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DESIGNING POSTERS: Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects

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DESIGNING POSTERS: Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects

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© 2019 Hochschule Rhein-Waal
Written and designed by: Dr. Maryam Bolouri
Lecture Date: 11.12.2019, 15:00 hrs, Cleve, Germany
Faculty of Technology and Bionics
Winter Semester 2019/20

© 2019 Hochschule Rhein-Waal
Written and designed by: Dr. Maryam Bolouri
Lecture Date: 11.12.2019, 15:00 hrs, Cleve, Germany
Faculty of Technology and Bionics
Winter Semester 2019/20

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DESIGNING POSTERS: Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects

  1. 1. DESIGNING POSTERS Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects Dr. Maryam Bolouri mbr@hsrw.eu (University) maryam.bolouri@posteo.de (Private) Faculty of Technology and Bionics
  2. 2. Page of1 34 1. Introduction Definition of Concepts Levels of Science Communication 2. Pre-Design: Planning the Poster Learning from Paradigms in Design Preparing Poster Concepts & Script Elements of a Scientific Poster 3. Design Principles Content and Context Text and Typography Composition and Layout Visualisation and Imagery Colour 4. Post-Design: Review & Print Reviewing and Printing Copyrights and Plagiarism Media Platforms 5. Preparing a Scientific Poster: Basic Steps 6. Assessment Criteria Contents 2019 Hochschule Rhein-Waal Written, visualised, and designed by: Maryam Bolouri Lecture Date: 11.12.2019, 15:00 hrs, Cleve Faculty of Technology and Bionics Winter Semester 2019/20 For education purpose only. Please do not use slides, contents and visualisations for commercial usage.
  3. 3. Poster Design Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects INTRODUCTION DESIGNING POSTERS Topic I PhotoLicencebyPixabay
  4. 4. Page of3 34 Nexus of Science, Communication and Media Design In the following text, we discuss the nexus of design, science, media, communication and art and reexamine their symbiosis for designing powerful scientific posters. In ancient history, there are various evidences to demonstrate the interconnections between art, culture and science. The ancient wisdom are preserved in time and are transmitted in spaces/places by using artistic and human-centred communication systems. Some civilisation used visuals while others used poetry. For instance, Omar Khayyam, a Persian mathematician, astronomer and poet, who lived during 11th century and is known for his geometric algebra, wrote his mathematical teaching in form of poetry. During the modern history, specially after industrialisation, a sharp conceptual distinction is made between the fields of sciences, technology and engineering on the one hand, and humanities, art, communication and cultural studies, on the other hand. Today, we are witnessing a complex interdisciplinary and intercultural network between these fields. As rightly pointed out by Edward A. Shanken, the sprout of these interrelationship has developed during 1960s. Considerably, the contemporary art influenced by science and technology from ideas, methods, to tools and images (see Shanken, 2002 & 2007). Science Communication and Poster Design We are witnessing a transformation in media culture and communication systems globally. The media culture is expanding towards visualisation of various spheres of life and activities. And systems of visual communication and media design platforms are changing rapidly. Poster design, in general, is not a new communication practice in history. With the sophistication and excessiveness of information today, however, designing poster demands thoughtful decisions and intelligible processes of design. Designing a scientific poster is not only presentation and visualisation of research results and data, but also is an interactive installation to creatively, cognitively and scientifically engage people. The aim of this lecture e-notes is to compile strategies, techniques and tools, which can be used in designing a powerful visual posters for communicating scientific projects. These strategies should be seen as a source of inspiration rather than universal rules. The visual culture is in course of metamorphosis. INTRODUCTION Introductory Remarks Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Colour in Science Timeline of ‘all issues of Popular Science magazine from the beginning of publication in 1872 to 1922’, without colour and design. Source: Huber, Zepel, & Manovich (2010)
  5. 5. Page of4 34 Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Definition of Concepts INTRODUCTION *These definition are simplified for this presentation. For complex research usage please refer to your discipline (e.g. information may be defined differently in science and informatics)
  6. 6. Page of5 34 What is Communication? In the modern history, the concept of communication is defined in different ways. The influential model is the ‘Mathematical Theory of Communication’ developed by Claud E. Shanon during 1948 in the Bell Laboratory and introduced to humanities by Warren Weaver. This theory reduces the communication into a system of information and it is essentially message-oriented model (see Bolouri, 2019). During the expansion of the communication studies, many theories from social science and anthropology, among others, have been introduced to the field. These theories highlighted communication as ‘a social function’, ’social construction’, constituting social reality, or shaping civilisation (see for example Raymond Williams, Harold Innis, etc.). The contemporary theories define communication not merely as transmission of information, but as a process of (re)constructing meaning. Accordingly, communication is a dynamic and organic process of meaning-making. The context, situations, settings, forms of mediation, inter alia, can influence the constitution of reality and experience of life (see Littlejohn & Foss, 2008). From Intra-personal to Global communication Communication may take place in various levels (see McQuail, 2005). ✦ Intra-personal (e.g. cognition, ideation, creation, expression of meaning at individual level) ✦ Inter-personal (e.g. the process of meaning-making between two or more people) ✦ Intra-group (e.g. family) ✦ Intergroup or Association (e.g. community) ✦ Institutional or Organisational (e.g. business firm) ✦ Society-Wide or Public (e.g. national level) ✦ Global (e.g. intercultural and international level) INTRODUCTION Levels of Communication Further Readings Littlejohn, S. W. (2002). Theories of Human Communication. India: Wadsworth. ‘We live in communication just like fish live in water, wrapped in but unconscious of communication [processes] as much as fish are unaware of water’ (Hsia, 1988: p. 8). Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Intra- Personal Inter-Personal Intra-Group Inter-Group / Association Institutional / Organisational Society-Wide / Public Global Levels of Communication
  7. 7. Page of6 34 INTRODUCTION Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Levels of Communication
  8. 8. Page of7 34 INTRODUCTION Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Levels of Science Communication
  9. 9. PRE-DESIGN PLANNINGTHE POSTER Topic II Poster Design Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects PhotoLicencebyPixabay
  10. 10. Page of9 34 PRE-DESIGN INTRODUCTION Design paradigms There are two levels of design, which are involved here. One is the actual design of your project (which is a product design) and, the second, the poster design (which is a media design). Here the major focus is on media design. There are various paradigms in design in general. What is a paradigm? How can we learn from design paradigms? A paradigm gives us a system of values and enables us to make a judgment about particular design. Form follows function This designing principle is attributed to Lois Sullivan from “Art and Crafts” movements during 1886 (Hammer, 2008: p. 28). This paradigm gave value to functionality rather than form. This is basically a functionalism approach in design, which was glorified during the Bauhaus and the Ulm School of design during 50s and 60s (p. 28). In today’s context, can we rely on a functional poster? You can design a functional poster, but not essentially an efficient one. Form follow emotion The second paradigm is considered as a response to the dominance of functionalism in design practices. The emphasis was on emotional effects and aesthetics values rather than the cause and effect relationship between function and form. Can we rely on aesthetically pleasant poster? A scientific poster is not only a beautiful design but also communicating meaning. A poster can simplify the complex research projects. Form follow form (cognition) Bolz, In his book, Band-Design-Manifest des 21. Jahrhunderts (2006) argued for a paradigm-shift in design after “form follow function” and “form follow emotions” (Hammer, 2008: p. 29). This idea was influenced by the self-organisation of the nature (p. 29). This paradigm-shift in design is cognitive-oriented. An effective scientific poster uses the laws of perception in design. Learning From Paradigms in Design Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20
  11. 11. Page of10 34 PRE-DESIGN INTRODUCTION Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 The Language of Poster Vs. Research Article? A poster is a space-based, non-linear medium, while the research article is a linear and time-based medium. People may decide how to get involved with your research results presented on a poster. But, their gaze can be directed by the information flow and visual narrative structure. Central Narrative Brainstorm the central narrative in your group. Decide how to visualise your research story and results in a meaningful way to other people. Visual narrative is the art of building a bounding and comprehensive structure. It would be discouraging for a viewer to search for data and connecting meaningless information together. Designing a poster is not merely a research report, but a cognitive and comprehensive knowledge transfer. Decide on the information flow and think of a clear structure which can support it. One “aha” moment! It is important to communicate one central ‘wow’ effect / ‘aha’ moment to the viewer. Choose the major character of your research and build the story around it. Use another three supporting argument to back the central discussion. Do not use too many details or wide-range of concepts to communicate. Time-based vs. Space-based Medium Preparing a Poster: Concept and Script
  12. 12. Page of11 34 Scientific Information Design & Entertainment Poster Media Platform 1 ‘Wow’ effect Background / Overview Process / Methodology Results / Inferences Follow up on other media platform Imagery Flow and narratives Consistency 3 Supporting ideas Visualisation of complex data Visual Metaphors Title PRE-DESIGN INTRODUCTION Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Brainstorming: Elements of a Scientific Poster Acknowledgement
  13. 13. Page of12 34 Topic III Poster Design Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects DESIGN PRINCIPLES PhotoLicencebyPixabay
  14. 14. Page of13 34 Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Major Elements in Design
  15. 15. Page of14 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Poster Title Choose a simple and creative title to attract people. Avoid long sentence in the title. Content Structure Be aware of the visual nature of a poster. The content serves as a part of the visual design. Avoid too many text and write down only a gist of ideas. Summarise longer sentences and build small paragraphs if required. Use bullet points or subtitles to communicate important information. Brainstorm in your group how to visualise complex processes and complex data instead of writing. Language Know who your audience are. Choose simple and uncluttered language to communicate sophisticated research problems and results. Choose words and sentences very consciously and be aware of word usage. Mind your style and remain consistence if you choose certain voices/tones. Remove unnecessary information. • Simplicity: Think clearly and use simple language to express your ideas. Avoid unnecessary words and insignificant construction. • Avoid Clutter: Avoid unnecessary structure in your narration. Avoid redundant adverbs, adjectives or prepositions (e.g. tall skyscraper, order up) • Words and Usage: The usage of the word should be appropriate and grammatically correct. Be attentive to the interdisciplinary usage of the words. • Continuity: Make sure to use appropriate connectors to build logical relationships between sentences. • Unity: The unity maintain the order subconsciously demanded by the reader. Be aware of the unity of tense, pronoun, tone, voice, British vs. American English, goal, narrator, etc. Context Be aware of the context of your research. Identify the nature of your research project and the potential readers of your poster. The context can help you to set clear design strategies. For instance, a poster for a scientific project in the area of solar energy, which aims to target particular group, may demand (semi-)realistic visualisation with a naturalistic colour composition rather than visual comics with a factious colour palette. Content and Context ‘People will rarely spend more than a minute or two viewing a poster. Too much text will communicate less information, not more – viewers will switch off if they see excessive reading matter’ (Odling-Smee, 2013: p. 7).
  16. 16. Page of15 34 Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Summary: Content and Context
  17. 17. Page of16 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Typography Matters Typography functions as a mediator of information, which influence attention, emotions, semantic reception and optical perception (Hammer, 2008: p. 207). Typography is a powerful expression tool in designing posters. The aesthetic and effects of typography may vary based on context, culture and the target group. Typeface (fonts) For scientific topics use San Serif fonts (Helvetica, arial, calibri). They are simple and have less visual density*. Complex Simple Font Styles Avoid too many font styles and colours. For instance choose two fonts, one for titles/subtitles and one for the body/text. Avoid CAPITALISATION of all words. It makes it difficult to read. Our perception identify shapes of words holistically rather than individual alphabet. Use italics for names and bold for special labels or bullet points. Font Size Use a font size, which is readable from distance. The font size categorises the information based on the importance. Use readable typeface from distance. Use maximum three to four size in the poster and remain consistence. Remember that typefaces are different in print and digital forms. Adjust the font size of the graphs to the scale of the poster. Text Size and Alignment Use a readable size for the text. Avoid central alignments for main text. Give a sense of order by aligning the information consistently to the direction of reading (e.g. left alignment or right alignment). Avoid justified option if the reading flow is disrupted. Avoid long paragraphs in a row. Build fewer words per line in a poster. Line and Letter Spacing The golden rule is, to give a space, space! The space perceptually helps us to orient and follow the information. Space design is influenced by culture. Text and Typography ‘The technical terms for letter spacing are ‘kerning’ and ‘tracking’. Kerning is the adjustment of space between pairs of letters. Tracking is the uniform adjustment of space between all letters in a range of text’ (Odling- Smee, 2013: p. 7). *Source of Imagery: Hammer (2008)
  18. 18. Page of17 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Font Size. Visual Credits: Hammer (2008) Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Examples: Font Size Choose minimum two or maximum three fonts: one for titles/subtitles and one for the body/text. Use maximum three to four font sizes in the poster and remain consistence. Typefaces is different in print and digital forms! Example
  19. 19. Page of18 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Examples: Alignment in Poster
  20. 20. Page of19 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Examples: Typeface (Font Style)
  21. 21. Page of20 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Examples: Spacing and Capitalisation
  22. 22. Page of21 34 Composition Composing a poster is the art of directing the information you wish to present. The composition of a poster is to bring a cognitive and communicative harmony to your text, visualisation and the space. The integration and meaningful connection between these three elements are significant in poster design. The poster appear as one single photographic image in the mind of people. Background The recent studies in visual culture demonstrated that there is a tendency towards adding layers of background in design. Avoid, however, low quality pictures and imagery with high colour contrast. The background should not dominate, rather it should ease the flow of information. Layout There are many ways to structure the layout. One way is using the golden ratio in design. Golden ratio classically refers to areas where more attention is focused. The eye- tracking researches in recent years show that the visual communication is influenced by culture and language. DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Composition and Layout The Golden Ratio. Visual Credits: Hammer (2008)
  23. 23. Page of22 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Types of Imagery There are various types of visualisations: photographs, pictures, computer graphics, computer modelling, sketches, graphs, figures, infographics, data visualisation, symbols, cartoons, comics, tables, charts, and logos, inter alia. Qualities of the Imagery There are important issues to consider in preparing imagery for the poster. • Label: Label pictures or graphs. • Quality of image: Make sure of the print quality of imageries. • Description: Write a short description inside/near the graphs if required. • Clarity: Make sure the imagery is clear to perceive. • Place: Be attentive to the context and content. Find an appropriate place for the imagery. Do not use margins or invisible areas for communicating important imagery. • Size: The size of the imagery should be appropriate to the proportion of the poster and should fit into the context. • Logo: Do not change any information in the logo, i.e. the colour, the font, or the background. Form and colours The human perception is attentive to perceive forms consciously and colours mostly subconsciously. Here are few instruction to make a powerful imagery. • Simplicity: Make sure to simplify the complex scientific graphs. Avoid too much information and usage of colour. Avoid detailed imagery in small size. • Accuracy: Make sure the figures, models and graphs presented are accurate. Consult expert for that matter. • Clarity of form: Make sure to communicate a clear form. • Colour Harmony: Be aware of the colour contrast. Make sure using the harmony between elements. Techniques Communicating complex scientific ideas are not easy. There are various means to achieve an effective communication. One powerful example is metaphor. • Metaphors: Visual and verbal metaphors can be effective tools. By comparing the known phenomenon, you can reduce the complexity of a scientific problem. Be cautious in choosing the metaphor, since an abstract metaphor may confuse the viewer. Visualisation and Imagery Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Form Consistency & Unity of Perception Hammer (2008)
  24. 24. Page of23 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Types of Imagery
  25. 25. Page of24 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Examples: Imagery
  26. 26. Page of25 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Colour Meaning and Association We associate emotions, values and meanings to colours. The colour preferences are influenced by culture, environment, social milieus, individual and collective experiences. Colour Symbolism Colour has had a multi-faced influence on human behaviour, allowing the communication of information about the environment, nature and nutritions. From individual levels of colour preferences, perceptions, emotions, affects, aesthetics, identity building, to community symbolism, rituals, religious values, colour discriminations (such as sexism, homophobia, racism, nationalism), political parties, architecture, textile, media, design, corporate and branding identities, colours symbolism play key roles. Be aware of these difference in design. Colour Contrast Be attentive to the colour composition and background – e.g. saturated versus desaturated colours, colour contrast, lightness of colours, etc. Colour in Print Colours production on screen and print are different. There are basically two systems of colour production one is additive (red, green, blue (RGB)), which emits white light and two is subtractive (cyan, magenta, yellow, key (CMYK)) which emits black used for printing. Make sure to save the file in CMYK (printing) format. Colour Visual Credits: Hammer (2008) Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 After Hammer (2008) CMYK RGB
  27. 27. Page of26 34 DESIGNPRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Examples: Colour Design Source: Unknown
  28. 28. POST-DESIGN Topic IV Poster Design Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects PhotoLicencebyPixabay
  29. 29. Page of28 34 Reviewing It is advisable to review the poster in a printed version. In this way, you can have a realistic view of the font sizes and mistakes. You can alternatively do a test print of font sizes in A3 or A4. Printing Consider the following issues before printing: • Frame/Bleed: The printer may leave few millimetre (approximately 3 mm) empty around your poster. Mind this white frame in your design, specially if you use colourful background. Avoid using graph and text too close to the margins. • Poster Size: Make sure to design the poster in appropriate size you wish to print. • Resolution: Make sure about the resolution of your graphs and imagery. The printing standard is 300 dpi (dots/pixel per inch) (e.g. for a 20 inches picture you need at least 6000 pixel resolution) • CMYK print colours: Make sure to save your digital RGB colours into CMYK (or PMS) for print. Ethics and Acknowledgement Be aware of ethical issues and data protection in your field. Acknowledge the research fundings and researchers who contributed. CopyRight and Plagiarism Avoid plagiarism. Make sure to write the references in case you use ideas (indirectly or directly), which are not yours. Make sure of the copyrights of images, take permission and give the full credit to the person created the imagery. Reviewing and Printing POST-DESIGN INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN DESIGNPRINCIPLES Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Written & Illustrated by Seth Roberts & Brian Hawes
  30. 30. Page of29 34 Bias of Media Media technologies can distort the process of communication and create certain bias in human perception. Consider dynamics of media and their influence on our perception. Types of Media There are many ways to connect your poster to other media platform. The following infographics demonstrates various forms of media practice. QR codes to Website Social Networking sites (Twitter, Pinterest, instagram, YouTube, etc.) Augmented Reality Designing Softwares Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop Adobe Illustrator QuarkXpress Google Font (Open San Serif) Microsoft PowerPoint Media Platforms Media Practices. Visual Credits: Bolouri (2019) Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 POST-DESIGN INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN DESIGNPRINCIPLES
  31. 31. PREPARINGA SCIENTIFIC POSTERS: BASICSTEPS Poster Design Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects Topic V PhotoLicencebyPixabay
  32. 32. Page of31 34 Design Thinking: Process of Designing a Poster BASICSTEPS INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN DESIGNPRINCIPLES POST-DESIGN Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 Visualisation: Bolouri (2019)
  33. 33. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA PhotoLicencebyPixabay Poster Design Strategies for Communicating Scientific Projects Topic VI
  34. 34. Page of33 34 Poster Design Colour Imagery & Visualisation Composition & Layout Text & Typography Content & Context 1. Scientific Content 2. Content Structure 3. Title / Subtitles 4. Clear Narrative 5. Language ASSESSMENT INTRODUCTION PRE-DESIGN DESIGNPRINCIPLES POST-DESIGN BASICSTEPS Assessment Criteria for Science Communication Students Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 1. Text Structure 2. Typeface (font) 3. Font style & size 4. Space design 5. Consistency 1. Composition Structure 2. Information Flow 3. Clear & Simple layout 4. Composition Appearance 1. Visual Communication 2. Simplicity & Accuracy 3. Clarity of Forms 4. Quality & Reception 1. Colour Composition 2. Colour Harmony 3. Colour in Print 40% 22 % 15 % 15 % 8 %
  35. 35. Bolouri, Maryam. 2019. Medial transformations: Towards theorising the intelligent mediation sphere. Tübingen: Universitätsbibliothek, TOBIAS-lib. DOI: 10.15496/publikation-30171. http://hdl.handle.net/ 10900/88787 Hammer, Norbert. 2008. Mediendesign für Studium und Beruf. Heidelberg: Springer. Hsia, H. J. 1988. Mass communication research methods: A step-by-step approach. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Odling-Smee, Anne. 2013. Poster design. British Science Association. Huber, William, Tara Zepel, Lev Manovich. 2010 Popular Science magazine, 1872-1922. https:// www.flickr.com/photos/culturevis/4670344452/in/ album-72157624959121129 last retrieved on 09.12.2019 Shanken, Edward A. (2007). Historicizing art and technology: Forging a method and firing a canon. In Oliver Grau (Ed.). 2007. Media Art Histories. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 43-70. Shanken, Edward A. 2002. Art in the Information Age: Technology and conceptual art. ISAST. Leonardo. (Vol. 35), (No. 4), pp. 433-438. Contact: mbr@hsrw.eu maryam.bolouri@posteo.de @maryamboluri Dr. Maryam Bolouri | Designing Posters | Science Communication | Faculty of Technology and Bionics | WiSe 19/20 References https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3201-703X

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