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Rationalism Architecture

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Presentation by :- Siddhi Pande,
Mayur Waghulde,
Siddhika Chichani,
Sphurti Ramekar.

Veröffentlicht in: Design
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Rationalism Architecture

  1. 1. What is Rationalism? • Ration was what defined humans as a species and separated us from animals. • A building committed to a logical, mathematically ordered design. • Rationalism as a movement implied the complete devotion to logical, functional, and mathematically ordered architecture. • Rationalism has often been proposed as a way to create an environment perfect for rational beings. • 20th century rationalism derived less from a special, unified theoretical work than from a common belief that the most varied problems posed by the real world could be resolved by reason. In that respect it represented a reaction to historicism and a contrast to Art Nouveau and Expressionism.
  2. 2. RATIONALISM - Neo rationalism ( late 20th century) - Early 20th century rationalism (early 20th century) - Enlightenment rationalism (17TH century)
  3. 3. Early Rationalist Architecture • The concept of rational architecture first emerged with the ancient Greeks. rational architecture was defined by its function as much as its form. • Vitruvius, the first person to codify architecture into a consistent discipline, formally asserted that architectural forms could be rationally deduced. From there, rationalism as a formal ideology began.
  4. 4. Rationalism in the Enlightenment • The Enlightenment was defined by the idea that nothing should be trusted that could not be proven. • Focused on simple geometric shapes like circles, squares, and triangles, breaking complex forms into basic units. This movement was largely a rejection of the extremely fancy and ornate Baroque movement. • All excess was stripped away, revealing the structure in terms of basic shapes, elements, and materials.
  5. 5. HENRI LABROUSTE AUGUSTE PERRET Rationalism in the Early 20th Century • The 19th century had seen the rise of several styles defined by high amounts of decoration, and 20th century architects began reconsidering the aesthetic of a structure without ornamentation. The building was the design, composed of basic geometric shapes, functional space, and a logical aesthetic. • Architects such as Henri Labrouste and Auguste Perret incorporated the virtues of structural rationalism throughout the 19th century in their buildings.
  6. 6. One of the first rationalist buildings was the Palazzo Gualino in Turin, built for the financier Riccardo Gualino by the architects Gino Levi- Montalcini and Giuseppe Pagano.
  7. 7. Neo-rationalism • In the late 1960s, a new rationalist movement emerged in architecture, claiming inspiration from both the Enlightenment and early-20th-century rationalists. • Rossi's great cemetery at Modena is the movement's most celebrated work (1971–85). The Krier brothers Kleihues, Reichlin and Reinhart, and Ungers have been associated with Neo-Rationalism.
  8. 8. MATERIAL • They are using industrialized materials, especially concrete. Concrete advantages are: - It’s a cheep material, easy to adapt, incombustible, non-corrosive and that offers the possibility of building the skeleton, leaving the plan free. - It permits pre-manufacturing series. - It can be combined with other materials such as still, glass, brick.
  9. 9. BUILDING ELEMENTS • The wall is not a support any longer, and it is reduced to a light skin for closing, with a huge number of windows that allows light and air entering inside the building. • The supports are pillars with different sections, made of steel and concrete. • The covers, in general, are lintels standing on the support and forming with them the skeleton, giving to the construction a light and non-weighty aspects of great construction audacity.
  10. 10. DECORATIVE ELEMNTS • The decorative elements disappear in favor of the straight and nude form. • There is a worry about proportion, simplicity and asymmetry. • The internal sapce is based of the free plan with interior walld that curve and move freely, adaptig to the different functions. • In the exterior the projecting, the free low level and the terrace in horizontal desfine new image.
  11. 11. BUILDING TYPOLOGY • There is a great interest about urbanism because they aim at accommodating people to the new leaving standards and organize their groups, proposing new formulas as the garden city or industrial city. • The representative buildings are - social houses - skyscrapers - industrial buildings - administrative constructions - theatres - concert halls and stadiums.
  12. 12. Mies van der Rohe • Mies van der Rohe,was linked to the Bauhaus and is one of the best representativas of Rational architecture. • His work was revolutionary from the very beginning, when he started designing an office building in Berlin (1919). • After that he designed houses and in 1929 he built the German Pavilion for Barcelona’s Universal Exhibition. • In this building he demonstrated the right use of modern materials, with clear volumes and the wall as a curtain instead of the traditional wall
  13. 13. • He emigrated to the US where he built numerous skyscrapers that look to be enormous glass boxes, in which it can be seen the devotion of the architect for the purity of the forms. • The use of new materials is essential for his work. • The Seagram Building is one of his most representative skyscrapers.
  14. 14. Le Corbusier • Le Corbusier was born in Switzerland even if a majority of his work was developed in France. • He learnt the use of concrete and soon he began with the series production. • He also designed cities for a concrete number of inhabitants (about three million).
  15. 15. • In 1926 he made one of his most representative works Ville Savoye, that consists of a concrete structure of Mediterranean inspiration. • In Ville Savoye he put into practice his five poinys of architecture: - Use of “pilotis”, a kind of pillar to sustain the structure and separate it from the floor, not cutting the space, - Free façade - Garden terrace, thanks to flat roofs - Multiplication of windows; continuous windows with metallic sticks - Free plans because now it is not the support of wall
  16. 16. • He theorised but it was not an utopian because his projects were realised • One of his popular work was the unite d habitation at marseile, where he build houses for working class families • In these buildings he applied some of his architectonical points too • At the end of his career he modified his Rationalism and was closer to the Organicism as in the case of one of his master works: Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp.
  17. 17. Other works are: Chandigar h in India UN Headquarters in New York Bagdad Stadium
  18. 18. Presented by:- Siddhi Pande Mayur Waghulde Siddhika Chichani Sphurti Ramekar Guided by:- Prof. J.B. Deshmukh THANK YOU!!!