Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.


33.448 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Veröffentlicht in: Gesundheit & Medizin
  • Dating direct: ❤❤❤ http://bit.ly/2ZDZFYj ❤❤❤
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • Sex in your area is here: ❤❤❤ http://bit.ly/2ZDZFYj ❤❤❤
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • I am so pleased that I found you! I have suffered from Sleep Apnea for years. I have tried everything to fix the problem but nothing has worked. For the last years I have been trying to use a CPAP machine on and off but it is very difficult to sleep with. It's noisy and very uncomfortable. I had no idea there was a natural way to help me. I am so pleased that I found you! ◆◆◆ http://t.cn/AigiCT7Q
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • Discover How to Cure uterine fibroids and PCOS At Any Age, Even If You’ve Tried Everything And Nothing Has Ever Worked For You Before ●●● http://t.cn/Aig7V1M7
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • Who Else Wants To Cure Their Acne, Regain Their Natural Inner Balance and Achieve LASTING Clear Skin? Click Here ▲▲▲ http://scamcb.com/buk028959/pdf
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier


  1. 1. Speaker O.P.D. Nurses Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (U.R.T.I.)
  2. 2. Tonsillitis Is the inflammation of the tonsils that can be acute, sub-acute, and chronic due to causative factors affecting it.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Acute tonsillitis can either be bacterial or viral in origin. Subacute tonsillitis is caused by the bacterium Actinomyces . Chronic tonsillitis, which can last for long periods if not treated, is mostly caused by bacterial infection. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Tonsils are made –up of adenoids tissue that secretes lymphocytes that help in fighting against systemic infection of the body. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Causative agents: <ul><li>Bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci) </li></ul><ul><li>Virus (Adenovirus, mononucleosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Spirochetes </li></ul><ul><li>Treponema </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Causative factors enter the upper respiratory tract via nose and mouth </li></ul>
  7. 7. Enters the nose and mouth causing inflammation to the tonsils.
  8. 8. Signs and symptoms are; <ul><li>Sore throat as referred pain to the ears </li></ul><ul><li>Painful or difficult swallowing (Dysphagia) </li></ul><ul><li>Crouch coughing </li></ul><ul><li>Headache, fever, chills </li></ul><ul><li>Red swollen tonsils with pus </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling and tenderness of the submandibular glands </li></ul>
  9. 9. Diagnostic procedures: <ul><li>Buccal swab for Culture & sensitivity test to identify streptococci and staphylococci infections </li></ul><ul><li>Complete blood count for elevated white blood cells & lymphocytes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Incubation period: <ul><li>Acute Tonsillitis is 72 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-acute tonsillitis is 2-3 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Tonsillitis is 4-6 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent Tonsillitis is 1-2 weeks. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Treatment: <ul><li>1.Saline gargle (Mouthwash if needed) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Analgesics (Ponstan, Brufen) </li></ul><ul><li>3.Antipyretics & Increase fluid intake </li></ul><ul><li>4.Soothing Lozenges (Orofar-L, Strepsils) </li></ul><ul><li>5.Antibiotics (Penicillin is drug of choice) </li></ul><ul><li>but may use erythromycin & cefuroxime </li></ul><ul><li>6.Tonsillectomy for recurrent chronic cases </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>1.Peritonsillar abscess (tonsils with pus) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Lemierres syndrome (septicemia) </li></ul><ul><li>3.Hypertrophy of tonsils (snoring, mouth breathing, disturbed sleep and obstructive sleep apnea) </li></ul><ul><li>4.Rheumatic heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>5.Glomerulonephritis </li></ul><ul><li>6.Tonsillolith (tonsil debris in whitish color) </li></ul><ul><li>7.Halitosis (bad breath) </li></ul>Complications:
  13. 13. PHARYNGITIS <ul><li>Is the inflammation of the pharynx called sore throat that can be acute or chronic due to causative factors affecting it. It is usually precedes illness of colds and flu that doesn’t require antibiotics unless otherwise caused by bacterial infection because most disappear by their own in weeks or less. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Causative Agents <ul><li>Bacteria (Streptococci, Staphylococci) </li></ul><ul><li>Virus (Adenovirus, Mononucleosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Allergens (dust, mist, pollens, smokes) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Use of tobacco </li></ul>
  15. 15. Causative agent enters the upper respiratory tract, causing inflammation of the pharynx.
  16. 17. Signs and symptoms: <ul><li>I. Pharyngitis with colds </li></ul><ul><li>1.Sneezing </li></ul><ul><li>2.Cough </li></ul><ul><li>3.Low fever </li></ul><ul><li>4.Mild headache </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>II. Pharyngitis with flu </li></ul><ul><li>1. Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>2. Body aches </li></ul><ul><li>3. High fever </li></ul><ul><li>4. Chills </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>III. Pharyngitis with bacterial infection </li></ul><ul><li>1.Enlarges lymph nodes in neck & armpit </li></ul><ul><li>2.Headache </li></ul><ul><li>3.Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>4.Swollen spleen </li></ul><ul><li>5.Swollen tonsils </li></ul><ul><li>6.Liver inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>7. Dysphagia </li></ul><ul><li>8. Red & edematous pharynx with exudates </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>IV. Pharyngitis with viral infection </li></ul><ul><li>1. sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>2. coryza </li></ul><ul><li>3. body malaise & fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>4. hoarseness of voice </li></ul><ul><li>5. Low-grade fever </li></ul>
  20. 21. Diagnostic procedures: <ul><li>1. Buccal swab for culture & sensitivity test </li></ul><ul><li>to identify bacterial infection. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Complete blood count for increase white </li></ul><ul><li>blood cell and its differentials. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Incubation Period <ul><li>Acute Pharyngitis is 72 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-acute Pharyngitis is 2-3 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic pharyngitis is 7-10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent Pharyngitis is 1-2 weeks. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Treatment <ul><li>1.Saline gargle (Mouth wash if needed) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Analgesics (Ponstan, Brufen) </li></ul><ul><li>3.Antipyretics (Panadol extra) </li></ul><ul><li>4.Increase fluids but not soft drinks & not too sweet juices </li></ul><ul><li>5.Removal of allergens </li></ul><ul><li>6.Antiobiotics (Penicillin is drug of choice) </li></ul><ul><li>7.Vitamin-C for viral infection as the case don’t need medication for it disappear by its own. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Hospitalization if cannot swallow fluids to provide I.V. hydration. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Complications <ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Liver cirrhosis </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatic heart disease </li></ul>
  24. 25. Pharyngotonsillitis <ul><li>Is the inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils due to infectious (bacterial & viral) and non-infectious (pollens, dust, mist, sandstorms) factors affecting it that can be acute, sub-acute, and chronic. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Causative agents: <ul><li>1.Bacteria (Group-A betahemolytic streptococci) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Virus (Adenovirus, Mononucleosis) </li></ul><ul><li>3.Non-infectious (chemicals, dust, mist, pollens) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Causative agents enters the upper respiratory tract and inflamed the pharynx and tonsils.
  27. 28. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>I. Pharyngitis with bacterial infection </li></ul><ul><li>1.Fever </li></ul><ul><li>2.Sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>3.Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>4.Erythema of the pharynx and tonsils </li></ul><ul><li>5.Enlarged cervical glands </li></ul><ul><li>6.Exudative tonsils </li></ul><ul><li>7.Palatal petechia </li></ul><ul><li>8.Scarlet fever rash </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>II. Pharyngotonsillitis with viral infection </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cough </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rhinitis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conjunctivitis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>5. Sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>6. Fever </li></ul>
  29. 30. Diagnostic procedures: <ul><li>Buccal swab for culture and sensitivity to detect infectious agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete blood count for increase white blood cell and its differentials. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Incubation period: <ul><li>Acute Pharyngotonsillitis is 72 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-acute Pharyngotonsillitis is 2-3 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Pharyngotonsillitis is 4-10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent Pharyngotonsillitis is 2-3 weeks. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Treatment: <ul><li>Saline gargle (mouth wash if needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesics </li></ul><ul><li>Antipyretics </li></ul><ul><li>Lozenges </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics (Penicillin is best but may use amoxicilin & augmentin if allergy to Pen-G) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase fluids to correct dehydration of the pharynx and tonsils. </li></ul><ul><li>Humidify the air inhaled. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin-C intake </li></ul>
  32. 33. Complications: <ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatic heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Septicaemia </li></ul>
  33. 34. Laryngitis <ul><li>Is the inflammation of the larynx (voice box) due to overuse, irritation, infection (bacterial & viral), and non-infectious agents (mist, pollens, dews, sandstorms, dust, chemicals, smokes) that can be acute, sub-acute, and chronic. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Causative agents: <ul><li>Acute Laryngitis </li></ul><ul><li>1.Virus infection (colds, measles) </li></ul><ul><li>colds secretions enter the larynx via nasopharynx & </li></ul><ul><li>caused inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>2.Voice overuse </li></ul><ul><li>over talking dries the larynx tissues causing irritation </li></ul><ul><li>and inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>3.Bacterial infection (diptheria) </li></ul><ul><li>airborne microorganism invades the larynx & caused </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>II. Chronic Laryngitis </li></ul><ul><li>1.Irritants inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>2.Chronic sinusitis </li></ul><ul><li>3.Acid reflux (gastroeasophageal) </li></ul><ul><li>4.Excess alcohol intake </li></ul><ul><li>5.Smoking </li></ul>
  36. 37. Larynx- it opens and closes during sounds production
  37. 38. Causative agents enter the upper respiratory tract and inflamed the larynx. Normal Larynx or not inflamed Inflamed Larynx
  38. 39. Signs and symptoms: <ul><li>1.Hoarseness of voice due to distortion of the larynx during vibration of sound production. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Loss or weakness of voice. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Tickling sensation and rawness of the </li></ul><ul><li>throat. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Dry, sore throat. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Dry cough. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Diagnostic procedures: <ul><li>1. Laryngoscope confirmed exudates, </li></ul><ul><li>redness and inflamed larynx. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Biopsy of the larynx. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Culture and sensitivity swab to identify the causative agent. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Incubation period: <ul><li>Acute laryngitis is 72 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-acute laryngitis is 2-3 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic laryngitis is 4-10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent laryngitis is 2-3 weeks. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Treatments: <ul><li>Steam inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Rest / no talking to relax larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Increase fluids to dehydrate larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Saline gargle, mouth wash if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesics </li></ul><ul><li>Antipyretics </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Corticosteroids </li></ul><ul><li>Acid reflux medication </li></ul><ul><li>Heart burns treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide communication pads </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate patient needs instead of asking </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain air humidification </li></ul>
  43. 44. Complications: <ul><li>Cancer of the larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatic heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent loss of voice / hoarseness </li></ul>
  44. 45. THANK YOU…