficient medication. • When lotion and ointments are applied. Avoid introducing them into the eyes, mouth, nose, mouth. • Look for the special instructions on the label
  29. 29. Direct application of Liquid Medication • Liquid medicines include liquids, solutions, syrups and mixtures and are commonly used in patients that have difficulty swallowing medicines. They are also commonly used in children and the elderly. The liquid medicine should be made such that the dose needed will be a sensible volume such as 5mL (one teaspoon). • Name of the medicine • Correct dosage (amount of medicine, often written as both the strength and volume) • Time(s) of day to give medicine ,Number of days to continue the medicine • Special instructions (example: give with food, give on an empty stomach, refrigerate) • Side effects to watch for
  30. 30. Direct application of Liquid Medication • When to call the doctor if you have concerns • Liquid medications should be measured using either a syringe, medication cup or special medication spoon. Occasionally a medication will be packaged with a graduated dropper for measuring doses. • Teaspoons and tablespoons used at home are not accurate and should not be used to measure medication doses. Medication cups are useful when giving medication to older children.
  31. 31. Procedure • Measuring Liquid Medication • When measuring liquid medication, a milliliter equals a cubic centimeter (ml = cc). • Other frequently used conversions: • ½ teaspoon = 2.5 mL • 1 teaspoon = 5 mL • 1 tablespoon (or 3 teaspoons) = 15 mL
  32. 32. Gargle and swabbing the throat • This medication relieves pain and inflammation associated with a sore throat or mouth sores caused by radiation therapy. • HOW TO USE: • This medication is a mouth rinse and/or gargle. It is not to be swallowed. • Betadine mint gargle contains povidone iodine which kills a wide range of germs including bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores and simple organisms. • It is used for the treatment of acute infections of the lining of the mouth and throat, for example, inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) and mouth ulcers.
  33. 33. Gargle • Pour gargle and mouthwash into the cup and dilute it with an equal amount of warm water if the taste is an issue. Swish the solution for a short time in the mouth and spit it out. • Thirty-second gargle kills the germs in the mouth or throat. • Repeat this every two to four hours or as directed by your dentist.
  34. 34. Side effects Contraindication • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; • hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat. Redness. • If you are allergic (hypersensitive) to povidone iodine or any of the other ingredients listed - if you currently have or have ever had a thyroid problem, including swelling (nodular colloid goiter, endemic goiter or Hashimoto's thyroiditis),
  35. 35. Swabbing the throat
  36. 36. Swabbing • Using nasal swabs instead of nasopharyngeal swabs, samples from gargled fluids and saliva, using glass- walled kiosks, sampling from the side using a mirror for guidance, self- sampling by the patient and sampling in the patient’s car through the side window have been employed but mitigate the technique having direct impact on sample quality . Through this study we wish to introduce lignocaine as a possible measure that improves patient comfort and hence, reduces aerosol while sampling.