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Deciduous forest PERIOD 5

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Deciduous forest

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Deciduous forest PERIOD 5

  1. 1. Temperate Deciduous Forest Alicia Camaliche, Ryan Fernandez, Tristan Orozco
  2. 2. Location Where are Temperate Deciduous forests? - north east United States - Canada - Europe - Russia - China - Japan
  3. 3. Climate ● Average rainfall is 30-60 mm a year ● Average temperature is 50 degrees fahrenheit ● Very fertile soil due to litter
  4. 4. Nutrient flow B- biota (plants & animals) L- litter (waste from biota) S- soil Le- leaching P- precipitation
  5. 5. Biodiversity in Temperate Deciduous Forests ● The temperate deciduous forest has extremely high biodiversity index because it has a high density of plant life. ● Animals typically have furry coats or fat to insulate heat Important niches -Squirrels bury acorns causing trees to grow -Woodpeckers create nets in tree that are used by other animals after abandoned -Trees shed leaves making soil more fertile
  6. 6. Biology of a Temperate Deciduous Forest Tree species include: maple, oak, birch, magnolia, sweet gum, and beech. Red fox porcupines hawks
  7. 7. Pyramids for Temperate Deciduous Forests Food Pyramid : it represents predatory relationships between organisms Pyramid of Numbers : it depicts the number of individual organisms at different trophic levels
  8. 8. continued... Food Chain : the transfer of energy from one organism to the next, each resulting in less energy being transferred Food Web : system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.
  9. 9. continued... Biomass Pyramid : it represents the relative amounts of biomass at each trophic level
  10. 10. Gross Primary Productivity - the total rate at which photosynthesis or chemosynthesis occurs -estimated amount of 16 to 50 metric tons per hectare per year Net Primary Productivity - the rate at which producers use photosynthesis minus the energy being used for respiration -approximately 10 metric tons per hectare per year NPP = GPP - R
  11. 11. Succession ● There’s primary succession and secondary succession. Primary succession is when soil is not present in the ecosystem, so the process of soil formation is required before things like grass and eventually life can form ● Since temperate deciduous forests already have soil, they undergo secondary succession. ● The order is as follows: in absence of trees, weeds for over time weeds eventually decompose and add nutrients to soil once the soil becomes thick with enough nutrients, bushes and small tree begin to form pine trees follow afterwards, as they require less nutrients once optimal soil “richness” is achieved, deciduous trees begin to form and dominate over other plant life
  12. 12. MDC and LDC ● An MDC utilizes the trees from these forests in producing wood based products, as well as farm land for monoculture and livestock ● An LDC utilizes these forests for urbanization and farming, like MDCs ● Obviously all of these actions are harmful for a temperate deciduous forest. The loss of trees causes soil to erode more and loss of other dependent organisms in the ecosystem ● At one point, temperate deciduous forests covered about half of the earth’s surface, but now it’s down to around a third. Humans have majorly impacted the amount of deciduous forests left through deforestation, farming, and mining in the areas
  13. 13. MDC vs LDC MDC ● USA- The USA has cut down large portions of temperate deciduous forests for construction, land and wood products all over the eastern half of the country ● Because of this, the many species that lived in these forests have also died ● Less that 1% of all temperate deciduous forests in the US and Europe remain untouched, most have been reforested at some point ● The Chestnut (Castanea species) was once a dominant species in these forests, but was almost completely killed off by the “chestnut blight” that spread from China LDC ● China- to meet industrialization demands, China has cut down large portions of their temperate deciduous forests as well ● A distinct lack of taller trees in the Greater Hinggan Mountains (which lies in northern China) has made it so that smaller trees have a harder time retaining water, thus, when rain arrives, rivers flood much easier during rain ● When it’s not raining, drought occurs more often and causes forest fires
  14. 14. MDC vs LDC treatment MDC ● USA created the Lacey Act which banned illegal logging ● National Environmental Policy Act, which required agencies to report on damages done ● Wilderness Act of 1964 created many national parks and lands that are preserved LDC ● China is moving to ban logging in their northern forests ● LDC’s simply lack the resources, technology, and money to really put a stop to deforestation
  15. 15. Bibliography ● "Conservation of the Temperate Deciduous Forest: What Is a Temperate Deciduous Forest and the Threats to It." Bright Hub. N.p., 07 Mar. 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2016. ● "Logging and the Law: How the U.S. Lacey Act Helps Reduce Illegal Logging in the Tropics (2012)." Union of Concerned Scientists. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2016. <http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/lacey-act-illegal-logging-tropics.html#.V-M-UJgrKUk> ● "Deciduous Forest Animals." Deciduous Forest Animals. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2016. ● "Temperate Deciduous Fores." NASA. NASA, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2016. ● "Climate:." Temperate Deciduous Forest. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2016. ● Temperate Disiduous Forest. Digital image. D' Alice World of Science. Nicholas A. Tonelli, n.d. Web