2. After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
Explain what is meant by the terms recruitment and selection
Identify courses of action to be taken whenever a vacancy occurs
in an organization.
Discuss the factors that affect recruitment and selection
Identify effective recruitment and selection strategies
Describe the recruitment and selection process.
Identify sources and methods of recruitment
Explain the importance of assigning the right person on the right
job and the benefits of orientation
3. Recruitment is the process of discovering
potential candidates for actual or anticipated
It is an important part of the acquisition aspect
of human resource management .
It is the process of finding right people for right
positions at the right time.
It is concerned with identifying and attracting a
pool of qualified candidates to fulfill human
resource needs of an organization.
4. It is a set of activities that an organization uses
to attract candidates who have the abilities
and attitudes needed to help the organization
achieve its objectives.
The recruitment process begins when new
recruits are sought and ends when
applications are received.
In general, the quality of human resources
very much depends on the quality of recruits.
5. Size of the organization
Image of organization
Nature of the Job
Cost of Recruitment
7. Sources serve as the pool for locating prospective job
Methods stimulate the prospective job applicants to
apply for the jobs.
The sources and methods of recruitment can be:
Internal sources and methods
External sources and methods
8. Internal sources involve recruiting within the
Prospective qualified candidates are found within the
organization to fill up job vacancies above the entry
Many organizations follow the deliberate practice of
recruiting from internal sources.
The most common methods used for internal
recruiting are: Job posting, employee referrals,
Human Resource Inventory (Skills inventory).
10. Limited Choice
The morale of employees can be adversely affected by
limited opportunities for internal recruitment.
In-fighting can happen for promotions.
11. B. External Sources and Methods
External sources Involve recruitment from
outside the organization.
Qualified candidates from outside are attracted
to apply for vacancies.
Widely used to make recruitment for entry-level
and skilled jobs from the labor market.
12. The most common methods used in external
Educational institution placement
Sources of Recruitment cont’d …
13. I. Employment Exchanges/Agencies
Employment exchanges: maintain a databank of
job seekers and job vacancies. Furnish a list of
suitable candidates to prospective employers.
Private Employment Agencies: carry out
recruitment function on behalf of their client
Management consulting firms: used for recruiting
senior management level positions.
Sources of Recruitment cont’d …
14. II. Walk-ins, Write-ins, and Electronic Search
job seekers who arrive at HR department in search of a
job seekers who send written enquiries in search of a job.
Bio-data of prospective candidates are made available
Sources of Recruitment cont’d …
15. Qualitative Human Resources: provide a sufficiently large pool of
qualified candidates. Management has greater choice for
Organizational Rejuvenation: facilitates inflow of new ideas,
knowledge, skills, and enthusiasm in the organization
Environmental Adaptation:The inflow of new knowledge, skills
and experience helps organizations adapt to changing forces in
Balanced Human Resource Mix: facilitate recruitment of specific
groups like women, disables, ethnic minorities etc.
Fairness in Recruitment:There are no preconceived notions,
reservations, favoritism and nepotism in external recruitment.
16. High cost: costly compared to internal recruitment.
The cost of training new entrants is also high.
Poor Employee morale: Recruitment from outside
can adversely affect the morale of existing
Adaptability Problems: More time will be needed to
new employees to adapt to the work environment.
Wrong Selection: results in wrong selection of
17. 3.2.1 Nature of Selection Process
It is the process of selecting the best candidate for a
job from among the prospective applicants.
It is concerned with hiring the right person for the right
job as well as rejecting the applicants.
Selection follows recruitment.
To predict which job applicant would be most
successful if hired
To inform and sell the candidate the job and the
18. Effective selection process requires:
1. Clearly spelled out job description and job specification for
the vacant positions.
2. Sufficiently large pool of prospective applicants.
3. Series of steps through which applicants pass.
4. Selection standards to be used in selection.
Selection is a two-way process.The organization chooses
the employee.The employee chooses the employer.
Selection process cont’d …
19. Right selection creates
Improves employer-employee relations,
Increases productivity and commitment of employees and
Facilitates environmental adaptation
Poor selection leads to
Increased employee turnover,
High costs of training and
3.2.2 Importance of Employee Selection
20. The selection process consists of a series of steps
through which applicants pass.
Each step serves as a hurdle, which the successful
candidate must pass.
The steps differ from organization to
organization-some use only interview, others use
written tests plus interview, still others follow all
Systematic selection process consists of the
23. 1. Application Form Evaluation
Personal background information: Name, sex, age, marital
status, nationality etc.
Qualifications: Educational, professional and other
qualifications and specialized skills.
Work Experience: Experience in previous jobs and the name
of organizations served; duties, responsibilities etc.
Salary: Salary drawn in present employment and expected
References: Names and addresses of persons who can be
contacted for references.
24. AptitudeTests: measure aptitude for the job.Test a candidate's
AchievementTests: measure theoretical and/or practical
knowledge and skills.
SituationalTests: abstract real life situations. Candidates are
asked to cope with the situational problems.
InterestTests: inventories of the likes and dislikes of candidates
in relation to work, hobbies, recreational activities etc.
PersonalityTests:They measure personality dimensions of the
Candidates scoring low in the selection tests are rejected
25. The most effective ways of minimizing individual
bias when conducting selection are:
To establish objective selection criteria before the
selection process begins which will be applied to all
Using two or more individuals in the selection
process to minimize any unfairness caused by
26. Reliability andValidity of tests should be
Criterion related validity
▪ Predictive validity
▪ Concurrent validity
27. When selected candidates report for duty,
they should be placed in the right job.
The first placement is for a probation period,
usually extending from 6 to 12 months.
Orientation and pre-service trainings are
given to the employee during the probation
If the performance is satisfactory during the
probation period, the employee is given a
28. Socialization:- A process of adaptation that
takes place as individuals attempt to learn
the values and norms of work roles.
Orientation:- the activities involved in
introducing new employees to the
organization and their work units
The HRM activity that introduces new employees
to the organization and to the employees’ new
tasks, superiors, and work groups
30. To reduce anxiety
Reduces turnover rate
Saves time and thus
31. Who Does It
32. Organizational objectives, history, philosophy,
procedures and rules
Personnel policies such as hours of work, pay
procedures, overtime requirements, and fringe
The specific duties and responsibilities of the new
Touring the organization’s physical facilities
Introducing the employee to his or her superior and
33. The supervisor of the new employee
Combination of the two
34. Underlying assumptions:-
Socialization influence performance
New employees suffer from anxiety and has
New employees need special attention
The existence of tension could be motivating
Socialization does not occur in a vacuum (is
affected by informal interactions)
35. 1. Prearival stage
At this stage individuals arrive with a set of
organizational values, attitudes and
expectations about the work and the
36. experience high anxiety at entry,
want to reduce their anxiety quickly
go through a settling period
37. 2. Encounter
This is the confrontation of the new entrants with
the realities of their job, co-workers, boss and the
organization in general,
If the reality fits with the expectation it reaffirms
the earlier perception
If the reality is different from the expectation it
requires socialization that will detach them from
their previous assumptions.
38. 3. Metamorphosis
The process of working out any problems that are encountered during the
Metamorphosis and the entry socialization process become complete if:
Members (new employees) become comfortable with the organization and their
They have internalized of the norms of the organization and their work groups,
they understand and accept these norms
The new members feel that they are accepted by their peers as trusted and
They are self- confident that they have the competence to complete their job
They understand the system i.e. the rules, procedures, and informally accepted
They know what criteria will be used to measure and appraise their work