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  1. PRESENTEDBY- MayurdeepBora MPH,1st YEAR CMC VELLORE BHUTAN འབྲུག་ཡུལ
  2. ABOUT Bhutan is a country of south-central Asia, located on the eastern ridges of the Himalayas. HISTORY Historically a remote kingdom, Bhutan became less isolated in the second half of the 20th century, and consequently the pace of change began to accelerate. Bhutan's early history is steeped in mythology and remains obscure. Some of the structures provide evidence that the region has been settled as early as 2000 BC. According to a legend it was ruled by a Cooch-Behar king, Sangaldip, around the 7th century BC, but not much is known prior to the introduction of Tibetan Buddhism in the 9th century, when turmoil in Tibet forced many monks to flee to Bhutan. In the 12th century, the Drukpa Kagyupa school was established and remains the dominant form of Buddhism in Bhutan today..
  3. • Bhutan's historical period begins at about 747 A.D., when the revered religious leader Guru PadmaSambhava came from Tibet and introduced Buddhism to the country. Known also as Guru Rinpoche, this remarkable man almost as highly esteemed as Buddha himself in Bhutan is credited with various events. • The country's political history is intimately tied to its religious history and relations among the various monastic schools and monasteries • Bhutan was inhabited by people as early as 4,000 years back. There are archaeological evidences indicating settlements in Bhutan dating back to 2,000-1,500 BC. Bhutan in ancient times had many different names; it was known as Druk Yul or the Land of the Thunder Dragon in the 17th century.
  4. Physical Geography & Features • The map shows Bhutan, also known as “Druk Yul” - the Land of Thunder Dragon. The kingdom is a landlocked country on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas. It borders the Indian states of Sikkim in the west, West Bengal and Assam in the south, and Arunachal Pradesh in the east, and it shares a border with China (Xizang - Tibet Autonomous Region) in the north.
  5. • With an area of 38,394 km², the country is somewhat smaller than Switzerland or about half the size of the US state of Indiana. Bhutan's landscape is mountainous interspersed with fertile valleys; it offers a pristine environment with a spectacular biodiversity. • Political Map of Bhutan
  6. • The country's landscape offers three major regions. South of the outer foothills of the Himalayas along its southern border are the Dooars (Duar). The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands are Bhutan's very narrow portion of the subtropical and tropical alluvial floodplains of the Ganges-Brahmaputra lowlands (Indo- Gangetic Plain). • To the north of the plains the land rises steeply, the landscape is dominated by the mountains of the Sub-Himalayan Range. The kingdom has one of the most rugged mountain terrains in the world. The 1,000 to 3,000 m high ranges of the sub-alpine Himalayan region (Outer Himalaya) are the main settlement area. • The high mountain region lies south of the border to Tibet with hundreds of unnamed, unmapped, and unclimbed peaks.
  7. • The Great Himalaya range is home to Bhutan's highest mountain, the 7,570 m high Gangkhar Puensum, which is most likely the highest mountain in the world which has never been climbed by a human being.
  8. Population Bhutan has a population of 742,000 inhabitants (in 2019); it is South Asia's second least populous country. Capital The capital and largest city is Thimphu. Language Spoken languages are Dzongkha (official), Tshangla, Nepali, Dzala, Kheng, and other East Bodish languages. Main Cities Thimphu the cpital city of Bhutan is located on the west bank of the Thimphu Chu River (Raidāk River). Phuntsholing at the India-Bhutan border is the nation's financial, industrial and trading capital. Paro, the historic town with many sacred sites is also home to the National Museum of Bhutan.
  9. Punakha, the village is known for the Punakha Dzong, a 17th-century fortress at the juncture of the Puna Tsang and Mo Chhu rivers. Behind Phunaka Dzong is Phuntsho Pelri the King's Summer Palace and a royal museum. Gelephu, the third largest town in the kingdom, is located in the Sarpang district in the central-south of the country on the Indian border. Samdrup Jongkhar is another Bhutanese border town in the southeast of the country bordering India's Assam state.
  10. Ethnicity • There are three major ethnic groups in Bhutan: the Bhutia (also called Ngalop), the Nepalese, and the Sharchop. • The Bhutia are the largest ethnic group and make up about half of the population. They are the descendants of Tibetan immigrants who came southward into Bhutan beginning about the 9th century. • Most of the people in eastern Bhutan are ethnically related to the hill tribes living in adjacent areas of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. • An ethnically mixed population is found in southern and southwestern Bhutan. The Nepalese predominate in the region and constitute roughly one-third of the country’s total population.
  11. Aboriginal Bhutia people with their traditional outfit
  12. Religion • About three-fourths of Bhutan’s population follows Buddhism, primarily of the Tibetan variety; formerly the official state religion, it is now described in the 2008 constitution as the “spiritual heritage” of the country • Aside from Buddhism, Hinduism commands a significant following in Bhutan, particularly within the Nepalese community. Hindus constitute nearly one-fourth of the population. • There also is a tiny Christian population, although proselytization is illegal in Bhutan.
  13. Settlement patterns • Bhutan is a relatively sparsely populated country, with a rate of population increase close to the world average in the early 21st century. • Its most thinly populated sections are the cold and rugged Great Himalayan region and the malarial tracts bordering the Duars Plain. • The adverse physical conditions in both these areas limit most of the population to two regions: the fertile and intensively farmed Lesser Himalayan valleys of central and western Bhutan and the southwestern portions of the country near the Indian border. • Much of Bhutan’s population lives in very small scattered villages. Until the late 1960s the country had no urban settlements. However, with road construction and economic development, some of the larger villages have grown into towns, a few dozen of which have been deemed “urban centres” by the government. In the mid-2010s such urban centre’s contained nearly two-fifths of the population
  14. Demographic trends • The population is young. Nearly one-third is under age 15, while about three-fifths is under 30 . Both the birth rate and the death rate are below the global average. The life expectancy is 72 years for women and 70 years for men.
  15. Economy • The Bhutanese economy is largely agrarian, and the significant variations in elevation and climate across the country allow Bhutan’s farms to support a wide variety of crops and livestock. • However, the amount of land available for agriculture is only a small fraction of the total area of the country; the adverse climate, poor soil, and steep slopes in much of Bhutan have made it necessary to leave a large land area covered with forest growth, meadows, and grasslands. • The relatively low, well-watered, and fertile valleys of central Bhutan have the largest percentage of cultivated land.
  16. • The main priority of Bhutan’s developmentstrategy has been to bring the country out of its geographic isolation. • To this end, Bhutan has relied on external assistancefrom India, the World Bank, the United Nations, and the Asian DevelopmentBank. • The success of a series of five-yearplans—the first of which was launched in 1961—has dependedlargely on the regular flow of funds from India to Bhutan and on the availabilityof Indian technical personnel. • Much of the country’s development budget has been devoted to improvement of the infrastructure, but the five-yearplans also have emphasizedthe exploitation of agricultural and power resources, and the country’s economy has been on a general upward trend since the late 20th century. • Propelling much of the growth has been the Chhukha Hydel hydroelectricpower project (completed in 1987–88),which enabled the country not only to provide for its own energy needs but also to export electricity to India.
  17. Finance • Until the 1960s Bhutan did not have a currency; its people bartered for the goods they could not produce themselves. • Now the country has a cash economy, with the Royal Monetary Authority issuing the ngultrum, the national currency. • The country also has a few commercial banks, most of which are jointly owned (in various combinations) by the government of Bhutan, the government of India, and private interests. • A development bank that specializes in industrial and agricultural loans was established in 1988. A stock exchange, open to citizens of Bhutan only, was founded in Thimphu in 1993.
  18. CURRENCY • The ngultrum (དངུལཀྲམ) is the currency of the Kingdom of Bhutan. It can be literally translated as 'silver' for ngul and 'coin' for trum. It is subdivided into 100 chhertum ( ཕྱེད་ཏམ, spelled as chetrums on coins until 1979). The Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan, the central bank of Bhutan is the minting authority of the ngultrum banknotes and coins. The ngultrum is currently pegged to the Indian rupee at parity.
  19. KING Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (since 2006) PRIME MINISTER Lotay Tshering (since 2018)
  20. INDIA-BHUTAN RELATIONS • Diplomatic relations between India and Bhutan were established in 1968 with the appointment of a resident representative of India in Thimphu. Before this our relations with Bhutan were looked after by our Political Officer in Sikkim. The basic framework of India – Bhutan bilateral relations is the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation of 1949 between the two countries, which was updated and signed during the visit to India of His Majesty Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck in February 2007. • The updated India-Bhutan Friendship Treaty not only reflects the contemporary nature of our relationship but also lays the foundation for their future development in the 21st century. The Treaty provides, amongst other things, for perpetual peace and friendship, free trade and commerce, and equal justice to each other's citizens. Our bilateral political relations with Bhutan have matured over the years and are characterized by close trust and understanding and extensive cooperation in the field of economic development, particularly in the mutually Beneficial sector of hydroelectric power.
  21. Interesting facts • The ONLY Carbon Negative Country in the World • Isolated from the World Until The 1970s • No Traffic Lights in Bhutan • The King Abdicated the Throne for Democracy • Happiness Prevails Over GDP • Bhutan Says NO To Plastic • Education and Healthcare is Free For All Citizens • Bhutanese call their homeland “ Druk Yul” which translates to the Land of the dragons because of the mighty storms that occur in the Himalayas and can be heard in Bhutan. • It is Illegal to Kill Anything
  22. National Symbols • The flag of Bhutan is based upon the tradition of the Drukpa Lineage of Tibetan Buddhism and features Druk, the Thunder Dragon of Bhutanese mythology. The basic design of the flag by Mayum Choying Wangmo Dorji dates to 1947. • The Druk Tsendhen ("The Thunder Dragon Kingdom") is the national anthem of Bhutan. Adopted in 1953, the music was composed by Aku Tongmi and the words were penned by Dasho Gyaldun Thinley. Tongmi was educated in India and had recently been appointed leader of the military brass band when the need for an anthem rose at the occasion of a state visit from Prime Minister Nehru of India. • The Himalayan cypress (Cupressus torolusa) is the national tree of Bhutan. • Archery has been the official national sport of Bhutan since the kingdom's accession to the United Nations in 1971
  23. • The emblem of Bhutan is used in official government publications such as legislation and websites. • The national bird is the raven. • The national animal is the takin (Burdorcas taxicolor). • The national flower of Bhutan is the Himalayan blue poppy (Meconopsis gakyidiana) National flower, bird and animal