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INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
An introduction to the concept of the
Food-Energy-Water
Security Nexus
Stefan Meyer
November 4, 2014
Sunbird Capital Hotel, Lilongwe
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 2
Introduction
 Scarcity of food, energy and water worldwide
 Inter-linkages between the three sectors
 Food-Energy-Water Security (FEW) Nexus –
Opportunities and Challanges resulting from
inter-linkages
 Formulating the concept of FEW Nexus
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 3
Overview
I. Concept of the FEW Nexus
II. Definition of the FEW Nexus
III. Nexus interventions
IV.Challenges applying the Nexus approach
V. The nexus in Malawi – An example
VI.Conclusions
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Concept of the FEW Nexus I
Page 4
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Concept of the FEW Nexus II
Drivers
Endogenous Exogenous
Direct Direct Indirect
e.g. Good
governance in natural
resource
management
e.g. Rainfall e.g. Exchange rate
Page 5
• Drivers affecting the system of food, energy and
water are both outcome and effect.
• Direct vs. indirect drivers
• Endogenous vs. Exogenous drivers
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Concept of the FEW Nexus III
Page 6
 Time horizon: Short-term or medium-term
impacts
 Multidimensionality: Macro (global,
regional and national) as well as micro
(household and individual) level
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Definition of the FEW Nexus
The FEW nexus encompasses synergies and
trade-offs between food, energy, and water
security which are impacted by endogenous
and exogenous drivers and cannot be
captured if these sectors are analyzed in
isolation.
Page 7
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Nexus interventions
 Definition of a nexus intervention:
The intervention must impact food,
energy, and water security, of which at
least one impact must be direct.
 Interventions often affect endogenous
drivers (e.g. price and availability) which
have a direct effect
Page 8
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Nexus interventions - examples
Page 9
Percentage on histogram indicates
saving compared to traditional cookstove
Intervention Water security Energy
security
Food security
Conservation
agriculture
Direct:
Improved water
retention of
soils.
Direct: Use of
Machinery
increases fuel
consumption
Direct:
Improved yields
and increasing
diversity
Energy-efficient
cooking stoves
Direct: Less
deforestation
improves water
retention of
soils.
Direct: Less
energy needed
for cooking.
Indirect:
Changes in
cooking habits
and time labor
allocation.
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Applying the Nexus approach –
General challenges
Page 10
 Commonpool resources within the nexus.
 Necessity of specific solutions for property
rights on commonpool resources
 Food, energy and water security are global
public goods
 Lack of global security enforcing
mechansims
 Replace silo approach by a system
approach
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Applying the Nexus approach –
Challenges for policymakers
 Little incentives due to large barriers for
ministries to collaborate
 Pitfalls of Individualism
 Reasons for cooperation
 Lack of responsibility
Page 11
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Applying the Nexus approach –
Possible strategies for policymakers
Nexus policymaking:
 Develop and agree on common goals
 Share responsibilities to obtain goals
 Work together to achieve goals
Nexus gatherings:
 Coordination of non-participating ministery
 Collective resoponsibility by ministries
 Horizontal accountability
Page 12
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Applying the Nexus approach –
Challenges for other stakeholders
 Researchers: lack of articulate framework,
time constraints for group processes,
language barriers, publishing concerns
 Private sector: incentive to work on
common problem
Page 13
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
The Nexus in Malawi - GBI
Water Energy Food
Impact Change in
water
availability
Energy required
for operation
(e.g. Motorized
pump)
Increase yields of
food and cash
crops and diversify
agricultural
production
Kind Direct Direct Indirect
Outcome
(1):
Might increase
water access
Intensive nature
of energy usage
Ecker et al. (2010)
– greater
diversification and
poverty reduction
Outcome
(2):
Could decrease
water for other
stakeholder
Chinsinga and
Chasukwa (2012)
– property rights
Page 14
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Summary
 Practical definition of the nexus
 Nexus interventions
 Difficulties implementing the nexus
Page 15
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Thank you for your attention!
Page 16

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Food-Energy-Water Nexus Introduction

  • 1. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE An introduction to the concept of the Food-Energy-Water Security Nexus Stefan Meyer November 4, 2014 Sunbird Capital Hotel, Lilongwe
  • 2. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 2 Introduction  Scarcity of food, energy and water worldwide  Inter-linkages between the three sectors  Food-Energy-Water Security (FEW) Nexus – Opportunities and Challanges resulting from inter-linkages  Formulating the concept of FEW Nexus
  • 3. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 3 Overview I. Concept of the FEW Nexus II. Definition of the FEW Nexus III. Nexus interventions IV.Challenges applying the Nexus approach V. The nexus in Malawi – An example VI.Conclusions
  • 4. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Concept of the FEW Nexus I Page 4
  • 5. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Concept of the FEW Nexus II Drivers Endogenous Exogenous Direct Direct Indirect e.g. Good governance in natural resource management e.g. Rainfall e.g. Exchange rate Page 5 • Drivers affecting the system of food, energy and water are both outcome and effect. • Direct vs. indirect drivers • Endogenous vs. Exogenous drivers
  • 6. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Concept of the FEW Nexus III Page 6  Time horizon: Short-term or medium-term impacts  Multidimensionality: Macro (global, regional and national) as well as micro (household and individual) level
  • 7. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Definition of the FEW Nexus The FEW nexus encompasses synergies and trade-offs between food, energy, and water security which are impacted by endogenous and exogenous drivers and cannot be captured if these sectors are analyzed in isolation. Page 7
  • 8. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Nexus interventions  Definition of a nexus intervention: The intervention must impact food, energy, and water security, of which at least one impact must be direct.  Interventions often affect endogenous drivers (e.g. price and availability) which have a direct effect Page 8
  • 9. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Nexus interventions - examples Page 9 Percentage on histogram indicates saving compared to traditional cookstove Intervention Water security Energy security Food security Conservation agriculture Direct: Improved water retention of soils. Direct: Use of Machinery increases fuel consumption Direct: Improved yields and increasing diversity Energy-efficient cooking stoves Direct: Less deforestation improves water retention of soils. Direct: Less energy needed for cooking. Indirect: Changes in cooking habits and time labor allocation.
  • 10. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Applying the Nexus approach – General challenges Page 10  Commonpool resources within the nexus.  Necessity of specific solutions for property rights on commonpool resources  Food, energy and water security are global public goods  Lack of global security enforcing mechansims  Replace silo approach by a system approach
  • 11. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Applying the Nexus approach – Challenges for policymakers  Little incentives due to large barriers for ministries to collaborate  Pitfalls of Individualism  Reasons for cooperation  Lack of responsibility Page 11
  • 12. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Applying the Nexus approach – Possible strategies for policymakers Nexus policymaking:  Develop and agree on common goals  Share responsibilities to obtain goals  Work together to achieve goals Nexus gatherings:  Coordination of non-participating ministery  Collective resoponsibility by ministries  Horizontal accountability Page 12
  • 13. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Applying the Nexus approach – Challenges for other stakeholders  Researchers: lack of articulate framework, time constraints for group processes, language barriers, publishing concerns  Private sector: incentive to work on common problem Page 13
  • 14. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE The Nexus in Malawi - GBI Water Energy Food Impact Change in water availability Energy required for operation (e.g. Motorized pump) Increase yields of food and cash crops and diversify agricultural production Kind Direct Direct Indirect Outcome (1): Might increase water access Intensive nature of energy usage Ecker et al. (2010) – greater diversification and poverty reduction Outcome (2): Could decrease water for other stakeholder Chinsinga and Chasukwa (2012) – property rights Page 14
  • 15. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Summary  Practical definition of the nexus  Nexus interventions  Difficulties implementing the nexus Page 15
  • 16. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Thank you for your attention! Page 16