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Jerome Bruner Theory of Education

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Jerome Bruner Theory of Education

  1. 1. MAED 206- Sociological and Psychological Theories Prepared by: Mayflor S. Barile
  2. 2. Jerome Bruner’s Theory of Learning
  3. 3. One of the first proponent of Constructivism. Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.
  4. 4. Bruner’s Main Concepts 1.Representation a.Enactive representation – at the earliest ages, children learn about the world through actions on physical objects and the outcome of these objects. b.Iconic representation- learning can be obtained through using models and pictures. c. Symbolic representation – the learner has developed the ability to think in abstract terms.
  5. 5. 2. Spiral Curriculum Teaching should always lead to boosting cognitive development. Student will not understand the concept if teacher plans to teach it using only the teacher’s level of understanding. Instruction needs to be anchored on the learner’s cognitive capabilities.
  7. 7. Principles of Instruction stated by Bruner 1. Instruction must be concerned w/ the experiences and context that makes the student willing and able to learn (READINESS). 2. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (SPIRAL ORGANIZATION). 3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (GOING BEYOND THE INFORMATION GIVEN).
  8. 8. 3. Discovery Learning Refers to obtaining knowledge for oneself. Learning becomes more meaningful when students explore their learning environment rather than listen passively to teacher.
  9. 9. Four major aspects of Theory of Instruction 1. PREDISPOSITION TO LEARN * he introduced the idea of “readiness for learning” * He believed that any subject could be taught at any stage of development in a way that fits the child cognitive abilities. 2. STRUCTURE OF KNOWLEDGE * refers to the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by their learner.
  10. 10. 3. EFFECTIVE SEQUENCING * No one sequencing will fit every learner, but in general, the lesson can be presented in increasing difficulty. 4. REINFORCEMENT * rewards and punishments should be selected and paced appropriately. * interest in the subject matter is the best stimulus for learning. * Bruner did not like external competitive goals such as grades or class ranking.
  11. 11. CATEGORIZATION Bruner’s gave much attention to categorization of information in the construction of internal COGNITIVE MAPS. He believed that perception, conceptualization, learning, decision making and making inferences all involved categorization.
  12. 12. Kinds of Categories 1. Identity Categories = categories include objects based on their attributes or features. 2. Equivalent Categories = Equivalence can be determined by affective criteria, which render objects equivalent by emotional reactions, functional criteria, based on related function. 3. Coding systems = categories that serve to recognize sensory input.
  13. 13. “Learners are encouraged to discover facts and relationships for themselves.” -Jerome Bruner
  14. 14. Information Processing Theory
  15. 15. Information Processing is a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and is stored in and is retrieved from our memory. It is one of the most significant cognitive theories in the last century and it has strong implications on the teaching learning process.
  16. 16. Information Processing Theory IPT described how the learner receives information (stimuli) from the environment through the senses and what takes place in between determines whether the information will continue to pass through the sensory register, then the short term memory and the long term memory.
  17. 17. TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE GENERAL VS. SPECIFIC: This involves whether the knowledge is useful in many tasks, or only in one. DECLARATIVE : Refers to factual knowledge. They relate to the nature of how things are. Can be in the form of word or image.
  18. 18. PROCEDURAL = includes knowledge on how to do things. EPISODIC = this includes memories of life events. CONDITIONAL = this is about “knowing when and why” to apply declarative or procedural strategies.
  19. 19. Three Main Stage in the Memory Process 1. SENSORY REGISTER is the first step in the IP model holds all sensory information for a very brief time. CAPACITY: Our mind receives a great amount of information but it is more than what our mind can hold or perceive. DURATION: 1 to 3 seconds only.
  20. 20. * The Role of Attention  To bring information into Consciousness. We can only perceive and remember later those things that pass through our attention “gate”.  Getting through this attentional filter is done when the learner is interested in the material; when there is conscious control over attention, or when information involves novelty, surprise and distinctiveness.  Before information is perceived it is known as “precategorical” information. Once it is perceived we can categorize, judge ,interpret and place meaning to the stimuli. If we fail to perceived, we have no means by which to recognize that the stimulus was ever encountered.
  21. 21. * Short-Term Memory (STM or Working Memory) CAPACITY: The STM can hold only 5 to 9 chunks of information. It is called working memory because it is where new information is temporarily placed while it is mentally processed. DURATION: Around 18 seconds or less To reduce the loss of information you need to do MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL.
  22. 22. * Long- Term Memory (LTM) The LTM is the final or permanent storing house for memory information. It hold the stored information until needed again. CAPACITY: LTM has unlimited capacity DURATION: duration in the LTM is indefinite.
  23. 23. 2. EXECUTIVE CONTROL PROCESSES The ECP involve the executive processor or what is refered to as metacognitive skills. This process guide the flow of information through the system, help the learner make informed decisions about how to categorize, organize or interpret information.
  24. 24. 3. FORGETTING It is the inability to retrieve or access information when needed. TWO MAIN WAYS IN WHICH FORGETTING OCCURS a. DECAY: Information is not attended to, and eventually ‘fades’ away. b. INTERFERENCE : new or old information ‘blocks’ access to the information in question.
  25. 25. METHODS FOR INCREASING RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION •Repeating informationRehearsal •Making connection between new information and prior knowledge. Meaningful Learning • Making connection among various pieces of informationOrganization • Connecting new info with old to gain meaning.Elaboration
  26. 26. •Forming a picture of the information. Visual Imagery •Things we ‘produce’ are easier to remember than things we ‘hear’Generation • Remembering the situationContext •Making the info relevant to the individual.Personalization
  27. 27. Other Memory Methods • remember the beginning and end of a ‘list’ more readily Serial position Effect- • Chunk Information Part Learning – •breaking up learning session than cramming all the info at once Distributed Practice- • memory techniques Mnemonic Aids –
  28. 28. Maintenance Rehearsal Rehearsal, Elaboration, Meaningful Learning, Organization, Visual, Imagery, Generalization Executive Control Processes (including Metacognition) Senses PerceptionSensory Memory Short term Memory Long Term Memory decay retrievalforgetting The Information Processing Model
  29. 29. Learning Theories and Their Application to Classroom and School Practices
  30. 30. In the classroom settings, teachers are said to reinforce the kind of behavior they want see through praise, smiles marks, rewards and the like. Since in the typical classroom situation, a teacher cannot supply reinforcement quickly enough or often enough, Skinner introduced programmed learning.
  31. 31. Programmed learning Is a system of learning in which pre-established subject matter is broken down into sequential steps, the learner is immediately reinforced after each step as soon as he makes the correct response. The emphasis on cognition and insight by cognitive-field theories has far-reaching implications for the present day classroom and school practices. It implies that the teacher has to select and provide appropriate learning experience whereby the learners can discover relationships between elements in various situations and understand them as a whole in an organized, unified pattern.
  32. 32. Applied to classroom situation in generals the filed theories implied the need for emphasis on looking at the total situation at the beginning. This is accomplished by having learners discuss both the immediate and ultimate goals of learning. The teacher has to preview the activities involved in the problems to be encountered.
  33. 33. For Example in primary readings the teacher should tell briefly what the story is about describe the characters and relate the story to the pupils experience. At the high school level instead of introducing the study of chemistry by detailed analysis, of a given element, the teacher must first discuss the operation of chemistry in daily living, the overall field, and the problems to be encountered.
  34. 34. Although this theories emphasize the place of generalities in introducing any subject area, emphasis is also make on the details which are aspects of the larger area. Example: the teaching of world analysis and phonetics is subsidiary to the importance of getting the idea. Word analysis and phonetics are significant as they contribute to better understanding. Teachers know that there are many pupils who can read the words but fail to grasp their meaning.
  35. 35. The interest of cognitive-field theories in developing reflective thinking implies setting up school program that are focused on teaching students to think effectively in a wide variety of situation. It implies teaching approaches which are child- centered as well as problem- centered. This calls for a teacher who understands the nature of the learner and perceives the learner’s life space, one who advocate greater learner participation; one who plans, executes and evaluates learning tasks in a problem-centered matter.
  36. 36. Transfer of Learning
  37. 37. Transfer of Learning happens when learning in one context or with one set of materials affects performance in another context or with other related materials. Simply put, it is applying to another situation what was previously learned.
  38. 38. Types of Transfer A. POSITIVE TRANSFER = occurs when learning in one context improves performance in some other context. B. NEGATIVE TRANSFER = occurs when learning in one context impacts negatively on performance in another. C. NEAR TRANSFER = refer to transfer between very similar context. Referred to as SPECIFIC TRANSFER D. FAR TRANSFER = also called GENERAL TRANSFER, refers to transfer between context that on appearance, seem remote and alien to one another.
  39. 39. Conditions and Principles of Transfer Conditions/Factors Affecting transfer of Learning Principles Of Transfer Implication Similarity between two learning situation The more similar the two situations are, the greater the chances that learning from one situation will be transferred to the other situation. Involve students in learning situations and tasks that are similar as possible to the situations where they would apply the tasks. Degree of meaningfulness/rele vance of learning Meaningful learning leads to greater transfer than rote learning Remember to provide opportunities for learners to link new material to what they learned in the past. Length of instructional time The longer the time spent in instruction, the greater the probability of transfer. To ensure transfer, teach a few topics in depth rather than many topics tackled in a shallow manner.
  40. 40. Variety of Learning Experiences Exposure to many and varied examples and opportunities for practice encourage transfer Illustrate a new concepts and principles with a variety of examples. Plan Context for learner’s experiences Transfer of learning is most likely to happen when learners discover that what they learned is applicable to various context. Relate a topic in one subject to topics in other subjects or disciplines. Relate it also to real life situations. Focus on principles rather than tasks Principles transfer easier than facts. Zero in on principles related to each topic together with strategies based on those principles Emphasis on metacognition Students reflection improves transfer of Learning Encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning, and to reflect on what they learned.