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NOTES FOR DISCUSSION [For instance, one study demonstrated that publications by male researchers are perceived to be higher quality than by female researchers, even when the content was kept the same (CITATION)]. Perhaps women supervisors value a higher quality of work in their graduate students such that they are more selective in acknowledging the true contribution of these in their papers, accounting for the discrepancy in first vs. non-first authorship publications. (CITATION)
APS Poster 2015
Maureen M. Ariza-Paredes, Dimitry Besson, Sonya Varma, Christopher Zou MA, Jordan B. Peterson PhD.
University of Toronto
The Influence of Student and Supervisor Gender on Publication Success
• We collected 623 Curriculum Vitae (CV) of
graduate students from Canada and the
United States, coding for the student’s gender,
their supervisor’s gender, student authorship
(First or Non-First), and the number of
publications listed on their CV.
• We conducted a 2x2 ANOVA to examine the
impact of student gender (male and female)
and their supervisor’s gender (male and
female) on the number of publications. We
also examined for any potential interaction
• Gender is shown to have an influence on
academic and job performance, but it is
unclear how gender influences the publication
rates of graduate students.
• Studies have shown that gender has an
influence on academic performance and job
performance (e.g., Burke, 1989; Greenhaus &
Parasuraman, 2002), although some studies
have also found no influence of gender (e.g.,
Campbell & Campbell, 1997).
• Genders of teachers and work supervisors
have also been demonstrated to have an
impact on their students and employee
success (Eagly et al. 1995; Pounder &
Coleman, 2002; Warwick & Jatoi, 1994), with
recent studies demonstrating a bias against
women in research in science (Sheltzer &
• Given the relevant background, it would be
interesting to examine the extent to which
gender bias may or may not be observed in
psychology research, where much of the work
on gender stereotypes originates.
• While the data can be interpreted as a slight
advantage in having a male professor in
graduate school, it may also be interpreted
as a bias against women when publishing
• It could be that supervisor gender does not
affect student publication success as much
as male professors publishing more and
adding their students into their papers.
• Our study contained a conservative outcome
measure (number of publications), which
may have weakened our results
• Extracting CVs available online may have
excluded a potentially large portion of the
graduate student population, such that
students who might not be as successful in
terms of publication rates may have chosen
not to make their CV available online.
• Our study sample was restricted to Canadian
and American universities
• Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that
there is some influence of gender on
performance in graduate school in
• Using a negative binomial regression, student gender was not a significant predictor of the
number of publications, but supervisor gender was a significant predictor of the number of
publications (IRR = 1.28, 95% CI [1.05, 1.57]). There was no interaction effect between
student gender and supervisor gender. The effect still holds when controlling for sub-
discipline in psychology.
• Supervisor gender was not a significant predictor of first authorship publications, but
student gender was a significant predictor (IRR = 1.27 95% CI [1.01, 1.61]). Specifically,
male students had more first-author publications than female students. There was no
significant interaction between supervisor gender and student gender.
• Supervisor gender was a significant predictor of non-first authorship publications (IRR =
1.33, 95% CI [1.07, 1.65]), but student gender was not. Specifically, having a male rather
than female supervisor increased the likelihood of attaining non-first author publications.
There was no interaction effect.
First Authorship Non-first
Supervisor Gender Influence on Student Publications
Burke, P. J. (1989). Gender identity,sex, and school performance. Social Psychology
Campbell,T. A., & Campbell, D. E. (1997).Faculty/studentmentor program: Effects on
academic performance and retention.Research in Higher Education,38(6),727-742.
Eagly, A. H., Karau, S. J., & Makhijani, M. G. (1995). Gender and the effectivenessof
leaders: a meta-analysis.Psychologicalbulletin, 117(1), 125.
Parasuraman, S., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2002). Toward reducing some criticalgaps in
work–family research. Human resource management review,
Pounder, J. S., & Coleman, M. (2002). Women-betterleaders than men? In general
and EducationalManagement it still“all depends”. Leadership & Organization
Development Journal, 23(3), 122-133.
Sheltzer, J. M., & Smith, J. C. (2014). Elite male faculty in the life sciencesemploy fewer
women. Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences,111(28),10107-10112.
Warwick, D. P., & Jatoi,H. (1994). Teacher gender and student achievementin
Pakistan.Comparative EducationReview, 377-399.
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