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PSY 126: Major Topics in Psychology

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A Brief Look at Major Topics in
the Field of Psychology
Matthew L. Eisenhard, Psy.D.
Psychology for Business & Industry
1. Neuropsychology
• Studies the structure and function of the brain as it
relates to psychological processes and human be...
Autonomic Nervous System
• Responsible for the body’s reactions to perceived
emergencies
▫ Can be actual or perceived (i.e...

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PSY 126: Major Topics in Psychology

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Beschreibung

Presentation on an overview of different topic areas in psychology for PSY 126 with Dr. Eisenhard.

Transkript

  1. 1. A Brief Look at Major Topics in the Field of Psychology Matthew L. Eisenhard, Psy.D. Psychology for Business & Industry
  2. 2. 1. Neuropsychology • Studies the structure and function of the brain as it relates to psychological processes and human behaviors. • Neuropsychologists typically work in the following types of occupations: ▫ Research (universities, laboratories, research institutions) ▫ Clinical (assessing or treating patients with neuropsychological problems) ▫ Forensic (assessments done for the legal system) ▫ Industry (consulting on neuropsychological knowledge as applied to product design or management of pharmaceutical clinical-trials research for drugs which impact the Central Nervous System)
  3. 3. Autonomic Nervous System • Responsible for the body’s reactions to perceived emergencies ▫ Can be actual or perceived (i.e. anxiety disorders) • Sympathetic ▫ “Fight” ▫ Produces rapid physiological response to perceived emergencies or threats • Parasympathetic ▫ “Flight” ▫ Maintains normal bodily functions and conserves body’s physical resources
  4. 4. Major Parts of the Brain
  5. 5. Forebrain: Cerebral Cortex • 4 Lobes
  6. 6. Forebrain: Limbic System • Involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory
  7. 7. Neurons
  8. 8. 2. Sensation & Perception • Sensation – Process of detecting a physical stimulus; such as light, sound, heat, or pressure ▫ How info gets to the brain ▫ 6 Primary Senses: Vision, Hearing, Smell, Touch, Taste, and Pain • Perception – Process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensations ▫ How our brains process and use that info in a meaningful way
  9. 9. Basic Principles of Sensation • All senses involve common processes ▫ Sensory receptors – Specialized cells that respond to a specific form of sensory stimulation ▫ Transduction – Process by which physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal to be used by the brain • Stimuli must be strong enough to be detected ▫ Absolute Threshold – Smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time ▫ Difference Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference)– Smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected half the time
  10. 10. Basic Principles of Sensation • Psychological experience of sensation is relative ▫ Sensory adaptation – Decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus ▫ Weber’s Law – The size of the JND will vary depending on its relation to the strength of the original stimulus • Subliminal Perception – Detection of stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness • Mere exposure effect – Repeated exposure to a stimulus increases that person’s preference for that stimulus.
  11. 11. Basic Principles of Perception • The process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory information. • Bottom-Up Processing – Emphasizes the importance of sensory receptors in detecting the basic features of a stimulus in the process of recognizing a whole pattern; from the parts to the whole ▫ Data driven processing • Top-Down Processing – Emphasizes the importance of the observer’s knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive processes in arriving at meaningful perceptions; from the whole to the parts ▫ Conceptually driven processing
  12. 12. 3. Cognitive Psychology • Study of mental processes, including ▫ Memory ▫ Learning ▫ Attention ▫ Language use ▫ Problem solving ▫ Thinking ▫ Creativity • Cognitive psychologists typically work in academia, conducting research.
  13. 13. Stage Model of Memory Long-term Memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
  14. 14. Improving Memory • Space your study sessions • Sleep on it to consolidate memories • Focus your attention • Commit the necessary time • Organize the info • Elaborate on the material • Use visual imagery • Explain it to a friend • Reduce interference with a topic • Counteract the serial position effect • Use contextual cues to jog memories • Use a mnemonic device for remembering lists • Forget the ginkgo biloba
  15. 15. Learning • A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience • Conditioning – Process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses ▫ Classical conditioning ▫ Operant conditioning ▫ Observational Learning
  16. 16. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – Natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning • Unconditioned response (UCR) – Unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus • Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response • Conditioned response (CR) – Learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus
  17. 17. Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner • Basic learning process that involves changing the probability that response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response Operant – An actively emitted behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences • Reinforcement – Occurrence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelihood of that response being repeated ▫ Reinforcing stimulus is something desirable, satisfying, or pleasant
  18. 18. Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement – A response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations in the future ▫ *Something ADDED • Negative Reinforcement – A response results in the removal of, or avoidance of, or escape from an aversive stimulus, increasing the likelihood the response will be repeated in similar situations in the future ▫ *Something SUBTRACTED
  19. 19. Punishment • Presentation of a stimulus or event following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior’s being repeated • Positive Punishment – Punishment by application; Behavior is followed by the presentation or addition of an aversive stimulus ▫ Time-out for misbehavior • Negative Punishment – Punishment by removal; Behavior followed by the removal or subtraction of a reinforcing stimulus ▫ Loss of some privilege, possession, or other desirable object or activity ▫ Taking away a toy for misbehavior
  20. 20. Observational Learning • Learning that occurs through observing the actions of others ▫ Occurs indirectly, watching then imitating ▫ Mirror neurons – Activates both when an action is performed and when the same action is perceived • Albert Bandura’s “Bobo doll” experiment ▫ Expectation of reinforcement affects the performance of what is learned
  21. 21. Modeling/Imitation • 4 Factors for it to occur 1. Must pay attention to other’s behavior 2. Must remember other’s behavior 3. Able to transform representation into actions you are capable of reproducing 4. Must be motivation to perform the behavior • Most likely to occur when… ▫ Performed by a model who is attractive and who has high status or is a dominant member of the viewer’s social group ▫ Model is rewarded for his/her behavior ▫ Model is not punished for his/her actions
  22. 22. 4. Developmental Psychology • Study of how people change physically, mentally, and socially throughout the lifespan. ▫ Includes the entire lifespan and aging process: infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. • Gradual development vs. stage-like development? • Born with inmate mental structures vs. learning through experience with the world? • Social context effects on development?
  23. 23. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget (1952, 1972) • Children actively try to make sense of the environment • Develop schemas about the world ▫ Assimilation – Process of taking new information or a new experience and fitting it into an already existing schema ▫ Accommodation – Process by which existing schemas are changed or new schemas are created in order to fit new information
  24. 24. Piaget’s Theory • Children progress through 4 distinct stages • At each new stage, a child’s thinking is qualitatively different from that of the previous stage – each new stage represents a fundamental shift in how the child thinks and understands the world ▫ Sensorimotor: Birth to 2 yrs. ▫ Preoperational: 2 to 7 yrs. ▫ Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 yrs. ▫ Formal Operational: Adolescence to adulthood
  25. 25. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • Erik Erikson (1968) • 8 Stages: Each associated with a particular psychosocial conflict that can be resolved in either a positive or negative way ▫ Trust vs. Mistrust ▫ Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ▫ Initiative vs. Guilt ▫ Industry vs. Inferiority ▫ Identity vs. Role Confusion ▫ Intimacy vs. Isolation ▫ Generativity vs. Stagnation ▫ Ego Integrity vs. Despair
  26. 26. Death and Dying • Anxiety about death peaks in middle adulthood, then declines in late adulthood • Kubler-Ross (1969) stages of dying 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance • Not universally proven
  27. 27. 5. Personality Psychology • An individual’s unique and relatively consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving ▫ Personality Theory – Attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people’s patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving ▫ How people are similar, different, and why each individual is unique ▫ Attempt to explain the whole person
  28. 28. Psychoanalytic Perspective • Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalysis – Emphasizes unconscious determinant of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development ▫ Both an approach to therapy and a personality theory • Free Association – Technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind ▫ Free association exercise: For 5 minutes, write down everything that comes to mind. Do not block any disturbing thoughts but rather let them out.
  29. 29. The Unconscious • Thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness ▫ Often comes to conscious level in distorted, disguised, or symbolic forms ▫ Unintentional actions such as accidents, mistakes, forgetting, and slips of the tongue • Conscious – Thoughts, feelings, and sensations of which you are aware of at this moment • Preconscious – Information not currently aware of but can easily be brought to conscious awareness
  30. 30. Structure of Personality • Id – Completely unconscious, irrational component that seeks immediate satisfaction on instinctual urges and drives; ruled by pleasure principle • Ego – Partly conscious rational component that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world • Superego – Partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules
  31. 31. Humanistic Perspective: Carl Rogers • Developed theory from clinical experiences ▫ Referred to patients as “clients” reflecting their active and voluntary participation in therapy • Actualizing Tendency – Innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism • Most basic human motive • Self-concept – Set of perceptions and beliefs that you hold about yourself ▫ People motivated to act in accord with their self-concept ▫ Continually defending against experiences against the self-concept • Unconditional Positive Regard – Sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don’t conform to the standards and expectations of others; unconditional love or acceptance ▫ Conditional Positive Regard as conditional love/acceptance ▫ Leads children to learn to deny or distort his/her genuine feelings
  32. 32. Fully functioning person • Flexible, constantly changing self-concept • Realistic, open to new experiences, and capable of changing in response to new experiences • Experiences congruence: Self consistent with emotions and experiences • Rogerian triad: Congruence (genuineness), Empathy, and Unconditional Positive Regard
  33. 33. Trait Perspective: Five-Factor Model • Robert McCrae and Paul Costa Jr. (1996) • Traits remarkably stable over time • Over time, slight declines in Neuroticism and Openness, increase in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and stability in Extraversion • Generally consistent across situations • Situational influences have effect
  34. 34. •Openness to Experience •Conscientiousness •Extraversion •Agreeableness •Neuroticism OCEAN
  35. 35. Openness to Experience • Active imagination • Willingness to consider new ideas • Divergent thinkers • Intellectual curiosity • Unconventional • Low = Prefer the familiar rather than seeking out something new
  36. 36. Conscientiousness • How controlled and self- disciplined one is • Organized • Plan oriented • Determined • Low = Apt to be careless, easily distracted from tasks, and undependable • People high in this trait typically live longer (Kern & Friedman, 2008)
  37. 37. Extraversion • Sociable • Energetic • Optimistic • Friendly • Assertive • Low = “Reserved rather than unfriendly, independent rather than followers, even-paced rather than sluggish” (Costa & McCrae, 1992) • Extraverts have more friends and spend more time in social situations (Asendorpf & Wilpers, 1998)
  38. 38. Agreeableness • Helpful • Trusting • Sympathetic • Prefer cooperation over competition • Low = antagonistic, skeptical, prefer to fight for interests and beliefs • Have more pleasant social interactions (Donnellan, Conger, & Bryant, 2004) • More willing to help those in need (Graziano et al, 2007)
  39. 39. Neuroticism • Continuum of emotional stability and personal adjustment • Frequently experience emotional distress ▫ Sadness, anger, anxiety, guilt • Wide swings of emotion • Low = calm, well adjusted, and not prone to extreme emotional reactions • High on trait more upset over daily stressors (Lahey, 2009)
  40. 40. 6. Social Psychology • Branch of psychology that studies how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment ▫ Sense of self – An individual’s unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences: sense of who you are in relation to other people ▫ Sociology – Systematic study of the development, structure, interaction, and collective behavior of organized groups of social beings
  41. 41. Social Cognition • Mental processes people use to make sense of their social environment; How we form impressions of other people, how we interpret the meaning of other people’s behavior, and how our behavior is affected by our attitudes ▫ Person perception ▫ Social categorization ▫ Implicit personality theory ▫ Attribution ▫ Attitudes ▫ Stereotypes
  42. 42. Social Influence • Study of how behavior is influenced by the social environment and by other people ▫ Conformity ▫ Obedience ▫ Compliance ▫ Social Influence Techniques ▫ Helping Behaviors
  43. 43. Solomon Asch (1955)
  44. 44. Asch’s Results • 12/18 trials confederates chose wrong answer ▫ 75% conformed at least once ▫ Participants conformed at 37% of critical trials overall • Other results ▫ If everyone agrees, you are less likely to disagree ▫ But, if even just one person disagrees (even with a wrong answer) you are more likely to stick to your guns and give the correct answer ▫ Collectivist cultures more likely to conform
  45. 45. Compliance • Going along with a request for behavior • Cialdini’s “Weapons of Influence” 1. Friendship/Liking  Ex.) Tupperware party 1. Commitment/Consistency  Related to cognitive dissonance 1. Scarcity  Rare items seen as more valuable 1. Reciprocity  Have to do something in return 1. Social Validation  Wanting to be like others 1. Authority  Experts know what is best
  46. 46. Social Influence Techniques • Persuasion – Deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in which that person has freedom of choice • “Foot In The Door” ▫ Small request followed by larger request • “Door In The Face” ▫ Large, improbable request followed by a smaller request • “That’s Not All” ▫ Based on reciprocity norm • “Low Ball” “Bait and Switch” “Four Walls” ▫ Based on consistency/commitment
  47. 47. 7. Abnormal Psychology • Study of universal patterns of behavior, emotion, and thought; which may or may not be a precipitator for the development of a mental illness. ▫ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition
  48. 48. Prevalence of Disorders • National Comorbidity Survey Replication (Kessler et al., 2005) ▫ 1 of 4 Americans (26%) experienced symptoms of a disorder in past 12 months ▫ High degree of comorbidity – people diagnosed with 1 disorder are likely to be diagnosed with another distinct disorder ▫ 1 of 2 adults (46%) have experienced symptoms of some disorder in their lifetime ▫ Only 59% of individuals with symptoms received treatment  Lack of insurance  Low income  Rural areas  Lack of knowledge/awareness
  49. 49. Prevalence of Disorders
  50. 50. Anxiety Disorders • Anxiety – unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry ▫ Can be adaptive or maladaptive • Maladaptive anxiety disrupts everyday activities, moods, and thought processes ▫ Irrational ▫ Uncontrollable ▫ Disruptive • 1 in 4 people will suffer in U.S. during lifetime from an anxiety disorder ▫ More women than men
  51. 51. Mood Disorders • Significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning; aka affective disorders ▫ Major Depressive Disorder ▫ Dysthymic Disorder ▫ Seasonal Affective Disorder ▫ Bipolar Disorder ▫ Cyclothymic Disorder
  52. 52. Schizophrenia • Ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes • Positive Symptoms – Reflect excesses or distortions of normal functioning 1. Delusions – Falsely held belief that persists despite compelling contradictory evidence  Delusions of reference – Other people’s behavior and ordinary events are somehow personally related  Delusions of grandeur – Person is extremely powerful, important, or wealthy  Delusions of persecution – Others are plotting against or trying to harm the person or someone close  Delusions of being controlled – Outside forces are trying to exert control on the individual
  53. 53. Schizophrenia 2. Hallucinations – False or distorted perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing it  May be unable to distinguish delusions from reality 3. Severely disorganized thought processes, speech, and behavior  Over-inclusion – Jumping from one idea to another without any logical flow  Paralogic thinking – On surface seems logical, but seriously flawed  Behavior inappropriate to the situation
  54. 54. Schizophrenia • Negative Symptoms – Reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning ▫ Flat affect – Person responds without emotion and facial expressions ▫ Alogia – Greatly reduced production of speech ▫ Avolition – Inability to initiate or persist in even simplest forms of goal-directed behaviors  Such as dressing, bathing, or engaging in social activities
  55. 55. Suicide • 30,000 per year in United States ▫ For every completed, 25 people attempted • Women 3:1 attempts, Men 4:1 in deaths ▫ Men tend to use more lethal methods • Leading cause of death for 15-24 year-olds • Risk Factors ▫ Feelings of hopelessness and isolation ▫ Recent relationship problems or lack of significant relationships ▫ Poor coping and problem-solving skills ▫ Poor impulse control and impaired judgment ▫ Rigid thinking or irrational beliefs ▫ A major psychological disorder ▫ Alcohol or substance abuse ▫ Childhood physical or sexual abuse ▫ Prior self-destructive behavior ▫ Family history or suicide ▫ Presence of firearm in the home
  56. 56. Helping to Prevent Suicide • Actively listen as the person talks and vents his/her feelings • Don’t deny or minimize the person’s suicidal intentions • Identify other potential solutions • Ask to person to delay his/her decision • Encourage the person to seek professional help
  57. 57. 8. Clinical Psychology • An integration of science, theory, and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction. • Also, to promote subjective well-being and personal development. 1. Psychological Assessment 2. Psychotherapy
  58. 58. Reasons for Seeking Therapy 1. Psychological Disorders – Troubling thoughts, feelings or behaviors that interfere with a person’s ability to function or cause psychological discomfort 2. Troubled Relationships – Parent-child conflicts, unhappy marriage, etc. 3. Life Transitions – Death of a loved one, dissolving marriage, adjusting to retirement, etc.
  59. 59. Psychoanalytic Therapy • Sigmund Freud, early 1900s • Psychoanalysis – Techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts ▫ Undesirable conflicts and urges are repressed or pushed into the unconscious ▫ Unconscious conflicts exert influence on behavior, emotion, and interpersonal dynamics ▫ Understanding and insight into repressed conflicts leads to recognition and resolution
  60. 60. Humanistic Therapy • Carl Rogers (1951) • Client-Centered Therapy – Therapist is nondirective and reflective, and the client directs the focus of each therapy session ▫ Emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and freedom of choice ▫ Clients moving towards self-actualization, the realization of their unique potentials and talents ▫ Most important factor is an individual’s conscious, subjective perception of the self ▫ Therapist’s role is to create the conditions that allow the client to direct the focus of therapy
  61. 61. Rogerian Therapeutic Conditions • Conditions that foster feelings of being psychologically safe, accepted, and valued • Promote trust and self-exploration 1. Genuineness – Therapist honestly and openly shares his/her thoughts and feelings with the client 2. Unconditional Positive Regard – Must value, accept, and care for the client no matter the problems that are brought to therapy ▫ Removes fear of evaluation and rejection 3. Empathic Understanding – Reflecting the content and personal meaning of the feelings being experienced by the client ▫ Active listening is important
  62. 62. Behavior Therapy • Focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principles and techniques ▫ Also called Behavior Modification • Basic strategy is that of unlearning maladaptive behaviors and replacing them with adaptive behaviors • Based on principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning
  63. 63. Cognitive Therapy • Aaron Beck • Focuses on changing the client’s unrealistic and maladaptive beliefs ▫ Identify and change automatic negative thoughts • Developed to treat depression • Depressed individuals have a negative view of the past, present, and future which leads to development of a negative cognitive bias ▫ Arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization, personalization
  64. 64. Group Therapy • One or more therapists working simultaneously with a small group of clients • Most often found in inpatient hospitals ▫ Cost-effective ▫ Therapist can observe client’s interactions with others ▫ Support and encouragement from other group members ▫ Group members provide each other with helpful, practical advice and serve as models ▫ Try out new behaviors in a safe and supportive environment • Self-help groups and support groups typically conducted by nonprofessionals
  65. 65. Family and Couple Therapy • Based on assumption that the family is a system and that treats the family as a unit • Alter and improve ongoing interactions among family members • Family as a dynamic structure in which each member plays a unique role • Therapist observes and tries to identify unhealthy patterns of family interaction and to replace them more adaptive ways of interacting • Couple therapies focus on improving communication, reducing negative communication, and increasing intimacy
  66. 66. 9. Forensic Psychology • Intersection of clinical psychology and the legal system. • Function in the following roles. ▫ Academic researcher ▫ Consultant to law enforcement ▫ Correctional psychologist ▫ Evaluator ▫ Expert witness ▫ Treatment provider ▫ Trial consultant
  67. 67. Competency to Stand Trial • Understanding of charges and appreciation for possible penalties. • Factual understanding ▫ What does the judge do? What plea options does a defendant have? What is evidence? • Rational understanding ▫ Ability to make well-informed, reasoned decisions concerning one’s case. • Appreciation of adversarial nature of legal process • Capacity to work with an attorney ▫ Not willingness! If so, we’d have a much higher proportion of individuals found incompetent to stand trial.
  68. 68. Insanity • A legal term. • M’Naughten Rule: ▫ “It must be clearly proved that, at the time of the committing of the act, the party accused was labouring under such a defect of reason, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing; or, if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong.” • Virginia also adds the irresistible impulse rule. ▫ Thought of as the “policeman at the arm” test. Was the individual so compelled to act that he could not control the impulse to do so?
  69. 69. Civil Commitment • Civil commitment laws ▫ Legal declaration that determines a person is mentally disordered and may be hospitalized, even involuntarily ▫ Such laws and definitions of mental illness vary by state • General criteria for civil commitment ▫ Person has a mental illness and needs treatment ▫ Person is dangerous to self or others ▫ Grave disability – inability to care for self • Governmental authority over civil commitment ▫ Police power – health, welfare, and safety of society ▫ Parens patriae – state acts a surrogate parent
  70. 70. Civil Commitment • Initial stages ▫ Person fails to seek help ▫ Others feel that help is needed ▫ Petition is made to a judge on the behalf of the person ▫ Individual must be notified of the commitment process • Subsequent stages ▫ Involve normal legal proceedings in most cases ▫ Should a person be committed? ▫ This determination is made by a judge
  71. 71. Duty To Warn • What to do if a client threatens to harm another person? • Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1974, 1976) ▫ Must warn individual in danger • Thompson v. County of Alameda (1980) ▫ Threats must be specific • When in doubt, consult with colleague
  72. 72. 10. Health Psychology • Studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health- related behaviors ▫ How to promote health-enhancing behaviors ▫ How people respond to being ill ▫ How people respond in the patient-health practitioner relationship ▫ Why some people don’t follow medical advice • Biopsychosocial Model – Belief that health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
  73. 73. Factors That Influence Health • Two primary paths ▫ Psychological factors can influence basic biological processes ▫ Long-standing behavior patterns may put people at risk for disease  AIDS is an example of both forms of influence • Leading causes of death in the U.S. ▫ 50% are linked to lifestyle and behavior patterns
  74. 74. 11. Positive Psychology and Happiness • Study of positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits, and the social institutions that foster positive individuals and communities • Martin Seligman • What makes us happy?
  75. 75. Happiness • Sonja Lyubomirsky
  76. 76. The happiest people… • Devote a great amount of time to their family and friends • Comfortable expressing gratitude for all they have • Often the first to offer helping hands to coworkers and passerbys • Practice optimism when imagining their futures • Savor life’s pleasures and try to live in the present moment • Make physical exercise a weekly and even daily habit • Deeply committed to lifelong goals and ambitions • Have poise and strength in the coping with stresses, crises, and tragedies

Beschreibung

Presentation on an overview of different topic areas in psychology for PSY 126 with Dr. Eisenhard.

Transkript

  1. 1. A Brief Look at Major Topics in the Field of Psychology Matthew L. Eisenhard, Psy.D. Psychology for Business & Industry
  2. 2. 1. Neuropsychology • Studies the structure and function of the brain as it relates to psychological processes and human behaviors. • Neuropsychologists typically work in the following types of occupations: ▫ Research (universities, laboratories, research institutions) ▫ Clinical (assessing or treating patients with neuropsychological problems) ▫ Forensic (assessments done for the legal system) ▫ Industry (consulting on neuropsychological knowledge as applied to product design or management of pharmaceutical clinical-trials research for drugs which impact the Central Nervous System)
  3. 3. Autonomic Nervous System • Responsible for the body’s reactions to perceived emergencies ▫ Can be actual or perceived (i.e. anxiety disorders) • Sympathetic ▫ “Fight” ▫ Produces rapid physiological response to perceived emergencies or threats • Parasympathetic ▫ “Flight” ▫ Maintains normal bodily functions and conserves body’s physical resources
  4. 4. Major Parts of the Brain
  5. 5. Forebrain: Cerebral Cortex • 4 Lobes
  6. 6. Forebrain: Limbic System • Involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory
  7. 7. Neurons
  8. 8. 2. Sensation & Perception • Sensation – Process of detecting a physical stimulus; such as light, sound, heat, or pressure ▫ How info gets to the brain ▫ 6 Primary Senses: Vision, Hearing, Smell, Touch, Taste, and Pain • Perception – Process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensations ▫ How our brains process and use that info in a meaningful way
  9. 9. Basic Principles of Sensation • All senses involve common processes ▫ Sensory receptors – Specialized cells that respond to a specific form of sensory stimulation ▫ Transduction – Process by which physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal to be used by the brain • Stimuli must be strong enough to be detected ▫ Absolute Threshold – Smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time ▫ Difference Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference)– Smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected half the time
  10. 10. Basic Principles of Sensation • Psychological experience of sensation is relative ▫ Sensory adaptation – Decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus ▫ Weber’s Law – The size of the JND will vary depending on its relation to the strength of the original stimulus • Subliminal Perception – Detection of stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness • Mere exposure effect – Repeated exposure to a stimulus increases that person’s preference for that stimulus.
  11. 11. Basic Principles of Perception • The process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory information. • Bottom-Up Processing – Emphasizes the importance of sensory receptors in detecting the basic features of a stimulus in the process of recognizing a whole pattern; from the parts to the whole ▫ Data driven processing • Top-Down Processing – Emphasizes the importance of the observer’s knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive processes in arriving at meaningful perceptions; from the whole to the parts ▫ Conceptually driven processing
  12. 12. 3. Cognitive Psychology • Study of mental processes, including ▫ Memory ▫ Learning ▫ Attention ▫ Language use ▫ Problem solving ▫ Thinking ▫ Creativity • Cognitive psychologists typically work in academia, conducting research.
  13. 13. Stage Model of Memory Long-term Memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal
  14. 14. Improving Memory • Space your study sessions • Sleep on it to consolidate memories • Focus your attention • Commit the necessary time • Organize the info • Elaborate on the material • Use visual imagery • Explain it to a friend • Reduce interference with a topic • Counteract the serial position effect • Use contextual cues to jog memories • Use a mnemonic device for remembering lists • Forget the ginkgo biloba
  15. 15. Learning • A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience • Conditioning – Process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses ▫ Classical conditioning ▫ Operant conditioning ▫ Observational Learning
  16. 16. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – Natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning • Unconditioned response (UCR) – Unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus • Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response • Conditioned response (CR) – Learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus
  17. 17. Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner • Basic learning process that involves changing the probability that response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response Operant – An actively emitted behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences • Reinforcement – Occurrence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelihood of that response being repeated ▫ Reinforcing stimulus is something desirable, satisfying, or pleasant
  18. 18. Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement – A response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations in the future ▫ *Something ADDED • Negative Reinforcement – A response results in the removal of, or avoidance of, or escape from an aversive stimulus, increasing the likelihood the response will be repeated in similar situations in the future ▫ *Something SUBTRACTED
  19. 19. Punishment • Presentation of a stimulus or event following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior’s being repeated • Positive Punishment – Punishment by application; Behavior is followed by the presentation or addition of an aversive stimulus ▫ Time-out for misbehavior • Negative Punishment – Punishment by removal; Behavior followed by the removal or subtraction of a reinforcing stimulus ▫ Loss of some privilege, possession, or other desirable object or activity ▫ Taking away a toy for misbehavior
  20. 20. Observational Learning • Learning that occurs through observing the actions of others ▫ Occurs indirectly, watching then imitating ▫ Mirror neurons – Activates both when an action is performed and when the same action is perceived • Albert Bandura’s “Bobo doll” experiment ▫ Expectation of reinforcement affects the performance of what is learned
  21. 21. Modeling/Imitation • 4 Factors for it to occur 1. Must pay attention to other’s behavior 2. Must remember other’s behavior 3. Able to transform representation into actions you are capable of reproducing 4. Must be motivation to perform the behavior • Most likely to occur when… ▫ Performed by a model who is attractive and who has high status or is a dominant member of the viewer’s social group ▫ Model is rewarded for his/her behavior ▫ Model is not punished for his/her actions
  22. 22. 4. Developmental Psychology • Study of how people change physically, mentally, and socially throughout the lifespan. ▫ Includes the entire lifespan and aging process: infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. • Gradual development vs. stage-like development? • Born with inmate mental structures vs. learning through experience with the world? • Social context effects on development?
  23. 23. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget (1952, 1972) • Children actively try to make sense of the environment • Develop schemas about the world ▫ Assimilation – Process of taking new information or a new experience and fitting it into an already existing schema ▫ Accommodation – Process by which existing schemas are changed or new schemas are created in order to fit new information
  24. 24. Piaget’s Theory • Children progress through 4 distinct stages • At each new stage, a child’s thinking is qualitatively different from that of the previous stage – each new stage represents a fundamental shift in how the child thinks and understands the world ▫ Sensorimotor: Birth to 2 yrs. ▫ Preoperational: 2 to 7 yrs. ▫ Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 yrs. ▫ Formal Operational: Adolescence to adulthood
  25. 25. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • Erik Erikson (1968) • 8 Stages: Each associated with a particular psychosocial conflict that can be resolved in either a positive or negative way ▫ Trust vs. Mistrust ▫ Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ▫ Initiative vs. Guilt ▫ Industry vs. Inferiority ▫ Identity vs. Role Confusion ▫ Intimacy vs. Isolation ▫ Generativity vs. Stagnation ▫ Ego Integrity vs. Despair
  26. 26. Death and Dying • Anxiety about death peaks in middle adulthood, then declines in late adulthood • Kubler-Ross (1969) stages of dying 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance • Not universally proven
  27. 27. 5. Personality Psychology • An individual’s unique and relatively consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving ▫ Personality Theory – Attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people’s patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving ▫ How people are similar, different, and why each individual is unique ▫ Attempt to explain the whole person
  28. 28. Psychoanalytic Perspective • Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalysis – Emphasizes unconscious determinant of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development ▫ Both an approach to therapy and a personality theory • Free Association – Technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind ▫ Free association exercise: For 5 minutes, write down everything that comes to mind. Do not block any disturbing thoughts but rather let them out.
  29. 29. The Unconscious • Thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness ▫ Often comes to conscious level in distorted, disguised, or symbolic forms ▫ Unintentional actions such as accidents, mistakes, forgetting, and slips of the tongue • Conscious – Thoughts, feelings, and sensations of which you are aware of at this moment • Preconscious – Information not currently aware of but can easily be brought to conscious awareness
  30. 30. Structure of Personality • Id – Completely unconscious, irrational component that seeks immediate satisfaction on instinctual urges and drives; ruled by pleasure principle • Ego – Partly conscious rational component that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world • Superego – Partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules
  31. 31. Humanistic Perspective: Carl Rogers • Developed theory from clinical experiences ▫ Referred to patients as “clients” reflecting their active and voluntary participation in therapy • Actualizing Tendency – Innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism • Most basic human motive • Self-concept – Set of perceptions and beliefs that you hold about yourself ▫ People motivated to act in accord with their self-concept ▫ Continually defending against experiences against the self-concept • Unconditional Positive Regard – Sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don’t conform to the standards and expectations of others; unconditional love or acceptance ▫ Conditional Positive Regard as conditional love/acceptance ▫ Leads children to learn to deny or distort his/her genuine feelings
  32. 32. Fully functioning person • Flexible, constantly changing self-concept • Realistic, open to new experiences, and capable of changing in response to new experiences • Experiences congruence: Self consistent with emotions and experiences • Rogerian triad: Congruence (genuineness), Empathy, and Unconditional Positive Regard
  33. 33. Trait Perspective: Five-Factor Model • Robert McCrae and Paul Costa Jr. (1996) • Traits remarkably stable over time • Over time, slight declines in Neuroticism and Openness, increase in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and stability in Extraversion • Generally consistent across situations • Situational influences have effect
  34. 34. •Openness to Experience •Conscientiousness •Extraversion •Agreeableness •Neuroticism OCEAN
  35. 35. Openness to Experience • Active imagination • Willingness to consider new ideas • Divergent thinkers • Intellectual curiosity • Unconventional • Low = Prefer the familiar rather than seeking out something new
  36. 36. Conscientiousness • How controlled and self- disciplined one is • Organized • Plan oriented • Determined • Low = Apt to be careless, easily distracted from tasks, and undependable • People high in this trait typically live longer (Kern & Friedman, 2008)
  37. 37. Extraversion • Sociable • Energetic • Optimistic • Friendly • Assertive • Low = “Reserved rather than unfriendly, independent rather than followers, even-paced rather than sluggish” (Costa & McCrae, 1992) • Extraverts have more friends and spend more time in social situations (Asendorpf & Wilpers, 1998)
  38. 38. Agreeableness • Helpful • Trusting • Sympathetic • Prefer cooperation over competition • Low = antagonistic, skeptical, prefer to fight for interests and beliefs • Have more pleasant social interactions (Donnellan, Conger, & Bryant, 2004) • More willing to help those in need (Graziano et al, 2007)
  39. 39. Neuroticism • Continuum of emotional stability and personal adjustment • Frequently experience emotional distress ▫ Sadness, anger, anxiety, guilt • Wide swings of emotion • Low = calm, well adjusted, and not prone to extreme emotional reactions • High on trait more upset over daily stressors (Lahey, 2009)
  40. 40. 6. Social Psychology • Branch of psychology that studies how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment ▫ Sense of self – An individual’s unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences: sense of who you are in relation to other people ▫ Sociology – Systematic study of the development, structure, interaction, and collective behavior of organized groups of social beings
  41. 41. Social Cognition • Mental processes people use to make sense of their social environment; How we form impressions of other people, how we interpret the meaning of other people’s behavior, and how our behavior is affected by our attitudes ▫ Person perception ▫ Social categorization ▫ Implicit personality theory ▫ Attribution ▫ Attitudes ▫ Stereotypes
  42. 42. Social Influence • Study of how behavior is influenced by the social environment and by other people ▫ Conformity ▫ Obedience ▫ Compliance ▫ Social Influence Techniques ▫ Helping Behaviors
  43. 43. Solomon Asch (1955)
  44. 44. Asch’s Results • 12/18 trials confederates chose wrong answer ▫ 75% conformed at least once ▫ Participants conformed at 37% of critical trials overall • Other results ▫ If everyone agrees, you are less likely to disagree ▫ But, if even just one person disagrees (even with a wrong answer) you are more likely to stick to your guns and give the correct answer ▫ Collectivist cultures more likely to conform
  45. 45. Compliance • Going along with a request for behavior • Cialdini’s “Weapons of Influence” 1. Friendship/Liking  Ex.) Tupperware party 1. Commitment/Consistency  Related to cognitive dissonance 1. Scarcity  Rare items seen as more valuable 1. Reciprocity  Have to do something in return 1. Social Validation  Wanting to be like others 1. Authority  Experts know what is best
  46. 46. Social Influence Techniques • Persuasion – Deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in which that person has freedom of choice • “Foot In The Door” ▫ Small request followed by larger request • “Door In The Face” ▫ Large, improbable request followed by a smaller request • “That’s Not All” ▫ Based on reciprocity norm • “Low Ball” “Bait and Switch” “Four Walls” ▫ Based on consistency/commitment
  47. 47. 7. Abnormal Psychology • Study of universal patterns of behavior, emotion, and thought; which may or may not be a precipitator for the development of a mental illness. ▫ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition
  48. 48. Prevalence of Disorders • National Comorbidity Survey Replication (Kessler et al., 2005) ▫ 1 of 4 Americans (26%) experienced symptoms of a disorder in past 12 months ▫ High degree of comorbidity – people diagnosed with 1 disorder are likely to be diagnosed with another distinct disorder ▫ 1 of 2 adults (46%) have experienced symptoms of some disorder in their lifetime ▫ Only 59% of individuals with symptoms received treatment  Lack of insurance  Low income  Rural areas  Lack of knowledge/awareness
  49. 49. Prevalence of Disorders
  50. 50. Anxiety Disorders • Anxiety – unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry ▫ Can be adaptive or maladaptive • Maladaptive anxiety disrupts everyday activities, moods, and thought processes ▫ Irrational ▫ Uncontrollable ▫ Disruptive • 1 in 4 people will suffer in U.S. during lifetime from an anxiety disorder ▫ More women than men
  51. 51. Mood Disorders • Significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning; aka affective disorders ▫ Major Depressive Disorder ▫ Dysthymic Disorder ▫ Seasonal Affective Disorder ▫ Bipolar Disorder ▫ Cyclothymic Disorder
  52. 52. Schizophrenia • Ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes • Positive Symptoms – Reflect excesses or distortions of normal functioning 1. Delusions – Falsely held belief that persists despite compelling contradictory evidence  Delusions of reference – Other people’s behavior and ordinary events are somehow personally related  Delusions of grandeur – Person is extremely powerful, important, or wealthy  Delusions of persecution – Others are plotting against or trying to harm the person or someone close  Delusions of being controlled – Outside forces are trying to exert control on the individual
  53. 53. Schizophrenia 2. Hallucinations – False or distorted perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing it  May be unable to distinguish delusions from reality 3. Severely disorganized thought processes, speech, and behavior  Over-inclusion – Jumping from one idea to another without any logical flow  Paralogic thinking – On surface seems logical, but seriously flawed  Behavior inappropriate to the situation
  54. 54. Schizophrenia • Negative Symptoms – Reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning ▫ Flat affect – Person responds without emotion and facial expressions ▫ Alogia – Greatly reduced production of speech ▫ Avolition – Inability to initiate or persist in even simplest forms of goal-directed behaviors  Such as dressing, bathing, or engaging in social activities
  55. 55. Suicide • 30,000 per year in United States ▫ For every completed, 25 people attempted • Women 3:1 attempts, Men 4:1 in deaths ▫ Men tend to use more lethal methods • Leading cause of death for 15-24 year-olds • Risk Factors ▫ Feelings of hopelessness and isolation ▫ Recent relationship problems or lack of significant relationships ▫ Poor coping and problem-solving skills ▫ Poor impulse control and impaired judgment ▫ Rigid thinking or irrational beliefs ▫ A major psychological disorder ▫ Alcohol or substance abuse ▫ Childhood physical or sexual abuse ▫ Prior self-destructive behavior ▫ Family history or suicide ▫ Presence of firearm in the home
  56. 56. Helping to Prevent Suicide • Actively listen as the person talks and vents his/her feelings • Don’t deny or minimize the person’s suicidal intentions • Identify other potential solutions • Ask to person to delay his/her decision • Encourage the person to seek professional help
  57. 57. 8. Clinical Psychology • An integration of science, theory, and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction. • Also, to promote subjective well-being and personal development. 1. Psychological Assessment 2. Psychotherapy
  58. 58. Reasons for Seeking Therapy 1. Psychological Disorders – Troubling thoughts, feelings or behaviors that interfere with a person’s ability to function or cause psychological discomfort 2. Troubled Relationships – Parent-child conflicts, unhappy marriage, etc. 3. Life Transitions – Death of a loved one, dissolving marriage, adjusting to retirement, etc.
  59. 59. Psychoanalytic Therapy • Sigmund Freud, early 1900s • Psychoanalysis – Techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts ▫ Undesirable conflicts and urges are repressed or pushed into the unconscious ▫ Unconscious conflicts exert influence on behavior, emotion, and interpersonal dynamics ▫ Understanding and insight into repressed conflicts leads to recognition and resolution
  60. 60. Humanistic Therapy • Carl Rogers (1951) • Client-Centered Therapy – Therapist is nondirective and reflective, and the client directs the focus of each therapy session ▫ Emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and freedom of choice ▫ Clients moving towards self-actualization, the realization of their unique potentials and talents ▫ Most important factor is an individual’s conscious, subjective perception of the self ▫ Therapist’s role is to create the conditions that allow the client to direct the focus of therapy
  61. 61. Rogerian Therapeutic Conditions • Conditions that foster feelings of being psychologically safe, accepted, and valued • Promote trust and self-exploration 1. Genuineness – Therapist honestly and openly shares his/her thoughts and feelings with the client 2. Unconditional Positive Regard – Must value, accept, and care for the client no matter the problems that are brought to therapy ▫ Removes fear of evaluation and rejection 3. Empathic Understanding – Reflecting the content and personal meaning of the feelings being experienced by the client ▫ Active listening is important
  62. 62. Behavior Therapy • Focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principles and techniques ▫ Also called Behavior Modification • Basic strategy is that of unlearning maladaptive behaviors and replacing them with adaptive behaviors • Based on principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning
  63. 63. Cognitive Therapy • Aaron Beck • Focuses on changing the client’s unrealistic and maladaptive beliefs ▫ Identify and change automatic negative thoughts • Developed to treat depression • Depressed individuals have a negative view of the past, present, and future which leads to development of a negative cognitive bias ▫ Arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization, personalization
  64. 64. Group Therapy • One or more therapists working simultaneously with a small group of clients • Most often found in inpatient hospitals ▫ Cost-effective ▫ Therapist can observe client’s interactions with others ▫ Support and encouragement from other group members ▫ Group members provide each other with helpful, practical advice and serve as models ▫ Try out new behaviors in a safe and supportive environment • Self-help groups and support groups typically conducted by nonprofessionals
  65. 65. Family and Couple Therapy • Based on assumption that the family is a system and that treats the family as a unit • Alter and improve ongoing interactions among family members • Family as a dynamic structure in which each member plays a unique role • Therapist observes and tries to identify unhealthy patterns of family interaction and to replace them more adaptive ways of interacting • Couple therapies focus on improving communication, reducing negative communication, and increasing intimacy
  66. 66. 9. Forensic Psychology • Intersection of clinical psychology and the legal system. • Function in the following roles. ▫ Academic researcher ▫ Consultant to law enforcement ▫ Correctional psychologist ▫ Evaluator ▫ Expert witness ▫ Treatment provider ▫ Trial consultant
  67. 67. Competency to Stand Trial • Understanding of charges and appreciation for possible penalties. • Factual understanding ▫ What does the judge do? What plea options does a defendant have? What is evidence? • Rational understanding ▫ Ability to make well-informed, reasoned decisions concerning one’s case. • Appreciation of adversarial nature of legal process • Capacity to work with an attorney ▫ Not willingness! If so, we’d have a much higher proportion of individuals found incompetent to stand trial.
  68. 68. Insanity • A legal term. • M’Naughten Rule: ▫ “It must be clearly proved that, at the time of the committing of the act, the party accused was labouring under such a defect of reason, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing; or, if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong.” • Virginia also adds the irresistible impulse rule. ▫ Thought of as the “policeman at the arm” test. Was the individual so compelled to act that he could not control the impulse to do so?
  69. 69. Civil Commitment • Civil commitment laws ▫ Legal declaration that determines a person is mentally disordered and may be hospitalized, even involuntarily ▫ Such laws and definitions of mental illness vary by state • General criteria for civil commitment ▫ Person has a mental illness and needs treatment ▫ Person is dangerous to self or others ▫ Grave disability – inability to care for self • Governmental authority over civil commitment ▫ Police power – health, welfare, and safety of society ▫ Parens patriae – state acts a surrogate parent
  70. 70. Civil Commitment • Initial stages ▫ Person fails to seek help ▫ Others feel that help is needed ▫ Petition is made to a judge on the behalf of the person ▫ Individual must be notified of the commitment process • Subsequent stages ▫ Involve normal legal proceedings in most cases ▫ Should a person be committed? ▫ This determination is made by a judge
  71. 71. Duty To Warn • What to do if a client threatens to harm another person? • Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1974, 1976) ▫ Must warn individual in danger • Thompson v. County of Alameda (1980) ▫ Threats must be specific • When in doubt, consult with colleague
  72. 72. 10. Health Psychology • Studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health- related behaviors ▫ How to promote health-enhancing behaviors ▫ How people respond to being ill ▫ How people respond in the patient-health practitioner relationship ▫ Why some people don’t follow medical advice • Biopsychosocial Model – Belief that health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
  73. 73. Factors That Influence Health • Two primary paths ▫ Psychological factors can influence basic biological processes ▫ Long-standing behavior patterns may put people at risk for disease  AIDS is an example of both forms of influence • Leading causes of death in the U.S. ▫ 50% are linked to lifestyle and behavior patterns
  74. 74. 11. Positive Psychology and Happiness • Study of positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits, and the social institutions that foster positive individuals and communities • Martin Seligman • What makes us happy?
  75. 75. Happiness • Sonja Lyubomirsky
  76. 76. The happiest people… • Devote a great amount of time to their family and friends • Comfortable expressing gratitude for all they have • Often the first to offer helping hands to coworkers and passerbys • Practice optimism when imagining their futures • Savor life’s pleasures and try to live in the present moment • Make physical exercise a weekly and even daily habit • Deeply committed to lifelong goals and ambitions • Have poise and strength in the coping with stresses, crises, and tragedies

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