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  1. 1. The Gods and Goddesses Greek and Roman Mythology Sophomore English
  2. 2. What is Greek Mythology? • The people of ancient Greece shared stories called myths about the gods, goddesses, and heroes • Each god or goddess was worshipped as a deity and ruled over certain areas of the Greeks’ lives. • These exciting stories explained natural phenomena that could not be explained by science in the ancient world.
  3. 3. First Gods <ul><li>Uranus – the sky </li></ul><ul><li>falls in love with </li></ul><ul><li>Mother Earth – Gaea </li></ul><ul><li>Their children represent the forces of nature . </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Titans Represent the forces of nature earthquakes, storms, tornadoes
  5. 5. Titan Rulers <ul><li>Cronos marries Rhea </li></ul><ul><li>1 st children – ugly and misshapen </li></ul><ul><li>Cronos sends to Tartarus </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hestia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poseidon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demeter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zeus </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Prophecy – Cronos will be overthrown by one of his children, just as he overthrew his father. <ul><li>Cronos swallows each of his children as they are born. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they are immortal, they exist within him. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth child, Zeus </li></ul><ul><li>Rhea - tires of losing her children </li></ul><ul><li> -gives Cronos a stone to swallow </li></ul><ul><li> -hides Zeus on earth. </li></ul><ul><li> -when grown, Zeus challenges Cronos for the throne </li></ul>
  7. 7. Olympic gods <ul><li>Zeus frees the hundred-handed ones and the cyclops from Tartarus </li></ul><ul><li>They force Cronos to disgorge Zeus’s brothers and sisters </li></ul><ul><li>The six brothers and sisters form the basis of the Olympic Gods </li></ul>
  8. 8. Zeus – ruler of the sky <ul><li>Ruler of the Olympic Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Married to Hera, his sister </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol – lightning bolt </li></ul>
  9. 9. Poseidon – ruler of the sea <ul><li>2 nd to Zeus </li></ul><ul><li>Palace beneath the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Married to Amphitrite - daughter of old sea god, Neros </li></ul><ul><li>Chariot pulled by white horses </li></ul><ul><li>Called the Earthshaker </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol - trident </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hera – goddess of marriage, queen of the gods <ul><li>Married to Zeus, her brother </li></ul><ul><li>Jealous disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol - peacock </li></ul>
  11. 11. Athena – goddess of intellect <ul><li>Strategy in war </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of cities </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and crafts </li></ul><ul><li>Sprang fully grown from Zeus’s head </li></ul><ul><li>“ gray eyed goddess” </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols– spear, helmet, owl </li></ul>
  12. 12. Athena’s Birth <ul><li>Zeus suffered from </li></ul><ul><li>pounding headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Hephaestus struck his </li></ul><ul><li>head open </li></ul><ul><li>Athena emerged fully </li></ul><ul><li>armed </li></ul>
  13. 13. Athena and Arachne <ul><li>Arachne was famous in town for being a very skillful weaver and spinner </li></ul><ul><li>Arachne was very vain and couldn’t stop boasting about her talent </li></ul><ul><li>Athena challenged Arachne to a weaving challenge; Arachne disrespected the gods during this </li></ul><ul><li>Athena turned Arachne into a spider for her lack of respect / vanity. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Apollo – god of the sun <ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Healing </li></ul><ul><li>Music - lyre </li></ul><ul><li>Truth - Oracle at Delphi </li></ul><ul><li>Athletic – patron of the Olympic games </li></ul><ul><li>Most beautiful of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol - </li></ul><ul><li>– chariot with white horses, pulled the sun across the sky </li></ul><ul><li>- archer, golden arrows </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Echo was a wood nymph who loved </li></ul><ul><li>a youth by the name of Narcissus. </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissus was a beautiful creature </li></ul><ul><li>loved by many, but Narcissus loved no one. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth warns against self-love and self-absorption. </li></ul>Narcissus and Echo
  16. 16. <ul><li>Daedalus and Icarus were an Athenian craftsman and his son. </li></ul><ul><li>They were exiled in Crete after Daedalus murdered his apprentice whose skill was greater than his master's. </li></ul><ul><li>When the father and son were imprisoned by the king of Crete, the inventor made wings from feathers and wax so that he and his son could escape by flying away. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite his father's warnings, Icarus flew too close the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>The wax in his wings melted and he perished while his father flew to safety </li></ul>DAEDALUS AND ICARUS
  17. 17. ATLAS
  18. 18. <ul><li>The name &quot;Psyche&quot; means &quot;Soul&quot; and her union with Eros (aka Cupid) tells the story of how Love and Soul came to be together. </li></ul><ul><li>Eros = Modern Day Cupid </li></ul><ul><li>Eros & Psyche will never be separated </li></ul>EROS AND PSYCHE
  19. 20. <ul><li>Themis was the Titan goddess of divine law and order--the traditional rules of conduct first established by the gods </li></ul><ul><li>She is typically used to represent lady justice in modern courts (depicted as blindfolded and impartial. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Titan god of forethought </li></ul><ul><li>Was entrusted with the task of molding mankind out of clay </li></ul><ul><li>Stole fire from heaven and delivered it to mankind </li></ul><ul><li>Was arrested and bound to a stake on Mount Kaukasos where an eagle was set to feed upon his ever-regenerating liver </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>The Muses were brought to life to make the world more joyful </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo was the main teacher of the Muses </li></ul><ul><li>Calliope (Epic Poetry) </li></ul><ul><li>Clio (History) </li></ul><ul><li>Erato (Love Poetry) </li></ul><ul><li>Euterpe (Music) </li></ul><ul><li>Melpomene (Tragedy) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyhymnia (Hymns) </li></ul><ul><li>Terpsichore (Dance) </li></ul><ul><li>Thaleia (Comedy) </li></ul><ul><li>Urania (Astronomy) </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Three sea nymphs who lured sailors to their death with a bewitching song </li></ul><ul><li>They were formerly handmaidens of the goddess Persephone. </li></ul><ul><li>When the girl was secretly abducted by Hades, Demeter gave them the bodies of birds, and sent to assist in the search. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Artemis – goddess of the hunt <ul><li>Protector of wild things </li></ul><ul><li>Moon goddess </li></ul><ul><li>Despised the weakness of love </li></ul><ul><li>Twin to Apollo </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol – archer, silver arrows, short tunic </li></ul>
  24. 25. Aphrodite – goddess of love and beauty <ul><li>Born from the foam of the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled the hearts of men </li></ul><ul><li>Mistress of feminine charm </li></ul><ul><li>Son – Eros (Cupid) </li></ul><ul><li>Irresistible </li></ul>
  25. 26. Hermes – messenger of the gods <ul><li>Master thief </li></ul><ul><li>Shrewd, cunning </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of gamblers </li></ul><ul><li>Patron of commerce and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts souls to the underworld </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols – winged cap, sandals, caduceus </li></ul>
  26. 27. Hephaestus – god of smiths and fire <ul><li>Son of Hera </li></ul><ul><li>Ugly and lame </li></ul><ul><li>Kindly and peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>Married to Aphrodite </li></ul><ul><li>Made weapons and jewelry for the gods </li></ul>
  27. 28. Ares – god of war <ul><li>Handsome, but vain </li></ul><ul><li>Disliked by other gods- except for Aphrodite </li></ul><ul><li>Liked bloodshed and cruelty </li></ul><ul><li>Twins sons – Romulus and Remus raised by wolves, founders of Rome </li></ul>
  28. 29. Greek Mythology today - <ul><li>Allusions to Greek Mythology in </li></ul><ul><li>literature </li></ul><ul><li>poetry </li></ul><ul><li>advertisements, logos </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>space program </li></ul>

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Greeks knew he was angry when thunder and lightning filled the sky.
  • Poseidon created many animals, but his favorite was the horse.