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La Macrotypographie de la page Web

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La Macrotypographie de la page Web

  1. 1. La typographie a pour buts l’intelligibilité du document, la lisibilité du texte et l’esthétique de l’ensemble.
  2. 2. Un (tout petit) peu d’histoire
  3. 3. Le codex morcelle le texte en pages, suscite une nouvelle ergonomie de l’objet et fait naître la mise en page. (Et les ouvrages se conservent beaucoup mieux.)
  4. 4. (Je vous promets qu’on parle de Web bientôt)
  5. 5. Tout ce qui fait la macrotypographie telle que nous la connaissons actuellement se trouve dans le codex.
  6. 6. (Chose promise, chose due)
  7. 7. La pageWeb est donc bien plus proche du volumen que de la page.
  8. 8. Le papier a des dimensions fixes et un contenu immuable.
  9. 9. La page Web a des dimensions et un format imprévisibles, une longueur illimitée. Elle est interprétée par le navigateur et soumise au contrôle de l’utilisateur.
  10. 10. Faire en sorte que la carpe et le lapin vivent une très belle histoire d’amour
  11. 11. La page sur l’écran
  12. 12. Les marges latérales évitent que l’oeil ne « heurte » le bord de la fenêtre et définissent le bloc de lecture.
  13. 13. Les marges supérieure et inférieure sont essentielles pour ouvrir et clore la page et s’harmonisent avec les autres espaces blancs du document.
  14. 14. La page sur l’écran
  15. 15. La page sur l’écran
  16. 16. Organiser la page : la grille
  17. 17. La grille est un ensemble de guides qui délimitent, sur le document, les espaces où vont se placer les éléments.
  18. 18. La grille rationnalise l’organisation du contenu et facilite l’existence du designer.
  19. 19. Le choix de la grille dépend du contenu que l’on doit organiser : textes longs, page d’accueil de magazine, catalogue…
  20. 20. Les colonnes divisent la page dans le sens horizontal. Il faut compléter la grille par des divisions verticales, en s’appuyant sur la ligne de base.
  21. 21. Alignement des lignes de base
  22. 22. Le rythme vertical donne une habitude, et donc un confort, à l’oeil. Il donne des repères dans une page qu’on ne voit jamais en entier.
  23. 23. Agencer les blocs dans la grille
  24. 24. Typographie traditionnelle HARMONIE & SYMÉTRIE
  25. 25. Nouvelle typographie FONCTIONNALITÉ & DYNAMISME
  26. 26. Deux approches riches et pertinentes : dépasser l’opposition pour profiter de leurs enseignements complémentaires.
  27. 27. Voir les différents éléments comme des masses et les agencer de façon à créer des contrastes, un équilibre ou un déséquilibre selon l’effet souhaité.
  28. 28. Mettre à profit les paramètres typographiques pour faire varier la masse visuelle des éléments textuels.
  29. 29. Par le positionnement, le blanc et divers outils graphiques (couleur, filets, etc.), les blocs et les éléments sont mis en relation et hiérarchisés de façon à ce que la structure se dégage.
  30. 30. Composer du texte courant qui donne envie de scroller, scroller, scroller…
  31. 31. « Il est une juste quantité de texte qui, réparti sur une page, est agréable à la lecture. » — E. Ruder, Typographie
  32. 32. Le principe de division d’un seul et même texte en pages ou en colonnes ne peut pas – et ne doit pas – être appliqué au Web.
  33. 33. Il faut donc trouver d’autres moyens typographiques de reproduire le confort et les pauses propres à la page et à la colonne.
  34. 34. Largeur de justification : 55 à 65 car. par ligne (Corps x 30) Fer à gauche, drapeau à droite (plus rarement justifié) Interlignage = 140–150% du corps
  35. 35. Le paragraphe selon Tschichold : de bonnes idées… à trier ;-)
  36. 36. Sur le Web : On sépare les paragraphes par un interligne blanc (pour préserver le rythme vertical). [padding-bottom = line-height]
  37. 37. Une idée à garder : la lettrine en début de section. p.sectionstart:first-letter { plein de propriétés pour faire une belle lettrine }
  38. 38. Titres, sous-titres et phrases en exergue facilitent la compréhension du texte et incitent le lecteur à poursuivre.
  39. 39. Maintenir la continuité pour que la pause ne devienne pas une rupture.
  40. 40. Corps, variante, couleur, filet, ornement… les outils typographiques sont multiples pour le traitement des titres.
  41. 41. Les notes et les légendes doivent rester subordonnées au texte et/ou à l’image.
  42. 42. Un exemple de traitement original : les articles « Features » de Boing Boing
  43. 43. Merci ! Et n’oubliez pas : comprendre les règles, c’est bien ; les enfreindre, c’est mieux. Bientôt en ligne : typographisme.net (news sur @typographisme) Mail asfradier@gmail.com • Twitter @mitternacht
  44. 44. RESSOURCES 960 Grid System http://960.gs Variable grid system http://www.spry-soft.com/grids/ gridr buildrrr http://gridr.atomeye.com/ Baseline rythm calculator http://topfunky.com/baseline-rhythm-calculator/ Mark Boulton – Design basé sur le nombre d’or [en] http://www.markboulton.co.uk/journal/comments/five-simple-steps-to- designing-grid-systems-part-5 (mais vous pouvez tout lire hein)

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