UNIVERSIDAD TECNICA DE MACHALA
ACADEMIC UNIT OF CHEMICAL
SCIENCES AND HEALTH
Mgs. Barreto Huilcapi Lina Maribel
EIGHTH SEMESTER ‘’A’’
Machala, El Oro
Every person, every so often, has diarrhea: more frequent bowel movements with soft
and liquid stools.
In most cases, the diarrhea lasts a couple of days. However, if diarrhea persists for
weeks, it can indicate a serious disorder, such as a persistent infection, an
inflammatory bowel disease, or a less serious condition, such as irritable bowel
Various diseases and conditions can cause diarrhea, including the following:
Different viruses. Viruses that can cause diarrhea include norovirus, cytomegalovirus
and hepatitis virus. Rotavirus is a frequent cause of acute infantile diarrhea.
Bacteria and parasites. Through contaminated food and contaminated water, bacteria
and parasites are transmitted. Parasites, such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium,
can cause diarrhea.
Bacteria that frequently cause diarrhea include Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella,
and Escherichia coli. When one travels to developing countries and has diarrhea
caused by bacteria and parasites, the phenomenon is often called "traveler's diarrhea."
Clostridium difficile infection may occur, especially after taking a course of
Medicines. Many medications, such as antibiotics, can cause diarrhea. Antibiotics
destroy good and bad bacteria, which can upset the natural balance of bacteria in the
intestines. Anti-cancer drugs and antacids that contain magnesium can also cause
Lactose intolerance Lactose is a form of sugar found in milk and other dairy products.
People who have difficulty digesting lactose experience diarrhea if they eat dairy
The body makes an enzyme that helps digest lactose, but in most people, the level of
this enzyme decreases rapidly after childhood. As a consequence, the risk of having
lactose intolerance increases as one grows.
Fructose. Fructose, a form of sugar that is found naturally in fruits and honey, and
added as a sweetener to some beverages, can cause diarrhea in people with problems
Artificial sweeteners. Sorbitol and mannitol, artificial sweeteners found in chewing
gums and other sugar-free products, can cause diarrhea in people without other
Surgery. Some people have diarrhea after having undergone abdominal surgery or
surgery to remove the gallbladder.
Other digestive disorders Chronic diarrhea has many other causes, such as Crohn's
disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, microscopic colitis, and irritable bowel
Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms associated with diarrhea may include:
Soft, watery stools
Blood in the stool
Urgent need to evacuate the intestines
If you are an adult, check with your doctor if:
to diarrhea continues after 2 days
You get dehydrated
You have severe pain in the abdominal or rectal area
You have blood in your stool or very dark stools
You have a fever higher than 102 ° F (39 ° C)
In the case of children, particularly young children, diarrhea can cause
Call your doctor if your child's diarrhea does not improve within 24 hours or if your
Has a fever greater than 102 ° F (39 ° C)
Presence of blood in the stool or very dark stools
In addition to performing a physical examination and reviewing the medications you
take, your doctor may request tests to find out what is causing you diarrhea. Some of
Blood test. A complete blood count can help determine what causes diarrhea.
Fecal matter analysis. The doctor may recommend a stool test to determine if the
diarrhea is caused by bacteria or a parasite.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The doctor may recommend one of these
studies to look at the walls of the colon and take samples for biopsy if there is no
obvious cause of persistent diarrhea.
Both studies use a thin, lighted probe with a lens at the end that allows the inside of
the colon to be seen.
In most cases, diarrhea goes away on its own (without treatment) in a few days. If
you tried to make lifestyle changes and use home remedies to relieve diarrhea and
you did not succeed, your doctor may recommend medications and other treatments.
Antibiotics may help treat diarrhea caused by bacteria or parasites. If a virus is to
blame for your diarrhea, antibiotics will not help you.
Treatment to replace liquids
Your doctor may advise you to replace fluids and salts. For most adults, that means
drinking water, juice or broth. If drinking liquids makes your stomach hurt or causes
diarrhea, your doctor may recommend receiving fluids through a vein in your arm
Water is a good way to replenish liquids, but it does not contain the salts and
electrolytes (minerals such as sodium and potassium) necessary to maintain the
electric currents that allow the heart to beat. You can maintain electrolyte levels by
drinking fruit juices to replenish potassium or soups to replenish sodium. Certain fruit
juices, such as apple juice, may make diarrhea worse.
In the case of children, consult the doctor about the use of an oral rehydration
solution, such as Pedialyte, to prevent dehydration or replenish lost fluids.
Adjust the dosage of the medications you are taking
If the doctor determines that an antibiotic is the cause of your diarrhea, the dose will
be reduced or replaced by another medication.
Treatment of undiagnosed conditions
If the diarrhea is due to a more serious condition, such as inflammatory bowel
disease, the doctor will take care of controlling that condition. You may be referred to
a specialist, such as a gastroenterologist, who can help design a treatment plan for
Wash your hands to avoid the spread of viral diarrhea. To ensure adequate hand
Wash frequently. Wash your hands before and after preparing food. Wash your hands
after handling raw or uncooked meat, going to the bathroom, changing diapers,
sneezing, coughing and blowing your nose.
Soak your hands for at least 20 seconds. After putting soap on your hands, rub them
for at least 20 seconds. It is the time it takes to sing the "happy birthday" completely
Use hand sanitizer when you can not wash them. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer
when you do not have access to a sink. Apply the hand sanitizer as if it were a lotion
and make sure to cover both the palm and the back of both hands. Use a product that
contains at least 60% alcohol.
You can help protect your baby from rotavirus, the most common cause of viral
diarrhea in children, with one of two approved vaccines. Ask your child's doctor
How to prevent traveler's diarrhea
This type of diarrhea often affects people who travel to countries where there are poor
hygiene conditions and contaminated food. To reduce the risk:
Pay attention to what you eat. Eat hot, well-cooked foods. Avoid raw fruits and
vegetables unless you can peel them yourself. Also avoid eating raw or undercooked
meats and dairy products.
Pay attention to what you drink. Drink bottled water, soft drinks, soft drinks, beer or
wine served in its original container. Avoid tap water and ice cubes. Use bottled
water even to brush your teeth. Keep your mouth closed while you shower.
Drinks made with boiled water, such as coffee and tea, are probably safe. Remember
that alcohol and caffeine can aggravate diarrhea and dehydration.
Ask the doctor about antibiotics. If you are traveling to a developing country and plan
to stay for a while, ask your doctor about starting antibiotic treatment before you
leave, especially if your immune system is weakened. In certain cases, taking an
antibiotic may reduce the risk of traveler's diarrhea.
Pay attention to the warnings for travelers. The Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention maintains a health website for travelers where warnings about diseases are
published in relation to various countries. If you plan to travel outside of the United
States, check the site for warnings and tips to reduce the risk.
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