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7th sem (old)_2270005_Chapter 7 (2).ppt

  1. CHAPTER – 7 Concept of Ayurveda, Ayurvedic formulations and their quality control: Introduction and principles of Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathic systems of medicines. A study on different types of Ayurvedic formulations like Churna, Kwath, Gutika, Taila, Ghrita, Avaleha, Asavas, Arista, Bhasma and Pisti. Evaluation of Ayurvedic formulations
  2. Holistic medicine is a term used to describe therapies that attempt to treat the patient as a whole person. Holistic (Alternative) medicine
  3. What Is Holistic Medicine? Holistic medicine is a system of health care which fosters a cooperative relationship among all those involved, leading towards optimal attainment of the physical, mental emotional, social and spiritual aspects of health.
  4. major holistic therapies:  Herbal medicine  Homeopathy  Naturopathic medicine  Traditional Chinese medicine  Ayurvedic medicine  Unani medicines  Siddha medicines  Nutritional therapies  Tibetan Medicines  Chiropractic  Stress reduction  Psychotherapy  Massage
  5. Ayurveda
  6. Objectives  Introduction to Ayurveda  Tridosha theory  Reported benefits  Current Research  Conclusions
  7. Introduction to Ayurveda  Comprehensive system that places equal emphasis on the body, mind and spirit, and it strives to restore the innate harmony of the individual  Ayurveda is the combination of two Sanskrit words  “ayu” meaning long life  “veda” meaning knowledge  “Knowledge or science of life”
  8.  Practiced in India for over 5000 years  Covers all medical fields  Diagnosis done by observation, touch, and questioning  Four components to disease management  Physician, Drug, Patient, Attendant (such as a nurse)
  9.  Clinical exam includes  Pulse diagnosis  Urine examination  Stool examination  Tongue examination  Examination of body sounds  Eye examination  Skin examination  Assessment of total body appearance
  10.  Treatment has four main parts  Shodhana – cleansing  Shamana – palliation  Rasayana – rejuvenation  Satwavajaya – mental nurturing and spiritual healing
  11. Tridosha Theory  Three energies/doshas  Pitta – digestion, metabolism, emotions  Kapha – lubrication, structure, synthesis  Vata – movement, physical and mental function, degeneration  Individualized combination/ratio of the three doshas
  12. Reported Benefits  Slowing the aging process  Promoting health of all the organs of the body  Reducing fatigue and stress  Nurturing the body with proper diet  Healing disorders of the nervous system
  13. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and the tridosha theory. Kurup R, Kurup P. Intern J Neuroscience. 2003;113:657-681.  Objectives  Show that the three doshas represent different states of hemispheric dominance  Show how hemispheric dominance relates to certain disease and psychological states  Methods  90 individuals aged 20-30 years divided into six groups  Right hemispheric dominance, left hemispheric dominance, and bihemispheric dominance  The three doshas – vata, pitta, kapha
  14.  Conclusions  Correlation between tridosha and hemispheric chemical dominance  Link between doshas and predisposition to diseases and psychological states
  15. Classification of human population based on Ayurvedic concept of Prakriti. Patwardhan B, Joshi K, Chopra A. J Altern Comp Med. 2005;11:349-353.  Objective – assess relationship between prakriti and phenotype in a healthy population  Methods  76 subjects  DNA extracted and genes typed  Prakriti assessed  Results – frequency of certain alleles associated with vata and kapha, but pitta had no significant association with any alleles  Conclusion – correlation found, but need larger sample size
  16. Conclusions  Evidence supporting/validating the tridosha theory of Ayurveda looks promising  More research needs to be done to gather a larger body of evidence  Additional research needs to be conducted in the area of Ayurvedic herbs  Biochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological especially
  17. Homeopathic Medicine “Let likes be cured by likes”
  18. Outline  Homeopathic medicine and it’s history  The Principles of homeopathic medicine  How homeopathy differs from traditional medicine and herbals  How homeopathic medicines are made  How to use homeopathic medicines  Compatibility, side effects and overdosing  Example of homeopathy use
  19. What is Homeopathy?  Homeopathy is a system of medicine whose principles are even older than Hippocrates.  It seeks to cure in accordance with natural laws of healing and uses medicine made from natural substances: animal, vegetable, and mineral.  “Discovered” in the early 1800s by a German physician, Samuel Hahnemann. Hahnemann became disillusioned with the brutal and senseless treatment methods (bleeding, purging, cautery and blistering) of the day.  Homeopathic Medicine at Home. Panos and Heimlich. Page 9)
  20. Homeopathy History  In 1890, there were 14,000 homeopaths compared to 100,000 conventional physicians.  In some areas, one out of four physicians was a homeopath.  There were 22 homeopathic medical school and over 100 homeopathic hospitals.  The rise of the drug industry after the Civil War changed the practice of medicine and by 1940’s the homeopathic physician was almost obsolete. (Panos and Heimlich, Homeopathic Medicine at Home, pg. 17)
  21. Homeopathy Statistics  Homeopathy is alive and well in other parts of the world.  Britain has over 200 homeopathic physicians.  France has nearly 800 homeopathic physicians.  India is the stronghold of homeopathy, with 124 homeopathic medical schools.  Mexico, as well as Brazil, Chile and Argentina have homeopathic colleges and many practicing physicians.
  22. The Principles behind Homeopathic Medicine  Homeopathy is based on three principles.  #1 The Law of Similars #2 The Law of Proving #3 The Law of Potentization
  23. First Principle of Homeopathy  The Law of Similars: States that a remedy can cure a disease if it produces in a healthy person symptoms similar to those of the disease.  How this law works in practice: A person develops a fever, with flushed face, dilated pupils, rapid heartbeat, and a feeling of restlessness. The homeopathic physician studies these symptoms, then searches for a remedy that produce all these symptoms in a healthy person.
  24. Second Principle of Homeopathy  The Law of Proving: This principle refers to the method of testing a substance to determine its medicinal effect. To prove a remedy, a group of healthy people are given a dose of the substance daily, and each person carefully records the symptoms experienced. When the proving is completed, all the symptoms that the people consistently experience are recorded and listed in the Materia Medica, a prescriber’s reference.
  25. A Comparison of Homeopathy and Standard Medicine (Allopathy)  Homeopathy  Symptoms are a healthy reaction of the body’s defense mechanism.  Treats the patient according to the symptoms.  The aim is to strengthen the body so it can resist harmful organisms.  Allopathy  Symptoms are manifestations of the disease, to be opposed or suppressed.  Treats the patient according to the disease.  The aim is to identify the organism and select a drug to destroy the specific germ.
  26. Third Principle of Homeopathy  The Law of Potentization: This refers to the preparation of a homeopathic remedy. These medications are prepared by successive diluting and shaking to the point where the resulting medicine contains no molecules of the original substance. These small doses are called potencies. As strange as it may seem, the higher the dilution, the greater the potency of the medicine.  A potentized remedy does not contain sufficient matter to act directly on the tissues, which means that homeopathic medicine is nontoxic and cannot cause side effects. In over 150 years of use, no homeopathic remedy has ever been recalled.
  27. Some Homeopathic Medicine is used in Conventional Medicine Today  A large number of homeopathic medicines were adopted by allopaths, and some are still being used today.  One of the best known is nitroglycerine tablets.
  28. A comparison of Homeopathy and Herbalism  Homeopathy  Scientific medicine that follows procedures of preparation.  Prepared according to an exact process and prescribed according to the law of similars.  The potentized medication contains only minute amounts of the original substance and is nontoxic.  Herbalism  Preparation depends on the herbalist’s intuition and experience.  Uses a combination of a number of herbs.  Many medicinal herbs are toxic. A self-help herbalist has no way of knowing what constitutes a “safe” dose.
  29. How Homeopathic medicines are made  Homeopathic medicine is made in accordance to the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS).  Homeopathic medicines are regulated by the FDA.  In 1938, Congress wrote the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and included homeopathic medicine as defined by the HPUS.  The HPUS defines each remedy’s substance, lowest safe dilution, and initial method of preparation.
  30. When and how to use Homeopathic medicines  Match the symptoms of the patient as closely as possible to the symptoms that were produced in healthy humans. (Law of similars)  Give only one remedy at a time.  Continue giving the remedy until improvement starts, then increase the interval between doses.  Medicine should be taken in a clean mouth, placed on or under the tongue, free of food, drink, tobacco, toothpaste, mouthwash, mints or anything except plain water.
  31. Compatibility with other medications  Homeopathy is 100% compatible with other medications and will not interfere with the effectiveness of other medicines.  Other medications may lessen the effects of homeopathy. Many remedies can be affected by strong odors, steroids or caffeine. (www.
  32. Side Effects of Homeopathy  “A homeopathic remedy does not cause side effects. When I prescribe, I do not have to worry, Is this drug safe? I have never heard of a homeopathic medicine being recalled for causing adverse side effects, which is an enviable record considering that these remedies have been in use for more than 150 years.” ( Homeopathic Medicine at Home, pg 29)
  33. Can a Patient Overdose  No! All remedies are only sold in very safe dilutions. (  A homeopathic remedy, even an entire vial consumed at one gulp, is not toxic or poisonous. (Panos, Homeopathic Medicine at Home, pg. 43)
  34. What to avoid with homeopathic medications  Coffee can neutralize the action of the remedy.  Avoid aspirin, laxatives and sleeping pills.  Do not use nasal drops, antiseptics, liniments, or preparations containing camphor.
  35. Observation: The key to prescribing  Selecting a remedy that matches the totality of the symptoms.  Two people may be “bitten” by the same bug, but react differently and require different remedies.  Example of two people both exposed to streptococcus infection:  Jane: flushed, restless, burning with heat, red throat, pounding head, thirstless, and acutely ill. According to her symptoms, Jane needed Belladonna, took it and recovered.  Dick: Not so quick to show symptoms. Gradually became quieter, grew pale, and was very thirsty, he was irritable and developed a dry, racking cough. Dick needed Bryonia, and after taking a dose felt better.
  36. Questions to consider  There is a growing popularity of alternative medicine, especially homeopathic medicine.  What are some explanations you have heard from patients or friends who use alternative medicine?  How would you counsel a patient who wants to try homeopathic medicine?
  39. Standardization Means adjusting the herbal substance / herbal preparation to a defined content of a constituent or a group of constituents with known therapeutic activity respectively either by adding excipients or by blending batches of the herbal substance and/or herbal preparation (e.g. standardised extracts).
  40. Introduction Asavarista preparations have accupied unique place amongst all the Kalpanas mentioned in Ayurveda. These preparations are more popular because of their quick Action & high preserving qualities. Usually herbal remedies loose their potency after some time. Here medicinal drugs will be preserved for prolong period in alcoholic media. These preparations has very long shelf-life, quick absorption property & considered highly effective in therapeutic uses. Difference • Asava prepared in cold water without boiling the drugs, Whereas Arista is prepared by boiling. • The medicinal dose of both is the same as that of water taken as early morning drink.
  41. DEFINITION Asavas and Aristha are meidicinal preparations made by soaking the drugs, either in powder form or in the form of deocoction (Kasaya), in a solution of sugar or jaggery, as the case may be, for a specified period of time, during which it undergoes a process of fermentation generating alcohol, thus facilitating the extraction of the active principles contained in the drugs. The alcohol, so generated, also serves as a preservative.
  42. Method of preparation of ARISTHA • The drugs in the formulation are coarsely powdered and Kasaya is prepared.The Kasaya is kept in the fermentation pot,Jaggery or honey,, is dissolved, boiled,filtrate and added. • Drugs mentioned as Praksepa Dravyas are finely powdered and added. At the end , Dhataki Puspa , included in the formula. • Pot should be properly cleaned and drugs are added.
  43. • Afrer the specified period, the lid is removed, and the contants examined to ascertain whether the process of fermentation has been completed.
  44. Mathod of preparation of Asava • • The required quantity of water , Jaggrey or sugar as prescribed in the formula is added. • • Boiled and cooled. • • Poured in to the fermentation pot, • • Fine powder of the drugs mentioned in the formula are added. • • The container is covered with a lid and the edges are sealed with cloth of the process is as in the case of Arista.
  45. General precautions • • Earthen vessel should not be new. • •Water should be boiled first in the vessel. • •Absolute cleanliness is required during the process. • • Each time , the inner surface of the fermentation vessel should • 8 • be fumigated with Pipali Churna and Ghee before the liquid • poured into it. • •In large scale manufacturer ,wooden-vats,
  46. • Characteristics • The filtered Asava or Arista should be clear without froth at the top. • It should not become sour(Cukra). • The preparation has the characteristics of aromatic alcoholic odour. • Preservation • Asavas and Aristas can be kept indefinitely. • They should be kept in well-stoppered bottles or
  47. Benefits of fermented herbal preparations: - Removal of sugars Alcohol gradient 0-20 Removal of heavy metals and pesticides by yeast Conversion of toxins into pharmaceutical agents Higher extraction rate due to cell rupture, active
  48. • DRUGS REQUIRED • • The drugs used in asvaristha are divided in to four sections as • given below according to their particular need in the process. • 1. The main drugs • 2.Drava Dravyas • 10 • 3.Sweetning substances
  49. • 1. The main drugs • • These are the drugs which are pharmacologically and • therapeutically much important and the name of the • medicine is derived from these drugs. • • For preparing Asavaristas, herbal, mineral and animal origin • drugs are freely used. • 11 • • Out of three, though the herbal drugs are abundantly used, • the other types are also not uncommon. • • In addition to the usage of roots, fruits, flowers,
  50. • 2. Drava dravyas • • The Drava Dravyas used for preparation of Asavaristas are • Swarasa, Kwatha, water, Takra, Dadhi, Gomutra, Kanji etc. • • Water, Kwatha and Swarasas are more commonly used liquid. • • In some instances two or three liquids are found used together. • 3. Sweetening substances • •Guda (jaggery) Sarkara (sugar), Sitopala, Matsyandika • and Khanda sita (type of Jaggary and sugar) are used.
  51. 4. Fermantation initiator or Praksepa Dravyas • These are the drugs which provides the inoculums for the fermentation to start. • The process of fermantation necessitates the presence of • fermenting micro-organisams known as yeasts. • Dhataki puspa is considered as one of the Praksepa dravyas,dried flowers of Dhataki (woodfordia fruticosa, linn.) are used in the preparation of many Aristas and Asavas for stimulating fermentation process.
  52. Standardization of Asava & Arista Protocol for Standardization: 1. Description 2. Determination of pH 3. Determination of specific gravity 4. Determination of total solid 5. Determination of Alcohol content 6. Determination of Total sugars and Reducing sugar 7. Phytochemical analysis 8. Chromatographic fingerprinting
  53. 1. Description: It involves orgenoleptic characteristic like Type, Clarity, Colour, Odour, Taste, etc. 2. Determination of pH: The pH value of an aqueous liquid may be defined as the common logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration expressed in gram. The pH value of a liquid is determined potentiometrically by mean of a glass electrode and suitable pH meter. 3. Determination of specific gravity: The specific
  54. 4. Determination of total solid • Digest pure quartz sand that passes through No.40 but not No. 60 sieve with HCI, wash-acid- free, dry and ignite. Preserve in stoppered bottle. • Place 25 gm of prepared sand and a short glass rod in a nickel or stainless steel dish, about 55 mm in diameter and 40 mm deep fitted with a cover. Dry thoroughly, cover dish, cool in desiccator. • Pipette out a quantity of Asava / Arista to yield about 1 gm of matter. Mix the sample
  55. 5. Determination of Alcohol content Apparatus: The apparatus consists of a round- bottomed flask (A) fitted with a distillation head (B) with a steam trap and attached to a vertical condenser (C). A tube is fitted to the lower part of the condenser and carries the distillate in to the lower pail of a l00-ml or 250-ml volumetric flask (DJ. The volumetric flask is immersed in a beaker (E). containing a mixture of ice and water during the distillation, A disc with a circular aperture, 6 cm in diameter, is placed under the distillation flask (A) to reduce the risk of charring of any dissolved substances
  56. Method Transfer 25 ml of the preparation being examined, accurately measured at 24.9° to 25.1°C, to the distillation flask. Dilute with 150ml of water and add a little pumice powder. Attach the distillation head and condenser. Distil and ceiled not less than 90ml of the distillate into a 100-ml volumetric flask. Adjust the temperature to 24.9° to 25.1nCand dilute to volume with distilled water al 24.9 ° to 25.1 ° C. Determine the specific gravity at 25 ° C, read off percentage of ethyl alcohol corresponding to the
  57. Specific Ethanol Specific Ethanol Specific Ethanol Gravity content gravity content gravity content (%V/V) (%V/V) (%V/V) 1.0000 0 0.9875 9 0.9767 18 0.9985 1 0.9862 10 0.9756 19 0.9970 2 0.9850 11 0.9744 20 0.9956 3 0.9838 12 0.9733 21 0.9941 4 0.9826 13 0.9721 22 0.9927 5 0.9814 14 0.9710 23 ' 0.9914 6 0.9802 15 0.9698 24 0.9901 7 0.9790 16 0.9685 25 0.9888 8 0.9778 17
  58. 6. Determination of Total sugars and Reducing sugar: Preparation of test solution: • Alcohol must be removed from sample prior to the determination of sugars. At the same time the loss of laevulose which decompose at higher temperature should be avoided. The following method is recommended for the preparation of the sample analysis. • Neutralize a suitable volume of the sample, accurately measured with NaOH solution, and evaporate to the half the volume to remove alcohol. Cool the solution and add 10 ml of clarifying solution I (21.9 gm of zinc acetate and 3
  59. Determination of Reducing Sugars Prepare a solution of the sugar of such concentration that NLT 15 ml and NMT 50 ml will be required to reduce the copper (0.15-0.25 gm of invert sugar per 100 ml Fehling's solution). Measure accurately 10 ml of fehling's solution into a conical flask of about 300 ml capacity from a burette add sample solution and heat the flask over asbestos covered wire gauge. After boiling is commanded, maintain a moderate degree of ebullition 2 min, and without removing the flame, add 3-5 drops of indicator and continue the titration so that. it is just complete in a total boiling time of exactly three min. the end point is clearly indicated by the disappearance of the blue color, the solution become orange. The flask must not be removed from the gauge at any stage of the titration. The proportion of invert sugar, equivalent to 10 ml of fehling's solution, are found from table.
  60. Determination of Sucrose: - • Pipette sample solution into a 300 ml beaker, add 15 ml of 1N HCl dilute to 150 ml with water, cover with a clock glass and heat to boiling point. Continue to boil for two min, cool, add phenolpthalein just neutralize with NaOH solution (10 %), transfer to a 200 ml graduated flask and dilute to 200 ml. • Carry out the determination of invert sugar as given under "Reducing sugars". By references to the table calculate the percentage of Total sugar expressed as invert sugar. • The differences between the percentage of total sugar (as invert sugar) and reducing sugar (as invert sugar) multiplies by 0.95 gives the percentage of sucrose. 7. Phytochemical analysis : Phytochemical
  61. 8. Chromatographic fingerprinting The various chromatographic techniques like TLC, HPTLC, HPLC, GC, etc. is used to detect marker & other phytoconstitute present in the Asava / Arista. • The extraction, isolation & separation of phytoconstitute are carried out as per its chemical nature & solubility and then detected using chromatographic technique. • If the phytoconstitute present in sample is not known than the successive extraction is carried out and then all the extract are subjected to the chromatographic fingerprinting.
  62. 9. Spectroscopic analysis: Same like chromatographic fingerprinting, various spectroscopic technique available like UV, IR, NMR, Mass, etc. that used in the identification of phytoconstitute.
  63. • 1 Determination of total ash • About 3ml of the preparation was accurately weighed in a tared silica crucible. • The crucible was incinerated at a temperature not exceeding 500°C until free from carbon. • The crucible was cooled and weighed.
  64. • 2 Determination of acid insoluble ash • The ash obtained as described in the determination of total ash was boiled with 25 ml of hydrochloric acid for 5 min. • The insoluble ash was collected on an ashless filter paper and • washed with hot water. • The insoluble ash was transferred into a tared silica crucible,ignited, cooled and weighed.
  65. • 3 Determination of water soluble ash • The ash obtained as described in the determination of total ash was boiled for 5 min with 25 ml of hot water. • The insoluble matter was collected on an ashless filter paper and washed with hot water. • The insoluble ash was transferred into a tared silica crucible and ignited at a temperature not exceeding 450°C. • The procedure was repeated till a constant
  66. • Determination of acid value 10g of formulation was dissolved in 50ml of equal volume of ethanol and ether previously neutralized with 0.1M KOH to Phenolphthalein solution. To it 1ml of phenolphthalein solution was added and titrated with 0.1M KOH until solution remains faint pink after shaking for 30sec.
  67. • Ashwagandharistha • Ashokaristha • Amritaristha • Dusmularistha • Kutajaristha • Kumariasava • Kanakasava • Punarnavasav
  68. Properties: • Can be lifted in a spoon • When pressed between fingers, show threads during stretching • Sinks in water without getting easily dissolved • Finger leaves impression on it • Components of lehyas are easily absorbed by the body, starting from the mouth
  69. Storage: • Kept in Glass/ Porcelain Jar or suitable plastic or metal container which is inert. • Wide mouthed container is used • Air tight • Keep away from hot & humid conditions Shelf Life: • Used with in a year Examples: • Brahma rasayanam • Sukumara rasayanam • Draksavaleha • Chyavanprasha
  70. • Bhasmas are powdered form of ayurvedic preparations, obtained by calcination of metals, minerals or animal products by a special process in closed crucibles or pits covered by cow dung cakes. • Examples: Swarn bhasma, Shnakha bhasma and Tamra bhasma Bhasma
  71. Preparation of Bhasma: 1. Shodhana is a process of purification and detoxification by which physical and chemical blemishes and toxic materials are eliminated substances are subjected for further processing. Remove harmful substances and impurities present in the drugs. 2. Marna is a process in which metals and minerals are made into paste with various drugs and juices. Objective to make bhasma and this drugs are reduced to finest particles. 3. Jarana is a process of decomposing the particles by subjected to fire treatment in a measured manner for reducing them to ashes. To make it absorbable.
  72. Types: • On the basis of color grey, whitish, yellowish or black colored. • A more scientific way of classification is on the basis of metal and mineral group like: Rajata group, Tamra group, Loha group etc. Shelf Life: • Quite stable products, maintain potency for a long time Properties: • Bhasma has great therapeutic value because they get absorbed easily into body even in very small doses
  73. Classification of Bhasma Metal-based Bhasma Mineral-based Bhasma Herbal Bhasma.
  74. Quality Control of Bhasma: • There should be not metallic lusture • When a small quantity is spread on cold and still water, it should float on the surface • The bhasma should not revert to original state. Storage: • Store in cool & Dry place • Keep away from moisture & sunlight
  75. • Bhasma Main Ingredient 1. Loha bhasma Iron oxide 2. Naga bhasma Lead 3. Abhrak bhasma Mica 4. Yasad Bhasma Zinc Oxide Important bhasmas and their main ingredient
  76. Churna Dried ayurvedic dosage form comprises of fine powder of drug/s is known as churna. Drug can be any dried part of plant: stem, leaves, root, bark, fruit etc. The churna is free flowing powder. The principle of using Churnas is due to the fact that therapeutic value of most of the substances is greatly increases when they are reduces to vary fine state of subdivion and is particularly notable in the cases of antacids, protective and adsorbents.
  77. Shelf Life: • If stored properly, retains potency for one year. Storage conditions: • Air tight container, Kept away from moisture • Store in a cool & dry place Advantages: • They are also easily administrable specially in the cases of children where they can not swallow pills, tablets or capsules
  78. Marketed Formulations: 1.Ashwagandhadi Churna 2.Triphala Churna 3.Trikatu Churna 4.Sudarshan Churna 5.Drakshadi Churna
  79. Taila • Also called Medicated Oil • Liquid ayurvedic dosage form intended for external & internal use comprises of compounds with medicinal value or phytoconstituents present in oil • The Taila preferably should be fresh • There are usually 3 or 4 essential components in the manufacture of Taila – Drava [Any liquid medium as prescribed in the composition] – Kalka [Fine paste of the specified drug] – Sneha dravya [Taila] – Gandha dravya [Perfuming agents]
  80. Properties: • The medicated Taila will have the odour, colour and taste of the drugs used in the process. • Protect from light and moisture • Tailas are preserved in good quality of glass, steel or polythene containers. Shelf Life: • These medicated preparations retain the therapeutic efficacy for sixteen months. Usage: • Used as a internally and topically • They are taken internally with warm water or warm milk
  81. Marketed Formulations: • Bhringaraja Taila • Maha Narayan Taila • Laghu Visagarbha Taila • Anu Taila • Dhanvantara Taila
  82. Gutika/ Modaka/ Vati/ Vadagam/ Tablets/ Pills • Soild ayurvedic dosage form made up of one or more drugs of plant, animal or mineral origin by the process of powdered, sieving, & mixing with prescribed liquids and triturated till attained the consistency suitable for making gutika.
  83. Storage: • Air tight container • Preparation containing vegetable drugs can be used for 2 years • Preparations containing minerals or metals can be used for indefinite period • Pills and vatis should not lose their original color, smell, taste and form. • When sugar, salt is an ingredient, the pills should be kept away from moisture.
  84. Packaging: • Bottles • Strip Packing • Blister Packing • Marketed Formulations: • Marikadi Gutika • Khadiradi Vati • Sanjivni Vati • Lakshmivilasrasa Vati
  85.  Various analytical parameters. characteristics (colour, odour, taste, touch)  Physicochemical investigations  pH  Total solid content  Specific gravity  Viscosity  Refractive Index  Loss on drying  Ash value  Extractive values  Chromatographic evaluations Evaluation of Kwath
  86. Pisti Pisti is prepared by triturating the drug with specified plant liquids or exposing the same to sun or moon light. Pisties are as fine bhasma and retain their potency. They are stored into the bottles. Examples: Praval pisti Manikya pisti Mukta pisti
  87.  Organoleptic parameters like colour, odour, taste, touch  Physicochemical investigations includes Loss on drying Ash value Extractive values  Chromatographic evaluations Evaluation of Pisti