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Sec1.fa4 wounds & bleeding

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Sec1.fa4 wounds & bleeding

  1. 1.  Open Wounds  Closed Wounds WOUNDS
  2. 2. TYPE OF WOUND (ABRASIONS)  An abrasion is a superficial injury, commonly known as a graze or scratch.  Damages only the epidermis.  Commonly caused by a glancing impact across the surface of the skin.
  4. 4. TYPE OF WOUND (CONTUSIONS)  Commonly known as bruises.  May be superficial or deeper within tissues or organs.  Caused by blunt injury to tissues, damaging the blood vessels beneath the skin.
  6. 6. TYPE OF WOUND (LACERATIONS)  Commonly known as gashes, tears or cuts of the skin.  Skin surface is split or torn and full thickness of the skin is damaged.  Results in profuse bleeding.
  8. 8. TYPE OF WOUND (LACERATIONS) Amputation is also a kind of laceration. To treat amputation,  Wrap the amputated part in a plastic bag.  Wrap again in gauze or soft fabric.  Place the package in another plastic bag filled with crushed ice.  Send the amputated part together with the casualty to the hospital.
  9. 9. TYPE OF WOUND (INCISIONS)  Cut-like injuries, made by sharp objects like knives, broken glass etc.
  11. 11. TYPE OF WOUND (PUNCTURE)  Skin completely punctured by an object that is pointed and narrow, such as a nail.
  12. 12. BLEEDING Our body’s mechanism to stop bleeding…  Clotting of blood.  Cut ends of a blood vessel will contract.  Blood pressure will drop.
  13. 13. TYPE OF BLEEDING  Arterial bleeding  Venous bleeding  Capillary bleeding
  14. 14. TYPE OF BLEEDING Arterial bleeding  Blood is bright right red in colour.  Spurts out from a wound in time with the heartbeat.  Severed main artery may jet blood several feet high.  Rapidly reduce the volume of circulatory blood.
  15. 15. TYPE OF BLEEDING Venous bleeding  Blood is dark red in colour.  Gush out from wound profusely. Capillary bleeding  Blood oozing at the site of the wound.  Blood loss is usually slight.
  16. 16. FIRST AID PRIORITIES  Control blood loss by applying pressure over the wound and raising the injured part.  Take steps to minimize shock, which can result from severe blood loss.  Cover any open wound with a dressing to protect it from infection and promote natural healing.  Pay extra attention to hygiene to prevent cross-contamination between you and the casualty.
  17. 17. TREATMENT FOR MINOR EXTERNAL BLEEDING  Direct pressure.  Elevation.  Small adhesive dressing.  Medical aid need only be sought if the bleeding does not stop or if the wound is at special risk of infection.
  18. 18. Protecting yourself…  Use disposable gloves.  Wash hands well in soap and water before and after treatment.  Cover any sores or open wounds with waterproof adhesive dressing.
  19. 19. Cleaning and dressing of wound…  If the wound is dirty, clean it by rinsing lightly under running water or use an antiseptic wipe.  Elevate the wounded part above the level of the heart.  Apply adhesive dressing.  If there is a special risk of infection, advise the casualty to see a doctor.
  20. 20. INTERNAL BLEEDING Recognition:  Pallor.  Cold, clammy skin.  A rapid, weak pulse.  Pain.  Thirst.  Confusion, restlessness and irritability, possibly leading to collapse and unconsciousness.  After violent injury, pattern bruising.  Bleeding from orifices.  Information from the casualty that indicates recent injury or illness, previous similar episodes or he or she takes drugs for a medical condition.
  21. 21. Bleeding from orifices… Site Appearance Cause Mouth Bright red, frothy, coughed-up blood. Bleeding in the lungs. Vomitted blood, red or dark reddish- brown, resembling coffee colour. Bleeding within the digestive system. Ear Fresh, bright red blood. Injury to the inner or outer ear or perforated eardrum. Thin watery blood. Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid following head injury.
  22. 22. Bleeding from orifices… Site Appearance Cause Nose Fresh, bright red blood. Ruptured blood vessel in the nostril. Thin, watery blood. Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid following head injury. Anus Fresh, bright red blood. Injury to the anus or lower bowel. Black, tarry, offensive-smelling stool. Injury to upper bowel.
  23. 23. Bleeding from orifices… Site Appearance Cause Urethra Urine with a red or smoky appearance and occasionally clots. Bleeding from the bladder or kidneys. Vagina Either fresh or dark blood. Menstruation, miscarriage, disease of or injury to the vagina or womb.