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  1. 1. Raw material pricing and Additive Manufacturing 20/06/2014 Martin Baumers
  2. 2.  Identified technology challenges  AM and technology diffusion  Patterns of technology diffusion  Impact of raw material prices  A sample of AM raw material prices  A more detailed look at two processes  Laser sintering  Selective Laser Melting  Conclusions Agenda
  3. 3. Identified technology challenges for professional AM  Many challenges have been identified (see, for example, the Diginova roadmap):
  4. 4. Identified technology challenges  The reduction of raw material costs is seen as a general technology challenge  Is seen to be of special relevance in applications-level research  Connected to cost-sensitivity of different applications
  5. 5. Patterns of technology diffusion  Technology diffusion is its spread over time  S-curve pattern is well supported, but the speed and extent is very difficult to predict See, for example, Rogers (2003) time Level of technology adoption ? ?
  6. 6. A model of technology diffusion  Diffusion is driven by benefits and costs  Histogram: describing when a distribution of potential adopters will find it worthwhile to adopt AM Called the “rank model”, see, for example, Stoneman (2002) Sufficient net benefit B to adopt AM Frequency of sufficient net benefit B to adopt Increase in net benefits (e.g. due to lower material costs) produces higher technology adoption B B’
  7. 7. AM material prices: overview Polymers: Name Fortus ABS M30 ULTEM 9085 PA2200 Tangoblack FLX973 Veroclear RGD810 Material ABS PEI Nylon 12 Acrylic photopolymer Acrylic photopolymer Platform Fortus 400mc Fortus 400mc EOS P Objet Connex Objet Connex Type FDM FDM LS Jetting Jetting Price, £/kg 188 266 46 883 884 Price, €/kg 235 333 58 1104 1105 Conventional material price est. (€/kg) 0.50 33.75 1.00 ? ? Estimates, excl. tax and shipping
  8. 8. AM material prices: overview Metals: Name Ti6Al4V Al 7075 Al 6061 Stainless 316L Inconel 625 Material Titanium Aluminium Aluminium Steel Nickel alloy Platform Renishaw SLM250 Realizer SLM50 Realizer SLM50 Renishaw SLM250 Realizer SLM50 Type SLM SLM SLM SLM SLM Price, £/kg 257 52 58 20 75 Price, €/kg 321 65 72 25 94 Conventional material price est. (€/kg) 34 2.7 2.7 2.5 39 Estimates, excl. tax and shipping Usually atomized mill products
  9. 9.  Powder bed fusion process (ASTM F42)  Most common material used: Nylon 12 powder (PA2200 / Duraform PA)  Process permits 3D build volume packing  No material is needed for support structures  Raw material logistics/economics shaped by powder degradation  Necessitates refresh rate, resulting in a stream of waste powder A closer look at polymeric laser sintering
  10. 10.  Thus the direct costs of laser sintering include:  Material consumed for parts  Material waste stream  Energy  In practise powder refreshing is often adjusted to build purpose  For PA grades, normally 30-50% of unsintered material  May be lower  Very expensive waste streams A closer look at polymeric laser sintering A simple model, mid-sized LS system Powder refresh rate 40% Typical build volume utilisation (Baumers et al., 2012) 6.11% Powder waste factor (kg waste / kg deposited) 6.15
  11. 11. A closer look at Selective Laser Melting  Powder bed fusion process (ASTM F42)  Variety of industrial metals/alloys used  Process does not permit 3D build volume packing  Raw material is used for sacrificial anchors/support structures  Almost complete powder re-use  Losses due to removal of agglomerates (sieving)  Other minor losses  Anchors/supports have been called the “swarf” of metallic Additive Manufacturing
  12. 12. Conclusions  AM materials, especially polymers, are expensive  Price comparison to their conventional counterparts does not look good  indicates a substantial mark-up, possibly due to low volumes  For laser sintering systems, but also other polymeric platforms, significant waste streams exacerbate the problem  e.g. powder waste factor estimate of 6.15!  Pricing structure is likely to be a result from the Rapid Prototyping era  Coupled with other technology challenges (see roadmaps!) this is likely to inhibit technology diffusion  Damaging the value proposition of AM
  13. 13. A taxonomy for multi-material AM Martin Baumers, 05/02/2014 Thank you for your attention! martin.baumers@nottingham.ac.uk