• A structure that makes hormones in the body is called
• They are also called ductless glands because they donot hace
duct to secrete their hormones.
• A group of endocrine glands which produces various
hormones is called an endocrine system. It is also called
• Endocrine system helps in coordinating the activities of our
• The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that
contains a number of small nuclei with a variety
• One of the most important function of the
hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to
the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
• The hypothalamus is responsible for certain
metabolic processes and other activities of the
autonomic nervous system.
5. • It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called releasing
hormones and these in turn stimulates or inhibit the secretion of pituitary
• The hypothalamus controles body temperature, hunger, fatigue, sleep, etc.
FUNCTIONS OF HYPOTHALAMUS
6. PITUITARY GLAND
• The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine
gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5
grams in humans
• It is composed of three lobes: anterior, intermediate,
• Blood pressure
• Breast milk production
7. • The conversion of food into energy (metabolism)
• Water and osmolarity regulation in the body
• Water balance via the control of reabsorption of water by the kidneys
• Temperature regulation
• Pain relief
FUNCTION OF PITUITARY GLAND
8. THYROID GLAND
• The thyroid gland or just thyroid is one of the
largest endocrine glands and consists of two
• Each lobe is about 5cm long 3cm wide and 2cm
• The thyroid gland is found in a butterfly-shaped
• It secretes thyroxine hormone.
• The thyroid also produce calcitonin, which plays a
rol in calcium homeostasis.
9. • The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and
controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones.
• These hormones regulates the growth and rate of the function of many other system in
• Thyroid hormones act throughout the body, influencing metabolism, growth and
development, and body temperature.
• During infancy and childhood, adequate thyroid hormone is crucial for brain
FUNCTION OF THYROID GLAND
10. • There are four parathyroid glands, and they are
each about the size of a grain of rice.
• Through they are located near other the
parathyroid glands are not related to the thyroid
• PTH has a very powerful influence on the cell
of bones by causing them to release their
calcium into the bloodstream.
11. • The parathyroid essentially help the nervous and muscular system function
• Calcium is the primary element that cause muscles to contract, and calcium level
are very important to the normal conduction of electrical current along nerves.
• The most common disease of parathyroid gland is hyperparathyroidism, which is
characterized by excess PTH hormone.
FUNCTION AND DISEASES
12. • The thymus is specialized organ of the
• The thymus is composed of two identical
lobes and is located anatomically in the
anterior superiormrdiastinum, in front of the
heart and behind the sternum.
• The thymus is largest and most active during
the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods.
13. • The thymus produces and secretes thymosin.
• Helping the body protect itself against autoimmunity, which occurs when the
immune system turns against itself.
• They thymus plays a vital role in the lymphatic system.
• Protects the body from certain threats, including viruses and infections.
FUNCTION OF THYMUS
14. • The adrenal glands are two glands that sit on the top of
youe kidneys that are made up of two distinct parts . The
adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
• They are also known as suprarenal glands.
15. • The adrenal glands are two, triangular shaped organs that measure about 1.5
inches in hight and 3 inches in length.
• the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla have very different functions. One of
the main distinctions between them is that the hormones released by the adrenal
cortex are necessary for life; those secreted by the adrenal medulla are not.
FUNCTION OF ADRENAL
16. • The pancreas is unique in that its both an endocrine
and exocrine gland. In other words the pancreas has
the dual function of secreting enzymes through
• The pancreas is a 6 inches long flattened gland that
lies deep within the abdomen, between the stomach
and the spine. It is connected to the duodenum,
which is the part of the small intestine.
17. • The secretes insulin.
• The pancreas maintains the body’s glucose balance.
• Primary hormones of the pancreas include insulin and glucagon and both
regulate blood glucose.
• Diabetes is the most common disorder associated with the pancreas.
FUNCTION OF PANCREAS