It avoids interference from other wireless devices.
It has lower power consumption.
It is easily upgradeable.
It has range better than Infrared communication.
The Bluetooth is used for voice and data transfer.
Bluetooth devices are available at very cheap cost.
No line of sight hence can connect through any
Free to use if the device is installed with Bluetooth.
The technology is adopted in many products such as
head set, in car system, printer, web cam, GPS system,
keyboard and mouse.
It can lose connection in certain conditions.
It has low bandwidth as compared to Wi-Fi.
It allows only short range communication between
Security is a very key aspect as it +can be hacked.
Bluetooth is a short-range wireless technology standard used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over
short distances using UHF radio waves in the ISM bands, from 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz, and building personal area
networks (PANs). It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables.
Infrared transmission requires minimum power to operate and
can be set up at a low cost.
This is a secure way to transfer data between devices as the
signal cannot pass beyond a room or chamber.
The speed of data transfer in infrared is slow.
Infrared can be used for a small range distance.
Infrared signals are interpreted by objects and people.
These signals are impacted by weather conditions.
Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with wavelengths longer than those of
visible light. It is therefore invisible to the human eye.
Because of the huge temperature range covered by Infrared and the different physical
characteristics of the heat as you progress through the frequencies, infrared itself has
been divided into three different types of Infrared:
Short Wave (Or Near Infrared, or IR-A). 0.78 to 1.5 microns: covers the thousands to
high hundreds of degrees Centigrade.
Medium Wave (Or Medium or Middle Infrared, or IR-B). 1.5 to 3 microns: covers the
high hundreds to mid-hundreds of degrees Centigrade.
Long Wave Infrared (Or Far Infrared, or IR-C). 3 microns to 1000 microns (1mm): covers
the mid hundreds of degrees centigrade to absolute zero.
• Biological systems
• Car locking systems
• Emergency response systems
• Environmental control systems
• Home security systems
• Navigation systems
• TVs, VCRs, CD players, stereos
Advantages of Wifi:
– The wireless nature of such networks allow users to access network resources
from nearly any convenient location within their primary networking environment
(a home or office). With the increasing saturation of laptop-style computers, this is
– With the emergence of public wireless networks, users can access the internet
even outside their normal work environment. Most chain coffee shops, for
example, offer their customers a wireless connection to the internet at little or no
– Users connected to a wireless network can maintain a nearly constant affiliation
with their desired network as they move from place to place. For a business, this
implies that an employee can potentially be more productive as his or her work can
be accomplished from any convenient location.
– Initial setup of an infrastructure-based wireless network requires little more than
a single access point. Wired networks, on the other hand, have the additional cost
and complexity of actual physical cables being run to numerous locations (which
can even be impossible for hard-to-reach locations within a building).
– Wireless networks can serve a suddenly-increased number of clients with the
existing equipment. In a wired network, additional clients would require additional
– Wireless networking hardware is at worst a modest increase from wired
counterparts. This potentially increased cost is almost always more than
outweighed by the savings in cost and labor associated to running physical cables.
Wi-Fi is a family of wireless network protocols, based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which are commonly used
for local area networking of devices and Internet access, allowing nearby digital devices to exchange data by radio waves.
Key capabilities of Wi-Fi 6
Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)
effectively shares channels to increase network efficiency
and lower latency for both uplink and downlink traffic in
high demand environments
Multi-user multiple input, multiple output (multi-user
MIMO) allows more downlink data to be transferred at
one time, enabling access points (APs) to concurrently
handle more devices
160 MHz channel utilization capability increases
bandwidth to deliver greater performance with low
Target wake time (TWT) significantly improves network
efficiency and device battery life, including IoT devices
1024 quadrature amplitude modulation mode (1024-
QAM) increases throughput for emerging, bandwidth
intensive uses by encoding more data in the same amount
Transmit beam forming enables higher data rates at a
given range to increase network capacity
Advancement of Wi-Fi
Disadvantages of Wifi:
– To combat this consideration, wireless networks may choose to
utilize some of the various encryption technologies available. Some
of the more commonly utilized encryption methods, however, are
known to have weaknesses that a dedicated adversary can
– The typical range of a common 802.11g network with standard
equipment is on the order of tens of meters. While sufficient for a
typical home, it will be insufficient in a larger structure. To obtain
additional range, repeaters or additional access points will have to
be purchased. Costs for these items can add up quickly.
– Like any radio frequency transmission, wireless networking
signals are subject to a wide variety of interference, as well as
complex propagation effects that are beyond the control of the
– The speed on most wireless networks (typically 1-54 Mbps) is far
slower than even the slowest common wired networks (100Mbps
up to several Gbps). However, in specialized environments, the
throughput of a wired network might be necessary.
More suitable network with robust features.
No roaming charges on International calls.
Worldwide connectivity and extensive coverage.
SAIC and DAIC techniques used in GSM provide very high transmission quality.
The phone works based on the SIM card so that it is easy to change the different
varieties of phones by users.
GSM signals don't have any deterioration.
Easy to integrate GSM with other wireless technology such as CDMA and LTE.
It has the ability to use repeaters.
Because of the pulse nature of transmission talk time is generally high.
Bandwidth lag because of multiple users shares the same bandwidth so the
transmission can encounter interface.
It can interfere with certain electronics, such as hearing aids that are due to pulse
transmission technology. As a result, many locations, such as hospitals, airports
and petrol pumps require cell phones to be turned off.
To increase coverage repeaters are required to be installed.
It provided limited data rate capability so for high data rate advanced version of
GSM devices are used.
Many of GSM technology is patented by Qualcomm thus license needs to be
obtained from them.
Manufacturers are not releasing IS-95 devices due to the lack of a big market so IS-
95 is normally installed in the small tower.
GSM has fixed maximum call sites range up to 35 km that is very limited.
There is no end-to-end encryption of user data.
Several incompatibilities within the GSM standards.
Electromagnetic radiation is more with the use of GSM.
Microcells affected by the multipath signal loss.
The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe
the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets. It was first deployed in
Finland in December 1991. By the mid-2010s, it became a global standard for mobile communications achieving over 90% market share, and operating in
over 193 countries and territories.
Phone call encryption,
GPRS brought mobile users out of the usual society and into the WAP world, and the internet finally comes inside the mobile to rule the world.
An enormous amount of information can be exchanged from and to the mobile over the internet by applying GPRS.
It enabled mobile phones with compact and portable internet links for laptops.
In a few cases, access to the internet is not available instantly, but the GPRS acts as a lifesaver in mobile networks.
Most mobile can be implemented as a modem when once connected to a laptop; the GPRS will be a great backup option.
GPRS access is possible in remote locations; the interaction through GPRS is cheap by using the standard GSM network.
The instantaneous messaging services and mail services support the user to send messages for low-cost rates through GPRS connection in
substitute to short message services.
The clients pay only for transported data and not at the time of the internet connection.
It offers wireless services to the internet irrespective of any location at the time of available network signal.
It enables the user to browse data using the internet on a laptop or mobile, even accessing a remote location.
Using GPRS, the user can connect to the internet constantly.
The technology of GPRS utilizes the GSM of the cellular network to send the data even though when the connection is inactive.
The network-related functions cannot be utilized, but the data session operates as usual.
It belongs to the B-class GPRS device. When any two radios integrated into the device, it enables both features to execute simultaneously.
It belongs to class-A, which is less popular, extensive and expensive.
The mobile phones come under the category class-B.
The connection of GPRS operates slowly than 56K connections on the laptop. It is due to some restrictions on GPRS.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication
network's global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS was established by European Telecommunications
Standards Institute (ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies. It is now
maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
GPRS extends the GSM Packet circuit switched data
capabilities and makes the following services
SMS messaging and broadcasting
"Always on" internet access
Multimedia messaging service (MMS)
Push-to-talk over cellular (PoC)
Instant messaging and presence—wireless
Internet applications for smart devices through
wireless application protocol (WAP)
Point-to-point (P2P) service: inter-networking
with the Internet (IP)
Point-to-multipoint (P2M) service: point-to-
multipoint multicast and point-to-multipoint
GPRS Protocol Stack