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Animal Diversity: Invertebrates
by
Maryam Riasat
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
General Characteristics
• Bilaterally Symmetrical
• Cells form up to the size of tissues and organs. Eat everything from plants to
animals
• Live everywhere in land, fresh water, salt water, and every other
environment
• Largest Phyla on earth
• More than 83% of all described animal species are arthropods
Support System
 Exoskeleton - made of protein and
chitin
• used for protection
• keeps joints attached
 Molting - sheds exoskeleton as it
grows
 Segmented body
• Head, thorax, abdomen
 Contain a range from 3 to 300 sets
of legs
 Contain 2 pairs of antennae
Respiratory System
• Aquatic arthropods possess gills for respiration
• Land arthropods have a tracheae and book lungs
as respiratory organs
• Air passes through the tracheae through
specialized openings in the exoskeleton called
spiracles
Circulatory System
• Open Circulatory System
• Body fluid called Hemolymph (Not blood)
• Hemolymph is pumped by the heart to sinuses called the
hemocoel
• Body fluid enters pores to the organs and is propelled through
arteries to the body
Nervous System
• Brain
• Ventral nerve cord
• Double chain of ganglia
along the ventral surface of
the arthropod
• At anterior end are 3 fused
pairs of dorsal ganglia,
constitutes the brain
• Much of the control of
arthropod's activities is in
the central ganglia
Digestive System
 Eat Everything
 Complete digestive system
 Specialized by segmentation
 Food enters through the mouth and flows into the mid-gut
where food is broken down and pushed to the anus.
 Specialized mouthparts
piercing, sucking or mandible, biting, chewing
Excretory System
 Excretory system made of
malpighian tubules and
green glands
 Malpighian tubules are
tubular network that
collects liquid wastes and
sends them to the hind gut
in the form of nitrogenous
wastes. Found in terrestrial
arthropods .
 Green glands collect and
excrete urine like kidneys.
Found in aquatic
arthropods.
Reproductive System
• Most reproduce sexually
o Internal fertilization
o External fertilization
• Some species reproduce through parthenogenesis
e.g. bees, wasps, ants and aphids
• Undergo metamorphosis
Complete egg – larva – pupa – adut
Incomplete egg – juvenile – adult
Taxonomic summary
Chelicerata
• Lives on land or in water
• Includes horseshoe crabs, spiders, scorpions,
ticks and mites
• Have chelicerae, which serve as pincers or
fangs
• They do not have antennae
Myriapods
• All Myriapods lives on land
• Head contains 3 appendages
for eating including
mandibles (jaw like
structure)
• Millipedes
o less than 1000 legs (2 pairs
per segment)
o herbivores
• Centipedes
o 1 pair of legs per segment
o carnivorous
Crustaceans
• Live in fresh and salt water
environments
• Crustacea is Latin word for
"Shell"
• Shell is made of calcium,
protein, and chitin
• Have anywhere from 16 to 60
segments, 2-3 pairs of legs
• Advanced crustaceans have
pincers
• Includes Crabs, Lobsters,
Barnacle, Shrimp
Hexapoda
• Includes insects
• Mostly live on land
• Contain 3 pairs of legs and2 pairs of wings
• There are more species of Hexapoda than all other
forms of life combined

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Phylum Arthropoda.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. Animal Diversity: Invertebrates by Maryam Riasat PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
  • 3.
  • 4. General Characteristics • Bilaterally Symmetrical • Cells form up to the size of tissues and organs. Eat everything from plants to animals • Live everywhere in land, fresh water, salt water, and every other environment • Largest Phyla on earth • More than 83% of all described animal species are arthropods
  • 5. Support System  Exoskeleton - made of protein and chitin • used for protection • keeps joints attached  Molting - sheds exoskeleton as it grows  Segmented body • Head, thorax, abdomen  Contain a range from 3 to 300 sets of legs  Contain 2 pairs of antennae
  • 6. Respiratory System • Aquatic arthropods possess gills for respiration • Land arthropods have a tracheae and book lungs as respiratory organs • Air passes through the tracheae through specialized openings in the exoskeleton called spiracles
  • 7. Circulatory System • Open Circulatory System • Body fluid called Hemolymph (Not blood) • Hemolymph is pumped by the heart to sinuses called the hemocoel • Body fluid enters pores to the organs and is propelled through arteries to the body
  • 8. Nervous System • Brain • Ventral nerve cord • Double chain of ganglia along the ventral surface of the arthropod • At anterior end are 3 fused pairs of dorsal ganglia, constitutes the brain • Much of the control of arthropod's activities is in the central ganglia
  • 9. Digestive System  Eat Everything  Complete digestive system  Specialized by segmentation  Food enters through the mouth and flows into the mid-gut where food is broken down and pushed to the anus.  Specialized mouthparts piercing, sucking or mandible, biting, chewing
  • 10. Excretory System  Excretory system made of malpighian tubules and green glands  Malpighian tubules are tubular network that collects liquid wastes and sends them to the hind gut in the form of nitrogenous wastes. Found in terrestrial arthropods .  Green glands collect and excrete urine like kidneys. Found in aquatic arthropods.
  • 11. Reproductive System • Most reproduce sexually o Internal fertilization o External fertilization • Some species reproduce through parthenogenesis e.g. bees, wasps, ants and aphids • Undergo metamorphosis Complete egg – larva – pupa – adut Incomplete egg – juvenile – adult
  • 12.
  • 14. Chelicerata • Lives on land or in water • Includes horseshoe crabs, spiders, scorpions, ticks and mites • Have chelicerae, which serve as pincers or fangs • They do not have antennae
  • 15. Myriapods • All Myriapods lives on land • Head contains 3 appendages for eating including mandibles (jaw like structure) • Millipedes o less than 1000 legs (2 pairs per segment) o herbivores • Centipedes o 1 pair of legs per segment o carnivorous
  • 16. Crustaceans • Live in fresh and salt water environments • Crustacea is Latin word for "Shell" • Shell is made of calcium, protein, and chitin • Have anywhere from 16 to 60 segments, 2-3 pairs of legs • Advanced crustaceans have pincers • Includes Crabs, Lobsters, Barnacle, Shrimp
  • 17. Hexapoda • Includes insects • Mostly live on land • Contain 3 pairs of legs and2 pairs of wings • There are more species of Hexapoda than all other forms of life combined