Law is the command of the Supreme ruler.
It is enforceable by a sanction(a punishment given when
someone does not obey a rule or a law:)
Law is a social institution to satisfy social wants
Law is a body of principles recognized and applied by the State in
the administration of justice
Law is the crystallized common sense of the community
3. Law is a set of rules that are created and are enforceable by social
or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
a rule defining correct procedure or behaviour in a sport.
A rule of conduct or action that a nation or a group of people agrees
4. In the words of Salmond,” Law is the body of principles recognized
and applied by the state in the administration of justice.”
Law is not static.
laws are changed to fit the requirements of the society.
• Law prevailing in a society at any point of time must be in
conformity with – -the general sentiments - customs and -aspirations
of its people.
• It is a real phenomenon having a real existence in relation to the
facts of human affairs
5. Maintenance of law and order
Enables individuals to have the maximum freedom to assert
Maximum satisfaction of the needs of the people
6. Object of law is justice
Justice operates at two different levels
Distributive justice serves to secure balance among the members of
Corrective justice serves to correct the dis-equilibrium created by a
7. The classification of law is important for the correct and comprehensive
(Broader Way ) understanding of the law.
Following of Benefits of classifying law:
i. Useful in understanding the inter-relation of rules (Interlinked Laws ).
(Interdependent each other )
ii. Useful in the systematic arrangements of rules. (Like Administrative
law, criminal law, private laws, religion laws )
iii. Useful for the profession and students of law.(Corporate and
administrative laws )
10. This is the same scenario that was from previous decades like in
But Civil and criminal laws bifurcation now it modern age it is now a
International law – Law of Nations
International law is very important branch of law.
Many jurist do not give importance to this branch during medival
In resent years it is very important we can not ignore this because of
11. Public International Law –
This branch of law relates to the Body of rules and regulations governing the
conduct and relations of nations with each other or between the nations.
Countries mutually recognise these sets of rules which are binding on them in
their transactions on a reciprocal basis.
Private International Law – Private international law is that part of law of
the State, which deals with cases having a foreign element.
Private international law relates to the rights of private citizens of different
countries. (USA VISA )
What benefits you are getting after visa in any other country.
Marriages and adoption of individuals belonging to different nations fall
within its domain.
12. ii. Municipal Law
Municipal laws are basically domestic or national laws.
They regulate the relationship between the State and its citizen and
determines the relationship among its citizens.
Municipal law can be further classified into two segments:
13. Municipal Law – Law of the land
Public Law – determines and regulates the organisation and
functioning of the State and determines the relation of the State.
Law from parliament and will be applicable to citizens.
Private Law – regulates and governs the relation of citizens with one
This branch of law defines, regulates, governs and enforces
relationships between individuals and associations and corporations.
In other words, this branch of law deals with the definition, regulation
and enforcement of mutual rights and duties of individuals.
14. Public Law
Constitutional Law – includes all rules which directly or indirectly
affect the exercise of Sovereign (Supreme law)power of the State
Administrative Law – determines the organisation, powers and
duties of administrative authorities
Criminal Law – defines offences and prescribes punishments for
15. Local Law – Law of a particular locality
Foreign Law – Law of a foreign country
Martial Law – Law applicable to soldiers as well as civilians
in times of war.
Military Law – applicable to soldiers alone
16. State is a people organised for law within a definite territory
Population – No State without people
Territory – People settling down on some definite territory
constitute a State
Government – It is the machinery through which the
administration of a country is carried on. It is outward
manifestation of the State
Sovereignty – It is that which is absolute and uncontrolled within
its own sphere
18. Legislation – Making of law by the formal and express
declaration of new rules by some authority in the body
politic which is recognised as adequate for that
Precedent - Making of law by the recognition and
application of new rules by courts themselves in the
administration of justice
Customary Law – Constituted by customs which fulfil
the requirements laid down by law as the condition for
their recognition as obligatory rules of conduct
Conventional Law - It is that which is constituted by
agreement having the force of special law inter partes
War and administration of justice (Defence against external
enemy and maintenance of law and order within the country)
Legislation and Taxation (necessary for the welfare of the
The relation between State and Law is very close and
The State manifests itself through law and law has its
importance because it has the sanction of the State
20. Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as
inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols,
names and images used in commerce.