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Climate Change
#scichallenge2017
Presentation made by:Mihai Daniel-Constantin,Banu Maximilian,Ion Cristian
Professor:Carmen Bucovală
Ovidius High-School
Constanta,Romania
#scichallenge
2017
1.General idea about Climate Change
 Climate change is a change in the statistical
distribution of weather patterns when that change
lasts for an extended period of time (decades to
millions of years).
 Climate change may refer to a change in average
weather conditions, or in the time variation of
weather around longer-term average conditions
(more or fewer extreme weather events).
 Climate change is caused by factors such
as biotic processes, variations in solar
radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics,
and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities
have been identified as primary causes of ongoing
climate change, often referred to as global warming.
#scichallenge
2017
2. Carbon dioxide emissions
 Since the Industrial Revolution, human sources
of carbon dioxide emissions have been growing.
Human activities such as the burning of oil, coal
and gas, as well as deforestation are the primary
cause of the increased carbon dioxide
concentrations in the atmosphere.
 87% of all human-produced carbon dioxide
emissions come from the burning of fossil fuels
like coal, natural gas and oil. The remainder
results from the clearing of forests and other land
use changes (9%), as well as some industrial
processes such as cement manufacturing (4%).
#scichallenge
2017
Fossil fuel combustion/use
 Burning these fuels releases energy which is most
commonly turned into heat, electricity or power for
transportation. Some examples of where they are used
are in power plants, cars, planes and industrial
facilities. In 2011, fossil fuel use created 33.2 billion
tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide.
 The 3 types of fossil fuels that are used the most are
coal, natural gas and oil. Coal is responsible for 43%
of carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion,
36% is produced by oil and 20% from natural gas.
 Coal is the most carbon intensive fossil fuel. For every
tonne of coal burned, approximately 2.5 tonnes of
CO2e are produced.Of all the different types of fossil
fuels, coal produces the most carbon dioxide. Coal
represents one-third of fossil fuels' share of world total
primary energy supply but is responsible for 43% of
carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use
#scichallenge
2017
Electricity/Heat sector
 Electricity and heat generation is the economic
sector that produces the largest amount of man-
made carbon dioxide emissions. This sector
produced 41% of fossil fuel related carbon dioxide
emissions in 2010.
 Almost all industrialized nations get the majority of
their electricity from the combustion of fossil fuels
(around 60-90%). Only Canada and France are the
exception.
 The industrial, residential and commercial sectors
are the main users of electricity covering 92% of
usage. Industry is the largest consumer of the three
because certain manufacturing processes are very
energy intensive. Specifically, the production of
chemicals, iron/steel, cement, aluminum as well as
pulp and paper account for the great majority of
industrial electricity use.
#scichallenge
2017
Transportation sector
 The transportation sector is the second largest source of
anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Transporting goods
and people around the world produced 22% of fossil fuel
related carbon dioxide emissions in 2010.
 Road transport accounts for 72% of this sector's carbon
dioxide emissions.Automobiles, freight and light-duty trucks
are the main sources of emissions for the whole transport
sector and emissions from these three have steadily grown
since 1990.
 Marine shipping produces 14% of all transport carbon
dioxide emissions. While there are a lot less ships than road
vehicles used in the transportation sector, ships burn the
dirtiest fuel on the market, a fuel that is so unrefined that it
can be solid enough to be walked across at room temperature.
 Global aviation accounts for 11% of all transport carbon
dioxide emissions. International flights create about 62% of
these emissions with domestic flights representing the
remaining 38%.
#scichallenge
2017
Industrial sector
 This sector produced 20% of fossil fuel related carbon
dioxide emissions in 2010.The industrial sector consists
of manufacturing, construction, mining, and agriculture.
Manufacturing is the largest of the 4 and can be broken
down into 5 main categories: paper, food, petroleum
refineries, chemicals, and metal/mineral products. These
categories account for the vast majority of the fossil fuel
use and CO2 emissions by this sector.
 Manufacturing and industrial processes all combine to
produce large amounts of each type of greenhouse gas
but specifically large amounts of CO2. This is because
many manufacturing facilities directly use fossil fuels to
create heat and steam needed at various stages of
production. For example factories in the cement
industry, have to heat up limestone to 1450°C to turn it
into cement, which is done by burning fossil fuels to
create the required heat.
#scichallenge
2017
(Cement factory)
Ocean-atmosphere exchange
and Soil respiration and decomposition
 The largest natural source of carbon dioxide emissions is from
ocean-atmosphere exchange. This produces 42.84% of natural
carbon dioxide emissions. The oceans contain dissolved carbon
dioxide, which is released into the air at the sea surface.
Annually this process creates about 330 billion tonnes of carbon
dioxide emissions.
 Another important natural source of carbon dioxide is soil
respiration and decomposition, which accounts for 28.56% of
natural emissions. Many organisms that live in the Earth's soil
use respiration to produce energy. Amongst them are
decomposers who break down dead organic material. Both of
these processes releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Annually
these soil organisms create about 220 billion tonnes of carbon
dioxide emissions.
#scichallenge
2017
3.Deforestation
 Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where
the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples
of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms,
ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation
occurs in tropical rainforests. About 30% of Earth's land
surface is covered by forests.
 Deforestation occurs for multiple reasons: trees are cut down
to be used for building or sold as fuel, while cleared land is
used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of
trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage
to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts
on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide
 Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres of
forests around the world were cut down.As a result of
deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres remain of the
original 16 million square kilometres of forest that formerly
covered the Earth.
#scichallenge
2017
4.How to reduce pollution and stop
Climate change?
 Renewable energy is energy that is collected
from renewable resources, which are naturally
replenished on a human timescale, such as
sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal
heat.
 Renewable energy often provides energy in four
important areas: electricity
generation,air and water heating / cooling
, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy
services.
 Renewable energy systems are rapidly becoming
more efficient and cheaper. Their share of total
energy consumption is increasing. Growth in
consumption of coal and oil could end by 2020
due to increased uptake of renewables and natural
gas.
#scichallenge
2017
Geothermal energy
 Geothermal energy is heat energy generated and stored in the Earth.
Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of
matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the
original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of
materials (in currently uncertain but possibly roughly
equal proportions). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in
temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a
continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the
core to the surface.
 Geothermal power is considered to be renewable because any
projected heat extraction is small compared to the Earth's heat content.
The Earth has an internal heat content of 1031 joules,approximately
100 billion times current (2010) worldwide annual energy
consumption. About 20% of this is residual heat from planetary
accretion, and the remainder is attributed to higher radioactive decay
rates that existed in the past.
#scichallenge
2017
Nesjavellir Geothermal Power
Station in Iceland
Maglev Technology
 Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a transport
method that uses magnetic levitation to move vehicles without
making contact with the ground. With maglev, a vehicle
travels along a guideway using magnets to create both lift
and propulsion, thereby reducing friction by a great extent and
allowing very high speeds. In itself, maglev technology
includes no moving parts.
 Maglev trains move more smoothly and more quietly than
wheeled mass transit systems. The power needed for levitation
is typically not a large percentage of its overall energy
consumption; most goes to overcome drag, as with other high-
speed transport. Maglev trains hold the speed record for trains.
Propelled, and guided by electromagnetic forces, the Maglev
Train can reach speeds of up to 300 mph and the fast eco-
friendly train is being seen as the future of transport.
#scichallenge
2017
Forest management
 Efforts to stop or slow deforestation have been attempted for many
centuries because it has long been known that deforestation can cause
environmental damage sufficient in some cases to cause societies to
collapse. In 16th-century Germany, landowners also
developed silviculture to deal with the problem of deforestation.
However, these policies tend to be limited to environments with good
rainfall, no dry season and very
young soils (through volcanism or glaciation). This is because on
older and less fertile soils trees grow too slowly for silviculture to be
economic, whilst in areas with a strong dry season there is always a
risk of forest fires destroying a tree crop before it matures.
 In the areas where "slash-and-burn" is practiced, switching to "slash-
and-char" would prevent the rapid deforestation and subsequent
degradation of soils. The biochar thus created, given back to the soil,
is not only a durable carbon sequestration method, but it also is an
extremely beneficial amendment to the soil. Mixed with biomass it
brings the creation of terra preta, one of the richest soils on the planet
and the only one known to regenerate itself.
#scichallenge
2017
comparation between Terra
Preta and normal soil
Bibliography
 http://wikipedia.org
 http://whatsyourimpact.org
 http://www.ecofriend.com
 https://instaar.colorado.edu
 Zeitgeist: Addendum (2008) Movie Directed and Written by Peter Joseph
#scichallenge
2017

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Climate change #scichallenge2017

  • 1. Climate Change #scichallenge2017 Presentation made by:Mihai Daniel-Constantin,Banu Maximilian,Ion Cristian Professor:Carmen Bucovală Ovidius High-School Constanta,Romania #scichallenge 2017
  • 2. 1.General idea about Climate Change  Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (decades to millions of years).  Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions (more or fewer extreme weather events).  Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities have been identified as primary causes of ongoing climate change, often referred to as global warming. #scichallenge 2017
  • 3. 2. Carbon dioxide emissions  Since the Industrial Revolution, human sources of carbon dioxide emissions have been growing. Human activities such as the burning of oil, coal and gas, as well as deforestation are the primary cause of the increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.  87% of all human-produced carbon dioxide emissions come from the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil. The remainder results from the clearing of forests and other land use changes (9%), as well as some industrial processes such as cement manufacturing (4%). #scichallenge 2017
  • 4. Fossil fuel combustion/use  Burning these fuels releases energy which is most commonly turned into heat, electricity or power for transportation. Some examples of where they are used are in power plants, cars, planes and industrial facilities. In 2011, fossil fuel use created 33.2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide.  The 3 types of fossil fuels that are used the most are coal, natural gas and oil. Coal is responsible for 43% of carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion, 36% is produced by oil and 20% from natural gas.  Coal is the most carbon intensive fossil fuel. For every tonne of coal burned, approximately 2.5 tonnes of CO2e are produced.Of all the different types of fossil fuels, coal produces the most carbon dioxide. Coal represents one-third of fossil fuels' share of world total primary energy supply but is responsible for 43% of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use #scichallenge 2017
  • 5. Electricity/Heat sector  Electricity and heat generation is the economic sector that produces the largest amount of man- made carbon dioxide emissions. This sector produced 41% of fossil fuel related carbon dioxide emissions in 2010.  Almost all industrialized nations get the majority of their electricity from the combustion of fossil fuels (around 60-90%). Only Canada and France are the exception.  The industrial, residential and commercial sectors are the main users of electricity covering 92% of usage. Industry is the largest consumer of the three because certain manufacturing processes are very energy intensive. Specifically, the production of chemicals, iron/steel, cement, aluminum as well as pulp and paper account for the great majority of industrial electricity use. #scichallenge 2017
  • 6. Transportation sector  The transportation sector is the second largest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Transporting goods and people around the world produced 22% of fossil fuel related carbon dioxide emissions in 2010.  Road transport accounts for 72% of this sector's carbon dioxide emissions.Automobiles, freight and light-duty trucks are the main sources of emissions for the whole transport sector and emissions from these three have steadily grown since 1990.  Marine shipping produces 14% of all transport carbon dioxide emissions. While there are a lot less ships than road vehicles used in the transportation sector, ships burn the dirtiest fuel on the market, a fuel that is so unrefined that it can be solid enough to be walked across at room temperature.  Global aviation accounts for 11% of all transport carbon dioxide emissions. International flights create about 62% of these emissions with domestic flights representing the remaining 38%. #scichallenge 2017
  • 7. Industrial sector  This sector produced 20% of fossil fuel related carbon dioxide emissions in 2010.The industrial sector consists of manufacturing, construction, mining, and agriculture. Manufacturing is the largest of the 4 and can be broken down into 5 main categories: paper, food, petroleum refineries, chemicals, and metal/mineral products. These categories account for the vast majority of the fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions by this sector.  Manufacturing and industrial processes all combine to produce large amounts of each type of greenhouse gas but specifically large amounts of CO2. This is because many manufacturing facilities directly use fossil fuels to create heat and steam needed at various stages of production. For example factories in the cement industry, have to heat up limestone to 1450°C to turn it into cement, which is done by burning fossil fuels to create the required heat. #scichallenge 2017 (Cement factory)
  • 8. Ocean-atmosphere exchange and Soil respiration and decomposition  The largest natural source of carbon dioxide emissions is from ocean-atmosphere exchange. This produces 42.84% of natural carbon dioxide emissions. The oceans contain dissolved carbon dioxide, which is released into the air at the sea surface. Annually this process creates about 330 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions.  Another important natural source of carbon dioxide is soil respiration and decomposition, which accounts for 28.56% of natural emissions. Many organisms that live in the Earth's soil use respiration to produce energy. Amongst them are decomposers who break down dead organic material. Both of these processes releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Annually these soil organisms create about 220 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions. #scichallenge 2017
  • 9. 3.Deforestation  Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 30% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.  Deforestation occurs for multiple reasons: trees are cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide  Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres of forests around the world were cut down.As a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres remain of the original 16 million square kilometres of forest that formerly covered the Earth. #scichallenge 2017
  • 10. 4.How to reduce pollution and stop Climate change?  Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.  Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation,air and water heating / cooling , transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.  Renewable energy systems are rapidly becoming more efficient and cheaper. Their share of total energy consumption is increasing. Growth in consumption of coal and oil could end by 2020 due to increased uptake of renewables and natural gas. #scichallenge 2017
  • 11. Geothermal energy  Geothermal energy is heat energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials (in currently uncertain but possibly roughly equal proportions). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.  Geothermal power is considered to be renewable because any projected heat extraction is small compared to the Earth's heat content. The Earth has an internal heat content of 1031 joules,approximately 100 billion times current (2010) worldwide annual energy consumption. About 20% of this is residual heat from planetary accretion, and the remainder is attributed to higher radioactive decay rates that existed in the past. #scichallenge 2017 Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland
  • 12. Maglev Technology  Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a transport method that uses magnetic levitation to move vehicles without making contact with the ground. With maglev, a vehicle travels along a guideway using magnets to create both lift and propulsion, thereby reducing friction by a great extent and allowing very high speeds. In itself, maglev technology includes no moving parts.  Maglev trains move more smoothly and more quietly than wheeled mass transit systems. The power needed for levitation is typically not a large percentage of its overall energy consumption; most goes to overcome drag, as with other high- speed transport. Maglev trains hold the speed record for trains. Propelled, and guided by electromagnetic forces, the Maglev Train can reach speeds of up to 300 mph and the fast eco- friendly train is being seen as the future of transport. #scichallenge 2017
  • 13. Forest management  Efforts to stop or slow deforestation have been attempted for many centuries because it has long been known that deforestation can cause environmental damage sufficient in some cases to cause societies to collapse. In 16th-century Germany, landowners also developed silviculture to deal with the problem of deforestation. However, these policies tend to be limited to environments with good rainfall, no dry season and very young soils (through volcanism or glaciation). This is because on older and less fertile soils trees grow too slowly for silviculture to be economic, whilst in areas with a strong dry season there is always a risk of forest fires destroying a tree crop before it matures.  In the areas where "slash-and-burn" is practiced, switching to "slash- and-char" would prevent the rapid deforestation and subsequent degradation of soils. The biochar thus created, given back to the soil, is not only a durable carbon sequestration method, but it also is an extremely beneficial amendment to the soil. Mixed with biomass it brings the creation of terra preta, one of the richest soils on the planet and the only one known to regenerate itself. #scichallenge 2017 comparation between Terra Preta and normal soil
  • 14. Bibliography  http://wikipedia.org  http://whatsyourimpact.org  http://www.ecofriend.com  https://instaar.colorado.edu  Zeitgeist: Addendum (2008) Movie Directed and Written by Peter Joseph #scichallenge 2017