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Waste Management in Berlin

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Presentazione utilizzata da Alexander Gosten, Direttore del Dipartimento per il Trattamento dei rifiuti della municipalizzata berlinese BSR, durante il suo intervento alla conferenza internazionale Milano Recycle City, che si è svolta il 6 giugno 2014 presso la Fabbrica del Vapore di Milano

Veröffentlicht in: Umweltschutz
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Waste Management in Berlin

  1. 1. MILANO RECYCLING CITY, 6th june 2014 International interview round table Berlin, BSR Berliner Stadtreinigungsbetriebe AöR Dr.-Ing. Alexander Gosten Vizepresident Waste Treatment & Waste Management 6th June 2014
  2. 2. BSR is the largest municipal refuse collection service provider in the EU … in approx. 2 million homes (> 400,000 distributed waste containers) … ... live approx. 3.5 million inhabitants ... ... who each year produce about approx. 1.3 million tons of urban waste … On an area of 890 km² (larger than Munich, Frankfurt and Stuttgart combined)... ... (and approx. 160,000 dogs).... … walk and drive on approx. 136 km² of public space (such as streets, airports) ... ... and each year produce about 80,000 tons of street waste ... ... approx. 350.000 trees (> 102.000 m3 of leaves) … ... (with an increasing number of tourists (more than 22 million overnight stays per year) … Milano Recycling City 6th June 20142
  3. 3. Type of Company and Mandate of BSR  BSR is 100% owned by the State of Berlin and as a public legal entity it is organised like a public limited company (management board, supervisory board) since 1994.  BSR is commissioned to perform sovereign tasks of the State of Berlin.  Refuse collection (residual waste, organic waste), waste treatment (incineration plants, mechanical physical stabilisation plants)  Street cleaning, snow removal and gritting  In the sovereign realm, BSR is financed though fees. The generation of profits is therefore strictly ruled out (concept of cost coverage). Fee payers are directly benefitting from decreasing costs as their fees are reduced.  BSR is allowed to also operate commercially (though subsidiaries), which in the broader sense is also part of their range of tasks. The commercial is geared towards generating profits and strengthening the equity of the company.  BSR is a guarantor for safe waste management and for the cleanliness if the city. Milano Recycling City 6th June 20143
  4. 4.  Cleaning of streets and pavements (approx. 1.5 million kilometres)  approx. 5.7 million waste basket collections  approx. approx. 209,000 gully clean-ups  Collection of approx. approx. 102,000 m3 leaves  Removal of illegal debris ( convoy of container trucks with a length of more than 7 kilometres / 4.3 miles)  Snow removal and gritting ( more than 18,000 crossroads, the length of roads covered matches the distance of 5 times Berlin - Moscow, GPS navigation and data recording) Guaranteeing Cleanliness through state-of-the-art Technology - Performance Data of Cleaning Dept. - approx. 2,124 employees and approx. 820 vehicles - Milano Recycling City 6th June 20144
  5. 5.  Collection of household and commercial waste (approx. 18.1 million collections per annum, from approx. 341,000 waste containers)  Collection of recyclables (approx. 0.7 million emptyings of about 40,000 waste containers)  Collection of organic waste (approx. 3.2 million collections per annum, from approx. 83,000 waste containers)  15 recycling depots taking on approx. 20 types of recycling materials and approx. 30 pollutants  Collection of approx. 10,850 tons of bulky waste  Other, e.g. 350,000 collected and recycled Christmas trees Comprehensive Provision of Waste Disposal for all Berlin Homes - Performance Data of Refuse Collection - approx. 1,510 employees and approx. 400 vehicles - Milano Recycling City 6th June 20145
  6. 6. Unterground Waste Container Systems  Currently 41 Systems (sites) in use, 12 more Systems planned  Modular architecture ( different and complimentary options) and weekly emptying Other Opportunities for Separate Waste Collection  Except ~ 6.000 containers (on ~ 1.700 sites) for the collection of glass and an unknown number of boxes for old textiles (set up by authorized collectors) there are no recycling banks in the public area.  Public authorities, hospitals and some companies (e.g. german railroad) offer additional possibilities for the separate collection of waste (e.g. paper, glass, lightweight-packaging and mixed waste) Milano Recycling City 6th June 20146
  7. 7. BSR provides 15 Recycling Depots in Berlin for the separate Collection of recyclable Materials [all figures in tons]  approx. 2.2 million visits by clients ...  approx. 138,000 tons total volume of waste  approx. 600,000 leaf bags (sold) Type of Waste Quantity scrap tyres 437 scrap carpets 2,224 scrap textiles 2,642 tree and shrub brashings 1,361 electronic scrap 13,568 tiles and ceramics 2,042 glass 1,467 wood 52,226 lightweight packaging 1,029 paper 10,609 residual waste 2,162 pollutants 2,769 scrap metal 7,988 bulky waste 26,830 total 137,128 leaf disposal bags 9,774 Milano Recycling City 6th June 20147
  8. 8. Berlin: Amount and composition of waste1,2 (2012) Total: 1.540.332 t Separate Collected Recyclables: 420.000 t 1) Source: Abfallbilanz des Landes Berlin für das Jahr 2012 (http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/umwelt/abfall/bilanzen/2012/bilanz2012.pdf) 2) complemented and/or corrected data with source BSR-Entsorgungsbilanz 2012 3) Recyclables from Commerce and Industriy collected by Dual Systems (46.000t) and Waste for Disposal delivered to BSR Waste-to-Energy-Plant) 4) separate collected recyclables from households and small businesses Mixed waste*; 822.000; 53% Paper / Cardboard4 (178.987t; 12%) Plastics / Lightweight Packaging4 (93.852t; 6%) Glass4 (66.453t; 4%) Organic Waste4 (126.499t; 8%) Used Textiles2 (2.642t) Bulky Waste from Households2 (113.899t; 8%) Commercial Waste3 (80.000t; 5%) Street Litter and Grit (56.000t; 4%) Milano Recycling City 6th June 20148
  9. 9. Bulky waste removal 2011: BSR and BR collect approx. 89% (368 kg) of all waste produced in Berlin per head (412 kg) Organics and green waste*: 36.0 kg Paper, cardboard*: 32.0 kg Glass*: 20.2 kg Bulky waste: 11.5 kg Other: Wood: 15.1 kg Scrap electronics 4.5 kg Metals: 2.4 kg Textiles: 0.8 kg Other: 1.0 kg Domestic waste*: 241.4 kg Recycling container*: 3.4 kg approx. 412 kg / inhabitant / year Metals LVP Scrap electronics Textiles Plastics Glass Inerts Other Paper, cardboard Bulky waste-like Organic 3.8 44.0 6.4 9.0 5.7 35.4 5.6 45.5 82.4 35.2 138.8 (respectively incl. of Recycling depot volumes) Milano Recycling City 6th June 20149
  10. 10. What is thrown away in residual bins? Domestic and trade waste include about 40 % of dry recyclable materials which could at least partly be recovered. Organic matter accounts for the largest proportion. [ARGUS-Study, BSR, 2008] organic matter paper & card plastic compound textile metal mineral material wood others 42.5 % 12.0 % 9.4 % 7.0 % 3.3 % 2.1 % 2.0 % 0.4 % 15.0 % glass 6.3 % Milano Recycling City 6th June 201410
  11. 11. Berlin: Collecting Waste and Recyclables ~ 320.000 bins ~ 16,6 Mill. emptyings ~ 7,9 Mill. m3 volume underground containers: 120 emptying: weekly bring Sites: ~ 1.515 containers: ~ 6.000 all containers are emptied fortnightly ~ 84.000 bins ~ 3,3 Mill. emptyings ~ 0,6 Mill. m3 volume ~ 95.000 bins all bins are emptied fortnightly by BSR subsidiary Berlin Recycling ~ 80.000 bins (estimated) Berlin Recycling market share: 60% (estimated) ~ 150.000 bins ~ 193.000 sacks per year BSR is emptying ~ 43.000 bins (~ 0.6 Mill. emptyings, 0.35 Mill. m3 volume) and col- lecting more than 200.000 sacks per year. Others are collected/emptied by Alba. 51 bring site containers Residual Mixed Waste Organic Bio Waste Glass Paper and Cardboard Lightweight Packaging / Plastics Milano Recycling City 6th June 201411
  12. 12. Berlin: Typical Housing Situations 1 x 120l MSC2 (fortnightly) 1 x 60l Bio (fortnightly) or composting 1 x 240l PPK3 or RC4 (monthly) 1 x 240l LVP5 (fortnightly) Glass is delivered to collecting points or 3 x 240l MSC (weekly) 1 x 240l Bio (weekly) 3 x 240l PPK (fortnightly) 2 x 240l LVP (fortnightly) 2 x 240l Glass (fortnightly) 2 x 1.100l MSC (twice a week) 2 x 240l Bio (weekly) 3 x 1.100l PPK (weekly) 2 x 1.100l LVP (fortnightly) 2 x 1.100 l Glass (fortnightly) one family home (~1 household) housing block (~10 flats1) large housing estate (~60 flats) or 1) Used by families, single persons or small businesses 2) Municipal Solid Waste from households and small businesses ( mixed waste) 3) Paper, cardboard, carton 4) delivery to a recycling and reuse center 5) lightweight-packaging collected via bins or sacks Milano Recycling City 6th June 201412
  13. 13. History of Organic Recycling in Berlin 1990/91: Trial of organic waste collection with scientific monitoring 1992: BSR is founding member of reg. Gütegemeinschaft Kompost e.V. (quality association for compost) 1996: Begin of initial introduction in the inner city 2000: Begin of collection in the suburbs 2002: Completion of active introduction and acquisition respectively from 2004: Optimisation process of organic waste collection 2007: BSR decision to build biogas plants in Berlin 2008: Planning and EU tender for construction 2009: Allocation to GU 2010: Permissionprocedure with the authorities and the public 2011: Official permit to build the plant 2013: Start operation in March, 2013: Taking over the plant from Strabag in October Milano Recycling City 6th June 201413
  14. 14. Development of Biogenous Waste in Berlin Mg/a 0 20.000 40.000 60.000 80.000 100.000 120.000 140.000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Weihnachts- bäume Baum- und Strauchschnitt Laub (lose+Säcke) Biogut Christmas- trees Tree + shrub brashings Fallen leaves (loose + in bags) Organic matter Milano Recycling City 6th June 201414
  15. 15. Milano Recycling City 6th June 201415 3,432 3,443 3,461 3,326 3,375 3,394 15,3 17,0 16,8 18,6 18,4 18,6 16,6 19,5 16,3 19,4 19,0 21,0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Organic Waste per Inhabitant1,2,3 Bio Waste ( Bin Collection) Other Organic Waste (e.g. loose foliage from public street areas, leaf sacks, christmas trees) Population (in Mill.)4 1) Alle Daten zur Bevölkerung (Basis sind Volkszählung und monatlich erfasste Veränderungen): … 2) Alle Daten zum Aufkommen an Bio- und Grünabfällen: Entsorgungsbilanzen der BSR für die Jahre 2008 – 2013 3) Zu beachten: Die Berechnung der pro Kopf-Sammelmengen ab 2011 basiert auf den auf Basis des Zensus 2011 gültigen Einwohnerzahlen. Die zum Stichtag der Zählung (9. Mai 2011) erhobene Einwohnerzahl lag um 175.870 Personen (5,3 %) unter dem bis dato in der amtlichen Fortschreibung geführten Wert. 4) Bevölkerungsstand zum 30. Juni 2013 31,9 36,6 33,1 38,0 37,5 39,6
  16. 16. Prospective Utilisation of Biogenous Waste  Planned fermentation plants are designed for the treatment of organic waste from household-bins (“Biotonne”)  Further biogenous waste and solid digestate can in future be treated at the already existing compost sites around Berlin external plants non-fermentable waste Christmas trees tree and shrub brashings fallen leaves Conversion in own fermentation plant fermentable waste digestate organic waste external / internal plants Milano Recycling City 6th June 201416
  17. 17. Closed Cycles in Organic Waste Disposal Organic Waste Plants and agricultural products Compost Insertion Preparation of Digestate Supply to Gardening and Landscaping Companies Fuelling own Vehicle Fleet Feeding into Gas Grid Biogas Preparation of Biogas Preparation of Organic Waste Organic Waste Collection Fermentation Milano Recycling City 6th June 201417
  18. 18. BSR – Biogas plant Biofilter Biofilter Aerification Digester Preparation hall Receiving hall Scales Access Access Plant De- hydration Biogas production: approx. 32,000 MWh/a Utilisation for BSR vehicle fleet: approx. 25,000 MWh/a Substitution of 2.5 million litres of Diesel Surplus Biogas is used at BSR locations for the combined electricity and heat generation: approx. 7,000 Mwh/a Milano Recycling City 6th June 201418
  19. 19. Key figures Input: Area: Employees: Exhaust air for odourisation : Raw biogas production: Raw biogas – annual production: BioMethane – production: Net energy production : Diesel Substitution: CO2 – reduction potential : Output solid aerated fermentation residue: Output liquid digestate : 60,000 Mg/a biowaste from households 2.7 ha 14 40,000 m³/h 119 m³/Mg of Input, with Ø 62 % CH4 ~ 7,140,000 m³/a ~ 4,301,000 m³/a ~ 34 million kWh ~ 2.5 million litres ~ 6,200 Mg CO2 (diesel substitute) plus ~ 6,000 Mg CO2 (c-sequestration) 13,400 Mg/a 32,200 Mg/a Milano Recycling City 6th June 201419
  20. 20. Food waste at a glance* Collection and transport of  organical leftovers from restaurants, cantinas, caterings…  bakery products and dough leftovers  food that has past its expiration date or foods that are no more marketable because of cold chain interruptions  over production quantities from food industry ( in accordance with EU regulation No. 1069/2009 of 21 october 2009)  drippings and chip fast ( in accordance with 36th BImSchV (Federal Immission Control Act) and Biokraft-NachV (Biofuel Sustainability Ordinance) of 1 january 2013) (Wheelie) Bin / barrel lavation and/or exchange sources:http://www.bral.berlin/index.php and http://www.alba.info/uploads/media/Medienberichte-Powerabfall.pdf Milano Recycling City 6th June 201420

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