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Digital Marketing Plan for Grainger

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This digital marketing plan attempts to pave the way to a sustainable profits for both Grainger, an MRO supply chain company, and Bosch Power Tools, a section of Bosch company that excels in automotive and power tools. The aim of the plan is to increase the sales of Bosch Power Tools at Grainger website with 10% by designing a multi-channel digital campaign. In order to do that, we start by defining and identifying both companies, defining the trend of their industries, and describing their digital assets. Given the three scenarios given of the potential customers, we will place these customers in their respective phase of Consumer Decision Journey (CDJ) in order to come with a marketing objective for each scenario and be able to conduct the necessary measures. After defining that, we will define and identify the data we need for the marketing objectives and the method we will be adopting for collecting the data. To analyze the data, we will need to adopt a blend of the known analysis known including descriptive, inferential, exploratory, causal and predictive. The next stage will be to set up the channel and content strategies for this digital marketing plan that includes the tone of the copy as well as and the general philosophy of the content that will be deployed. Finally in the test and control we will set research objectives that would serve as a benchmark in order to test, evaluate, monitor the success and failure of the digital marketing plan and adapt it accordingly.

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Digital Marketing Plan for Grainger

  1. 1. Table of Content Executive Summary..................................................................... Problem Statement...................................................................... 1. Client/Brand Analysis ....................................................................... 1.1. About Grainger....................................................................... 1.1.1. Business Model...................................................................... 1.1.2. Growth Strategy...................................................................... 1.1.3. Online Presence...................................................................... 1.1.4. Customers .............................................................................. 1.1.5. Purchasing Trends .................................................................. 1.1.6. The MRO Industry in the North American................................ 1.2. About Bosch........................................................................................ 1.2.1. Bosch Power Tools Division ....................................................... 1.2.2. Bosch Customers........................................................................ 1.2.3. Customer Trends and Perceptions ............................................. 1.2.4. SWOT Analysis ........................................................................... 1.2.5. Online Assets and its Presence................................................... 2. Consumer Decision Journey (CDJ) ............................................................... 2.1. Scenarios and concerns ......................................................................... 2.1.1. First Scenario……………………………………………………... 2.1.2. Second Scenario…………………………………………………. 2.1.3. Third Scenario……………………………………………………. 2.2. Analysis of scenarios……………………………………………………... 2.3. Business objectives………………………………………………………. 3. Data Collection and Analysis………………………………………………….. 3.1. Data that will be Used……………………………………………………. 3.2. Key Performance Indicators (KPI)......................................................... 3.3. Bias and how to Avoid it…………………………………………………. 3.4. Adopted Analysis……………………………………………………….... 3.5. Benchmarks………………………………………………………………. 3.6. Analysis Summary……………………………………………………….
  2. 2. 4. The Channel and Content Strategy 4.1. Emails and Display Campaigns for Audience Category 1 and Category 2…. 4.2. Recommendations………………………………………………………………. 4.2.1. Content and Tone of the message and visuals……………………….. 4.2.2. Keeping Content aligned with Bosch………………………………….. 5. Test and Control……………………………………………………………………….. 5.1. Research Objectives……………………………………………………………. 5.2. Primary and Secondary Research…………………………………………….. 5.3. Testing………………......................................................................................
  3. 3. Executive Summary This digital marketing plan attempts to pave the way to a sustainable profits for both Grainger, an MRO supply chain company, and Bosch Power Tools, a section of Bosch company that excels in automotive and power tools. The aim of the plan is to increase the sales of Bosch Power Tools at Grainger website with 10% by designing a multi-channel digital campaign. In order to do that, we start by defining and identifying both companies, defining the trend of their industries, and describing their digital assets. Given the three scenarios given of the potential customers, we will place these customers in their respective phase of Consumer Decision Journey (CDJ) in order to come with a marketing objective for each scenario and be able to conduct the necessary measures. After defining that, we will define and identify the data we need for the marketing objectives and the method we will be adopting for collecting the data. To analyze the data, we will need to adopt a blend of the known analysis known including descriptive, inferential, exploratory, causal and predictive. The next stage will be to set up the channel and content strategies for this digital marketing plan that includes the tone of the copy as well as and the general philosophy of the content that will be deployed. Finally in the test and control we will set research objectives that would serve as a benchmark in order to test, evaluate, monitor the success and failure of the digital marketing plan and adapt it accordingly.
  4. 4. Problem Statement This section identifies the problem we are trying to solve in this present document. “To design a multi-channel digital marketing campaign for the client, Grainger, as they target a sales increase of Bosch Power Tools by 10% on Grainger.com. The client wants the campaigns to focus on display advertising and email for this project.” Grainger is a firm that supplies MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Operation) products. They provide anything that a firm may need which may not become part of the final product. The supplies can be procured through Grainger.com, from 370 branches across the USA, or over the phone. They are a business-to-business (B2B) company and have a global footprint with many subsidiaries in different countries across the globe. Even though Grainger is a B2B firm, it is actually very similar to a B2C firm, where they market to the end consumer as well. Traditionally, Grainger would have done marketing campaigns by itself over various platforms such as search ads, displays, social, etc. Recently, they have started looking at partnering with their big suppliers to conduct joint promotional campaigns. Bosch Tools is one such supplier. Bosch Tools, a unit of Bosch, supplies power tools to Grainger, and Grainger is one of the main B2B resellers of Bosch. Bosch Tools has several other B2C online partners and a few B2B partners as well. Grainger and Bosch Tools are partnering together to explore ways to increase sales of power tools. They would like to increase sales by 10% by working more closely to sell more products to existing customers, find new customers, and sell across product categories as well. Boschtools.com is itself a consumer- facing website and has data on customer behavior, and Bosch is sharing this data with Grainger.
  5. 5. 1. Client/Brand Analysis 1.1. About Grainger Grainger is an MRO B2B company headquartered in USA that was founded in 1927. It specializes in MRO ( maintenance, repair and operations) industry. Basically, it is a supply chain entity that ensures that products reaches its customers on time capitalizing on the unplanned urgent maintenance that may occur. Although it is a B2B, it also acts as a B2C.It also has an online business represented by Zoro.com that is B2C and also Monotaro.com that is situated in Japan1. 1.1.1. Business Model Accordingly, the business model of Grainger, namely how the company makes money, is that it supplies logistics and operations to its customers by offering them in its website more than one 1.4 m products making it easier for the the businesses to look at one place without going under the turmoil of looking for themselves. This is done by offering a wide range of MRO products to customers and also by trying to have more coverage by means of opening branches around the country. 1.1.2. Growth Strategy The growth strategy for Grainger is based on spreading its wings on more international markets and clients so as to cover more audiences knowing that the company has a solid online asset and strong brick-and-mortar infrastructure. This can be seen in the new partnerships it is steadily acquiring, new abroad branches being opened in Europe such as Cromwell in UK. Also, the company capitalizes on IT developments in CRM and in making e-inventories in its database. 1.1.3. Online Presence Grainger has a good online presence due to its armada of digital marketing teams and its long history where they opened their first website 20 years ago2. According to similarweb website, Gcom generated a total visit of 4.586 million in one month where 72.91 originates from desktop devices. Also, the fact that most of the traffic is being recorded on Monday’s and sometimes on Wednesday’s with a fixed pattern of low traffic on weekend is very revealing of they types of customers who visit Gcom as it is shown in the line diagram3: 1 https://www.b2becommerceworld.com/2016/04/18/zorocom-sales-rise-while-graingers-overall-us-sales-are-flat. 2 Grainger History. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2016, from http://pressroom.grainger.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=194987&p=irol-corporatetimeline 3 Industry, By. "Similarweb.com - Digital World Market Intelligence Platform." SimilarWeb.com. Web. 08 Sept. 2016.
  6. 6. Figure 01 This strong online presence has allowed Grainger to win $4.1 billion in 20154 and to reap a bunch of awards. In addition to that, the company has also created some other service platforms and sub- companies such as e-procurment, Zoro Company, etc. Again and according to similarweb service, Grainger capitalizes more on many social media especially Facebook and interestingly Reddit as it is shown in this diagram5: Figure 02 Indeed, Facebook is considered to be the main hub for Grainger fans with more than 180 thousand followers, Youtube with 3K followers, Twitter with more than 23K followers and so on down the list of social media accounts 1.1.4. Customers 4 Grainger. (2016). Grainger Factbook 2016. 5 Industry, By. "Similarweb.com - Digital World Market Intelligence Platform." SimilarWeb.com. Web. 08 Sept. 2016.
  7. 7. Overall, we can divide customers into three categories that are: procurement department at big companies, technicians at medium-sized companies, and small business owners. Most of the customers are males with some college degree where they most visit the website while they are at work6. According to the Akin Tosyali in his interview with professor Shahev, customers who visit the website can be linearly categorized into major categories: Installer who tells what are the features of the product to be bought and the buyer who decides where to buy it from. On the vertical side, these customers can be sub- categorized on the basis whether they are new visitors or a returning visitor and contracted or non- contracted. 1.1.5. Purchase Trends We notice a decrease in traffic this year for Grainger compared to the last year, and according to the queries searched by people most of them tend to look for branches of Grainger around US which may be a capital that should tapped into more and more by Gcom staff. The following diagram displays this where the red column represents 2015 and the blue one represents 20167: Figure 03 1.1.6. MRO Industry in North America The industry of MRO is steadily increasing in North American region and therefore the prophecy of the management guru Peter Drucker was fulfilled when he said in 1962 that logistics was an untapped source of innovation and opportunity, calling it the economy’s “dark continent.” What is striking is that many customers are looking on internet on how to fix electronic gadgets such as photographers, Playstations, 6 "Alexa's Digital Marketing Tools Help You Engineer Growth and Drive Success." Alexa. Web. 08 Sept. 2016 7 Industry, By. "Similarweb.com - Digital World Market Intelligence Platform." SimilarWeb.com. Web. 08 Sept. 2016.
  8. 8. etc. Also, we notice an increasing trend in the maintenance of computer systems such as servers and mainframes. Added to that, there is a steady increase of using mobile apps for carrying out processes of millions of dollars with a touch of screen8. The move from paper-based to paperless and on the go transactions and interactions is spreading through e-procurement9 and also with the communication easily carried out through technology. Many companies are moving to outsourcing and to get materials from low-cost countries10. Also industry changes have lead to a paradigmatic shift on how to address maintenance for instance. Indeed, it was in the beginning in-house based one and later on it moved toward more flexible form as it is shown in the following diagram11 Figure 04 1.2. About Bosch Tools Bosch is a multinational company that specializes in manufacturing mobility solutions, industrial technology, consumer goods; and energy and building technology operations. The company has more than 360,000 associates around the world, a manpower about 370,000 employees worldwide, and with 8 https://www.internetretailer.com/2014/08/05/grainger-sees-bigger-future-mobile-apps 9 http://reliabilityweb.com/articles/entry/recent_impacts_of_e-procurement_on_the_mro_industry_maintenance_repair 10 https://www.atkearney.com.au/documents/10192/245098/MRO_on_the_Move.pdf/ad3b2cdf-1c51-429e-87c0- 10842a800703 11 Capgemini, LTD. Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) Optimized MRO...Becoming a Reality. 2016.
  9. 9. sales that exceeded 70 million Euros. It has also good reputation for the quality and reliability of its products and services as well. There are also other brands that belong to Bosch as well such as Skil, Dremel, RotoZip, and so on. Among the categories that company is considered to pioneer in is power tools division with more than 100 tools being presented to the market each year. The category also contains other sub-categories that are respectively: ● Power tools such as hammers, cordless power tools, grinders, etc. ● Power tools accessories such as oscillating multi-tool accessories, band saw blades, etc. ● Power tool attachment such as abrasive cutoff machine attachments, circular saw attachments, etc. 1.2.1. Bosch Customers According to a case study published in Digital Marketing Academy, customers on Facebook page seem to be a younger generation especially woodworkers. What is striking though, is that the interest of the audience that generally visit the website is surprisingly art and entertainment which is likely to include again, and as confirmation for the case study mentioned above, younger age groups, namely millennials. This category is likely to represent the secondary audience for Bosch power tools that help increase the brand awareness. As for primary audience, it is also corporate clients be it procurement departments of companies or mid-sized ones. 1.2.2. Customer Trends and Perceptions Generally, customers are likely to buy from Bosch power tools upon a recommendation of one of the colleagues or friends which a key asset to capitalize on and turn into a benefit. In this context, Bosch power tools are considered by clients to be of a good quality and thanks to the company values that are based on quality and reliability and the perception of customers, according to reviews, who consider it a strong brand12 although the doppelganger campaigns launched by some competing companies. 1.2.3. Bosch SWOT Analysis If we want to conduct a SWOT analysis for Bosch power tools, we may cast light at the following horizons and challenges that are awaiting Bosch in the short or the long run and need a serious care and consideration to either turn internal and external factors for the benefit of Bosch. 12 http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/55492/marketing-focus-perception-question-consumers-perceive-brand-big- impact-bottom-line-latest-equitrend-brand-equity-survey-gives-valuable-insight#
  10. 10. 1.2.4. Online Assets and its Presence It seems that Bosch power tools staff are investing less in paid searches compared to organic search where according to similarweb.com, only 0.71% is generated by the former, while 99.29% is generated by the latter as it is shown this figure: Figure 05
  11. 11. As for social media presence and visibility, Facebook seems to have taken the biggest pie with 41% over the other social media channels and with a number of followers that exceeds 100 thousand. Interestingly, Bosch seems to have opted out for instagram. Besides Facebook, there are other social media channels such as Twitter, Youtube, LinkedIn, etc as it is shown in this figure: Figure 06: Bosch’s Social Media presence As for Youtube channel, it seems to be based on online syndication where subscribers are updated on a regular basis about how-to videos in order to increase their experience with power tools offered by Bosch. 2. Consumer Decision Journey (CDJ) Based on the model developed by McKinsey back in 2009 that is entitled Consumer Decision Journey (CDJ), we will model our objectives on this framework. The CDJ reads as it is shown in the
  12. 12. following figure: Figure 07 2.1. Scenarios The focus of this analysis will be based on three possible scenarios: 1. Audiences that visit Boschtools.com, look at a power tool (for example a drill), but do not visit Grainger.com. 2. Audiences that visit Boschtools.com, look at a power tool, and then visits Grainger.com, logs in to Grainger.com, and visit the power tools category. 3. Audiences that visit Boschtools.com, look at a power tool, and then visits Grainger.com, logs in to Grainger.com, and visit the plumbing category but not power tools.
  13. 13. 2.1.1. First Scenario In this scenario 1,we may venture and say that they can be placed in the initial consideration stage especially for new visitors who are checking the brand and reviewing and collecting more information about Bosch tools. Here, there is not a trigger since the need has been already created and customers are likely to look for solutions to cover it. The possible second audiences are returning visitors and secondary customers who are rather actively evaluating the pros and cons of what they are going to buy and here they must be aware of the brand, already having considered it but they want to dig deeper. However, for the sake of keeping things more consistent, they can be placed at active evaluation. The concerns and questions of customers at this stage are mainly knowing the reliability of the products being offered and their characteristics along with the pricing that is being offered. 2.1.2. Second Scenario In this scenario 2, in fact reflects that they’re rather in the borders of active evaluation and are entering the moment of purchase or in other words they’re going back to ZMOT13 but with less tension where other competitors have almost lost hope to attract them. Here, the customers are likely to make the purchase but they still leave a room for hesitation and for final change of thought. The concerns of customers with this scenario is maybe looking for more proofs and credentials in order to endorse their decisions. 2.1.3. Third Scenario In this scenario, we see that if we put these stations they have visited and put on CDJ we will be able to imply that this audience is initially considering their options and alternatives and then actively visiting Grainger Plumber category upon a trigger that may have been created either at Bosch Tools or at Gcom and if we torture the number far enough they’ll either validate or refute this claim. Indeed, the customers here are going back and forth from active evaluation to trigger. Having said that, customers in this scenario are rather involved in some kind of competitively digging up for information about more information in regard to Bosch and also they just may have realized that there is another need they need to fulfill as well. This table summarizes the previous points 13 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g40rrWBx2ok
  14. 14. Scenario CDJ Stage Customers concerns Scenario 1 Active evaluation Reliability of the brand and whether it’s better than other products and pricing. Scenario 2 Moments of purchase Looking for more proofs to endorse their final decisions and starting to proceed the purchase Scenario 3 Initial consideration Comparing other products. 2.2. Analysis of Scenarios 2.2.1. First Scenario It is necessary that the company performs a competitive intelligence through evaluating what other competing brands are offering and how they are offering their products along with the platforms they are most active in. Also, it should concentrate on experimenting and testing with the aim of brushing up on the journey of active evaluators. Some of the metrics that need to be looked at are for example: average time spent on page, exit rate, and so on. 2.2.2. Second Scenario Here in order to have more accurate insights on what is going on, the analysis should be based on outcome analysis and also conversion. Some of the metrics that help us in this matter are for instance: visitor recency, add-to-cart conversion rate, shopping cart abandonment rate, etc. 2.2.3. Third Scenario Here, the company should also run experimentation along with some clickstream analyses to able to guess what is attracting customers to plumbing category. There are some metrics we adopt here such as: CTR, CPA, CPC, etc. 2.3. Business Objectives of Scenarios What seems clear at first glance is really the overlap between the business objectives in terms of the available data and also the scenarios that were provided where it is really challenging to find a consensus over a mono-behaviour that you can capitalize on in order to come up with a single
  15. 15. business objective to base the marketing strategy upon. Here my humble trial in order to come up with a sound outcome: 2.3.1. First Scenario The business objective here should be the striving to influence consideration for this category of clients since they seem to be looking for information about this brand and they are actively looking for information about it. Accordingly, as marketers, we should be asking whether our products satisfy the consumers needs. The type of data needed for the first scenario is measuring the outcome of CTR of the two versions of a given ad or campaign and the clickstream analysis for both experimental campaigns. 2.3.2. Second Scenario The business objective for this scenario should be finding ways how to improve the sales process by making the purchase decision quicker and leaving no room for hesitation in customers since hesitation opens the doors for last-minute change of thoughts. Having said that, the key question we should be asking in this scenario is whether “the sales efforts result in wins for the brand”. The type of data needed here maybe conversion rate and average order value. 2.3.3. Third Scenario The business objective for this scenario would be striving on to create a brand awareness of customers in order to attract them to the Bosch power tools category by presenting and making them recognize the the brand of Bosch tools at Gcom. The key questions that we should be asking for the first scenario would whether the customers recognize the brand at all at Gcom. The data required for this scenario consists of intelligence data that are related to other companies and also where customers go after they leave the website, the average session, guest questionnaire or surveys on how much over 10 they would recommend Bosch tool. Business Objective Key Questions Data--- source Influence consideration Are the customers satisfied with the products in terms of quality, reliability and pricing? - Average Time Spent on Page, Exit Rate, Page Per Visit. Source: Web Analytics Platforms.
  16. 16. Does the Website help visitors find what they’re looking fo? - Exit Page, Bounce Rate,..etc Source: Analytics platforms, Usability studies. Improve Sales Process Do the pages show the products in a convincing manner that lead to sale? How does the customers fulfill the purchase process and how to make it quicker and without hesitation - Add-to-Cart Conversion Rate Source: Google Analytics. - Cart Abandonment Rate, Exit Rate. Source: Google Analytics. Increase Brand Awareness How do the customers find the category and do they recognize it Trends, New visits--- Google Trends. Direct traffic--- alexa, similarweb. Social media metrics--- tools of the trade. Reviews on business-- websites of the trade. Other competitors strategies--- CI websites ( E.g: alexa) 3. Data Collection and Analysis 3.1. Data that will be Used In order to reach reliable outcomes from the analysis and for the sake of staying within SMART objectives that do not go beyond what we have as data resources, it is more preferably to conduct a descriptive analysis given the small amount of data access we’ve been granted which includes looking at raw data and therefore, giving basic foundation to conduct more advanced analyses. We will also refer to inferential analysis for the sake of identifying more traits of the personas that we’re going to construct here. Within that context, we will be needing to extract data from Google Analytics, especially those related to average session, bounce rate, page depth, etc. Also, we will be collecting data from OpenTracker in terms of social media analytics. Added to that, we will be frequently analysing the results from Google Trends to gauge their interests and what they’re talking about. 3.2. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) The objectives that we have set forward which are respectively: influence consideration, improve sales process, and increase brand awareness; the key performance indicators that we will adopt as signposts to measure flow and success of the strategy will be as follows:
  17. 17. - Influence Consideration: Average page depth, average session, CTR, ROAS, amplification rate, - Improve sales process: shopping cart abandonment rate which is calculated by dividing the number of people who don’t complete check-out on the number of people who start check out, customer lifetime value(CLV) - Increase brand awareness: Rate of new visitors compared to returning visitors, conversion rate from social media. Bounce rate= number of visitors who leave immediately divided by the total number of visitors. Direct traffic, amplification and applause rate, CTR, Unique Opens, ROAS, 3.3. Bias and how to Avoid it One of the challenges that we may face here while collecting data from these different resources if we don’t pay a close attention about the methods on how we’re collecting data, is bias. Bias may alter or may result in results that are contradictory to what we have expected beforehand. It is clear in our case that one of these issue is the sample bias where we may have a sample that doesn’t qualify to statistical significance and therefore cannot be applied or generalized to the remaining states knowing that Excel data provided by Grainger have been already altered for commercial reasons. Added to that, one of the pitfalls that we will try to avoid is to exclude some customers or audiences that may look as a reason for the decline of our business objective, yet they are necessary for us in order to conduct an objective data collection that allows us to have sound insights that help us in the content strategy. Moreover, having only a sample data from the client, namely Grainger, aggravates our task to collect valid and reliable data since the data provided are for the sake giving example not really for the sake of taking it as a basis to conduct a fully-fledged data collection since incomplete data is likely to lead to ambiguous outcomes that may be interpreted in several ways. Having said that, our task seems to daunting with incomplete data; however, we can compensate for that lack and mitigate the potential outcomes if we strive to adopt an array of data resources from different sources and engage into what Avinash termed multiplicity14 where he advocates the use of a diaspora of tools in order to have sound data after comparing them others. As for the sampling bias as well as the number of the sample and whether it would be of a statistical significance or not, the most likely approach we have to trigger here is to look at the patterns and statistically analyze it to see whether there are any redundancies, controversies or not. As for interpreting issue, it is true that the data are incomplete, but we may bypass that by building a mini-model that is based on the data provided and offer a way to test its reliability through test and control. This seems to be the 14 http://www.kaushik.net/avinash/multiplicity-succeed-awesomely-at-web-analytics-20/
  18. 18. least that can be done when offered with incomplete data set and getting around that needs art and craft. 3.4. Adopted Analysis As we have already quickly touched on the possible analyses that we are likely to conduct, it’s time here to go deeper about the other categories that we will use sporadically depending on the nature of the business objective under investigation. In this regard, we are going to focus on descriptive analysis as a first fashion to delve deeper into the analysis. This allows us to take a snapshot of the web traffic, clickstream, and also competitive intelligence. The data sources that we foresee to base our analysis upon are: Google Analytics, and OpenTracker. The data that would be instrumental if I have access to are those related to the competitors of Bosch and Grainger where while these data can be available, it will help close any existing gaps in performance in regards to other competitors. As an example of analysis, By looking at the Excel file provided by Grainger that belongs to structured data, we can imply the following outcome represented in this diagram: Figure 08: Comparison between Revenue and CPA in terms of ROAS By taking a closer look at the above diagram it seems there is more spending on visitors visiting Grainger & Bosch but making no purchase which should be the focus of the future marketing strategy in order to see how to mitigate that cost and turn into a benefice knowing that the ROAS percentage for visitors going to Grainger & Bosch and making no purchase is 0.24%15 . Added to that, by looking at the daily clickstream habits of audience on the website we can get many insights on what, where, and when customers are doing what they are doing. The following diagram demonstrates this: 15 Grainger-_-Bosch-Capstone-Reporting
  19. 19. Figure 08: proportion The previous diagram reveals that the surfing patterns of customers tend to be at its peak on Friday and Tuesday as well in terms of CPA which may give insights about the correct timing of applying marketing strategies and campaigns such as display ads, etc. Having said that, we notice the following trend during the days of the week in terms of CPA as it is shown in this diagram: Figure 09: Trend of CPA We also need to launch some research tools that give us more power over the data we’re collecting especially the ones that fulfill the inferential analysis such as guest surveys that we would be launching for returning and new visitors who visit Bosch power tools. This will give us more insights about the persona of this segment which will eventually help us tailor more user-based ads and more personalized
  20. 20. email campaigns. In addition to that , we need to run a strong multivariate and A-B testing in order to find correlation that may lead us to causalities which is the core feature of causal analysis. We need before hand to define the control and independent variable in these experiments so can compare against the experiment and control groups. This is necessary in order to avoid interpretation bias and also in order to reach more reliable and valid data here so we can apply especially to reach our business objective, namely here influencing consideration. Due to the shortage of data, it seems to me a bit challenging to engage in a predictive analysis that requires more data to be processed and tidied up into a manageable data sets let alone the tedious process of conceptualizing an attribution modelling. 3.5. Benchmarks The benchmarks we plan use here is to increase the average session by 20%, page depth by 15%, amplification & applause rate by 30%, and also decrease shopping cart abandonment rate by 15%. This is not an exhaustive list but rather an overview at the most important benchmarks that we wanted to highlight here. 6. The Channel and Content Strategy 4.1. Emails and Display Campaigns for Audience Category 1 and Category 2 In order to have a sound a reliable email and ad display campaigns for the users in each category, we will divide that in the following elements: Email will consist of regular follow-up emails and promotional emails that are targeted to primary customers who are mainly procurement department officers. As for the first category of the users email should be a natural completion of what these users have been already doing since this will likely to bridge the possible gap present in them. Display ads should be programmatically triggered at different stages of CDJ once a need is spotted and this could be at the different platforms especially Facebook16 where most of the users are active there. This can be done in a multivariate tests in order to offer a constant feedback and any necessary update for the test and control phase. Display ads should not be only designed to trigger a call to action to check more products but should be also designed to hook on more users to join, for instance, the newsletter so as to get more demographic data about them and to be able to personalize and gage their needs more accurately. Actually, display ads, as stated before, should be used in three different scenarios with different marketing objectives: whether to catch the users’ attention, or to retain them or to stand among the crowd while they are in their active evaluation. Accordingly, it should be an ongoing process 16 Industry, B. (n.d.). Grainger.com Traffic Statistics. Retrieved September 28, 2016, from https://www.similarweb.com/website/grainger.com#social.
  21. 21. with an ongoing adaptation and change. For example ads like these can have a good impact on new customers17 : Figure 10 For the sake of offering them incentives to apply the call to action, the ad should explicitly and simply entice users by promising them special offers that are not available to outside circle of the ad. Since the ads are designed to hesitant users whether new or returning one, it is really necessary that they lead to landing pages that are reliable of what is stated in the ad else we risk to lose the users due the advertising fatigue s/he may go through. Also, the landing page should promote and make use of: - Mention in one sentence what Bosch Tools is - Collapse filters by default but offering an option to show them according to the need of the user so he can’t be intimidated by the plethora of filters. 17 https://www.behance.net/gallery/3468857/ads
  22. 22. Figure 11 The channel of email is very crucial for primary users, namely procurement department officers, since it allows them to have an up-to-date information about what is new. Primary users should receive more personalized follow-up emails based on their experience on the website and what they have conducted so far, and also promotional emails to let them know what is trending, and to keep them up with the new advances power tools industry even if it doesn’t belong to Bosch in terms of research and development since this will create credibility. But we should be aware not to overwhelm this category with information since they are busy officers who may not read from A to Z what is in the newsletter for instance. To put it in other words, we should use more often email channel for the second scenario which where possible phase that we have chosen for it so far is moment of purchase and , and to a moderate level for the first scenario where users are in their active evaluation. The first scenario also needs more ad retargeting to convince more the clients to evaluate and dig up Bosch power tools at Gcom. The Audience Category 2 should be targeted with more ads rather than email channels since they’re still outside the radar of Gcom and we don’t want to switch them off by bombarding them with emails and even we still lack important demographic information about them. Accordingly we would approach them as follows: - Scenario 1: here, promotional emails emails and retargeting should be applied. - Scenario 2: Here more personalized follow-up email campaigns should be conducted in order to assist and guide them in this scenario. Bosh… for leaders and innovators Information about the product Filter Filters should not appear above
  23. 23. - Scenario 3: banners that call to subscribe to the newsletter and benefit from seasonal or promotional orders, and after they subscribe only with their emails, they receive confirmation email that would lead them to another page that asks more demographic information. 4.2. Recommendations In order to sustain the relationship with customers the content of the visuals and the emails should be well crafted and well studied before delivering it to the customers. It is important to keep in mind the busy schedule of the audience that we are to address and by that we are meant to point right away to the point and be direct by using simple and short sentences as well as reiterating and capitalizing on the original idea of Bosch power tools are the right one because they do the right job which would be compatible with Bosch philosophy and value as well. Added to that, the tone of ads should interpret the credo of “man in the action” so users will retain the practical side of what Bosch power tools can do. This will inspire and encourage users to have the tool since they will be seeing the same need they’re looking for being reached by a model man in action and humans like to model by nature. For instance, the tone of the banner should reflect something similar to the following picture18 : Figure 12 4.2.1. Content and Tone of the message and visuals The language of the emails whether promotional of follow-up should not be too lengthy so as not to scare away the users from reading some of it at all since according to studies humans can only focus for 20 minutes19 and beyond that it is hard to put a full focus on the subject under 18 http://www.safeseminary.org/benefits-of-a-cordless-drill-amazing/ 19 https://www.linkedin.com/learning/the-neuroscience-of-learning/five-connections-for-learning.
  24. 24. question, namely here reading an email or a newsletter. Also, the language of the follow-up email should reflect an understanding of the user and should never feel that it is only a mass email else the user won’t feel that he’s being treated as an individual but rather a cell in a database. The distribution of the information should take the letter “F” since according to studies that were conducted on customers by tracking their eye movements, they have concluded that generally they move their eyes in a pattern that is similar to the shape of “F”20 . For instance, a follow-up email to a customer whom we think he’s at the phase of “moment of purchase” should go like this:: To: <email> From: Grainger Support staff Subject: Need Help? We Are here. Dear <Customer name>, I’m <name of the support staff> and I thought that you may need my help in regard to your research about the product you want to buy and guide you on what suits your needs. If you need a live assistance on what to buy kindly click on the following link <link to online chat with the customer> and I will be directly chatting with you while you’re surfing on the website to look for what you need. As Grainger, we always believe that time for our customers is precious and that is why we encourage you to connect with us when you need assistance. Thank you. The tone and the language should not be too intrusive so as the client doesn’t feel he’s being watched and that we’re trying to hard sell our products, but rather we just need to remind him that we are here and we can help if he wants. 4.2.2. Keeping Content aligned with Bosch In order to make sure that the message being delivered through the marketing channels is compatible and aligned with Bosch branded, it is necessary to establish a roadmap and guidelines on how Grainger and Bosch collaborate together in order to increase the positive effects and to avoid any inconsistencies between the channels and the values of Bosch. Having said that, the core value of Bosch should resonate in every ad especially quality that Bosch prides about. This does not mean that the rules or standards imposed by Bosch should coerce Grainger to stay within them but rather they should serve as a foundational element for more 20 https://www.nngroup.com/articles/f-shaped-pattern-reading-web-content/
  25. 25. creative display ads and emails that are delivered based on what Bosch believes to be its core feature. 5. Test and Control 5.1. Research Objectives Setting research objectives will ensure that they are linked to the Key performance indicators (KPI) and that they are not irrelevant or outside the scope of the campaign. Having said that, the research objectives should include an observable action and the subject under question. Thus, SMART research objectives will establish a strong chances of getting reliable and valid outcomes. The below figure briefly summarizes SMART components21 : Figure 13: SMART Objectives As a reminder, we’re trying to set three research objectives in order to increase the sales of Bosch Power Tools section at Gcom with 10%. Within that context, it is necessary that Grainger conduct primary research about customers and their behavior by conducting surveys and questionnaires and other necessary primary research methods. The research objectives turn around these three poles: 21 Pixabay.com
  26. 26. - Influencing consideration with the the hypothesis of whether the products offered or displayed satisfy the the consumer needs. Hence, Grainger should conduct research about user behavior relying on Google Analytics provided data. - How to improve the sales process with the hypothesis of whether the sales efforts result in wins for the brand. - Raising brand awareness with the hypothesis of whether consumers recall and recognize the brand under question. Hence, the research objective here should be based on knowing whether customers are aware that Gcom has a section for Bosch Power Tools. Negating or confirming the aforementioned hypothesis will require us to use an array of primary and secondary research methods that include the collection of qualitative and quantitative data in order to have more accurate insights and predictions of the campaign and to pro-actively. Having said that, these are the research resources and methods that seem to be fit for each phase and objective: - We will heavily rely on secondary research and quantitative methods related to statistical data from Google Analytics related ROI, ROAS, and so on. It is also important here to conduct surveys and questionnaires that are considered to be primary research tools in order to have more qualitative data in this matter. 5.2. Primary and Secondary Research The primary and secondary research that Grainger should adopt for that purpose is the following: - Google Analytics in order to have structured data ( secondary research) to be able to gain insights in term of user behavior before, during and after visiting Gcom. - Google Alerts in order to have more data and insights in terms of brand sentiment. - Customers’ surveys and questionnaires to have more primary quantitative data about them. - A/B multivariate tests and experimentations in order to gather more primary data in terms of their behavior. - Secondary data related to email marketing effectiveness such as open rate, forward rate that can be considered quantitative and secondary in type. 5.3 Testing It is is necessary to carry out some steps prior to launching the campaign in order to simulate the flow how things would go. In this regard, I suggest that the digital marketing campaign
  27. 27. should follow Successive Approach Model (SAM)22 used in instructional design especially in its test phase where it goes through four stages of testing that are respectively: - Decision proof: where here the prototype of the campaign should be applied to sample of customers to gage their interactions, expectations as well as their feedback. It is necessary here to send in this decision proof the sample of the campaign to all related stakeholders such as designers, digital marketers, instructional designers and any related stakeholders even if it’s outside their discipline since they can provide valuable data. - Alpha phase: comes after receiving feedback from decision proof and making the necessary modifications. Here the campaign should contain all the necessary elements such as rich media, videos, and other related assets. - Beta phase: here the campaign should be fully-fledged as it should be in the real world and should have already applied the modifications suggested in the Alpha stage. - Gold phase: is the actual launching of the campaign while keeping an eye on KPI that were agreed before in order to adapt when necessary. Figure 14: Successive Approaching Model (SAM) Briefly the KPI that should be set forward are the following: 1- CTR for the first scenario. 2. Shopping Cart Abandonment rate for second scenario 3. Clickstream analysis KPI’s for the third scenario Added to that, conducting a guest survey can benefit improve the reliability and validity of research objectives. Since this latter will be likely to be conducted online the sample size should be of statistical significance so as to qualify to be quantitatively congruent with the standards. Also, the informants or the customers should be divided into control and experimental groups by 22 http://www.alleninteractions.com/sam-process
  28. 28. setting the dependent and independent variables. This will allow us to identify the effectiveness of what we have set and to find out any correlations and eventually causalities that may help refine the research objectives and therefore the outcomes of the whole strategy campaign. However, we should be aware to take into consideration any confounding variables that may occur.

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