Más contenido relacionado


Elements of the Bible

  1. Elements of the Bible
  2. A “Lessons-to-Go” Scripture study by Mark S. Pavlin Elements of the Bible
  3. There is a mine for silver and a place for gold that they refine; Iron is taken out of the earth and copper is smelted from its ore;
  4. Man puts an end to darkness searching to the farthest limit the ore in gloom and deep darkness; He opens shafts in a valley where no one lives...... - Job 28:1-4
  5. Man puts his hand to the flinty rock and overturns mountains at the root. He cuts out channels in the rocks; his eye sees every precious thing. As for the earth, out of it comes bread but underneath it is turned up as by fire. Its stones are the place of sapphires and it has dust of gold.... - Job 28: 5-6, 9-10
  6. Study question  Much is said about Biblical symbolism of familiar things, of water, bread, sheep, salt, wine, wind, fire and light  But what about those substances wrested by fire from certain earths dug since ancient times, the metals?  Of iron, copper, tin (needed to make bronze), silver, and gold which...  .... Israel, wrested from the mountains of Palestine or, more often, obtained in trade from distant regions?  Aside from their value in making tools, weapons, jewelry and coins what spiritual significance did these materials hold for Israel? This passage from the book of Job tells us that deep shaft mining operations of the 6th century BC to unearth “every precious thing” were much like those common in the world up to the 20th century
  7. Today’s conception of elements as funda- mental building blocks of matter became clear only in the last few hundred years. Ancient peoples had only fanciful notions about constituents of matter e.g. all things were mixtures of earth, air, fire, & water. Introduction
  8. Today we know that most elements are metals* *The word “metal” derives from the Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine or quarry”)
  9.  Stone, wood, bone, clay, leather, salt, grass – everything was itself; hard/soft; useful/useless; food (edible) / poison (inedible)  “Purity” was a religious concept, not the result of a chemical assay, a concept conflated with the obvious sense that...  ...substances were commonly mixed with other matter as found in nature; wheat and chaff, salt in water, metal ore with useless rock;  To be made useful, substances had to be processed– chaff removed by winnowing, water filtered or distilled, ores smelted  Only rarely do metals occur as the pure element; examples are gold and copper (as nuggets) and iron (in meteorite cores)  Metals occur naturally as minerals- crystallites of their carbonates, oxides, sulfates, or other compounds, mixed with other minerals Not so elementary back then Peoples of the Bible possessed extensive practical knowledge and skill (Grk: techne, craft) but no scientific knowledge.
  10. Elements used in the ancient world (in order of atomic number) Element* Symbol Atomic No. Atomic Weight Melt. Pt. (o C) Typical Ox. State Iron Fe 26 55.8 1536 2,3 Nickel Ni 28 58.7 1453 2,3 Copper Cu 29 63.5 1085 2,1 Zinc Zn 30 65.4 420 2 Silver Ag 47 107.9 961 1 Tin Sn 50 118.7 232 4,2 Gold Au 79 197.0 1065 3,1 Mercury Hg 80 200.6 -39 2,1 Lead Pb 82 207.2 328 4,2 Bismuth Bi 83 209.0 272 3,5 *Those in bold are specifically mentioned in Scripture
  11. What is a metal? Num. 31: 22 ... the gold, the silver, the bronze, the iron, the tin, and the lead, everything that can stand the fire... 2Chr. 2:7 ... send me a man skilled to work in gold, silver, bronze, and iron, and in purple, crimson, and blue fabrics, trained also in engraving... Ezek. 22:18/20 ...the Lord came... saying “Israel has become dross to me; all of them are bronze, tin, iron and lead in the furnace; they are dross... I will gather you... as one gathers silver, bronze, iron, lead and tin into a furnace, to blow the fire on it in order to melt it... Unlike wood, some substances could “resist” fire, that is, not burn or decompose when heated in a furnace. Unlike stone, they could be hammered (when hot) into shapes without breaking into pieces. Materials with these amazing properties often appear in Scripture together; ancient peoples knew they were in some way related.
  12. Metals are malleable and ductile Malleability: the ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often character- ized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling. Metals are useful because they can be melted and cast into any shape for which there is mold... ... but also because they can be hammered into sheets or drawn into rods and wire without cracking. Ductility: the ability to undergo significant tensile stress, usually by drawing through a die or pulling and elongating a bar or rod without it breaking.
  13. Refining fire “Who can endure the day of his coming, Who can stand when he appears? For he is like a refiner's fire... He will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, He will purify the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver.” - Mal. 3:2-3 For prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Zechariah and Malachi, the fiery process of the refining of metals was a parable for the difficult and some- times painful process by which God strengthened His people spiritually. One smelting step was incapable of producing metal of adequate purity, so repeated melt-processing, i.e. refining, was required.
  14. Some like it hot Smelting is the process of subjecting a mixture of pulverized ore and certain other materials such as charcoal to a high temperature to reduce metallic compounds to their elemental form. Dross: lighter impurities that floated to the surface of the molten mass and were skimmed off. Slag: heavier materials that sank to the bottom of the molten mass and were left to cool and harden after the desired metal was poured off.
  15. Element Symbol Atomic No. Atomic Weight Melt. Pt. (o C) Density (g/cm3 ) Mercury Hg 80 200.6 -39 13.5 Tin Sn 50 118.7 232 7.3 Bismuth Bi 83 209.0 272 9.8 Lead Pb 82 207.2 328 11.3 Zinc Zn 30 65.4 420 7.1 Silver Ag 47 107.9 961 10.5 Gold Au 79 197.0 1063 19.3 Copper Cu 29 63.5 1084 9.0 Nickel Ni 28 58.7 1453 8.9 Iron Fe 26 55.8 1536 7.9 Ease of melting (in order of melting pt. of pure element)
  16. Testing their metal In a poetic figure of speech that refers to the sinfulness of His people, Israel, God appoints the prophet Jeremiah to be a “tester of metals” including bronze, iron, silver and lead: “I have made you a tester of metals among my people that you may... test their ways. They are all stubbornly rebellious... they are bronze and iron; all of them act corruptly. The bellows blow fiercely; the lead is consumed by the fire; in vain the refining goes on for the wicked are not removed. Rejected silver they are called for the Lord has rejected them.” - Jer. 6:27-29
  17. The Earth’s crust is rich in Al, Si, Mg and Fe; it holds much less of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb. Some 1,000 times less abundant is Ag. Rare indeed are Au, Pt, & Pd. Some elements are abundant, some rare
  18. Trading metals Metals also appear in Scripture because they were valuable trade goods. Ancient trade networks were extensive. ... Because of your great wealth of every kind, silver, iron, tin, and lead they exchanged for your wares. - Ezek. 27: 12
  19. Merchants of the earth weep and mourn for {fallen Babylon} since no one buys their cargo anymore, cargo of gold, silver, jewels, pearls, fine linen, purple cloth, silk, scarlet cloth, scented wood, ivory.... bronze, iron and marble, cinnamon, spice, incense, myrrh, frankincense, wine, oil, flour, wheat, cattle, sheep, horses and chariots, and slaves. – Rev. 18:11-13
  20. Associated with idolatry The word translated “metal” occurs 35 times in the OT (English Standard Version) but does not occur at all in the NT. - 22 times in the phrase “metal image” referring to idols - 2 times in the phrase “gods of cast metal.” * ”cast metal” is translated in the KJV as “molten” Examples: “You shall not make for yourself any gods of cast metal.* - Exo. 34:17 “What profit is an idol when its maker has shaped it, a metal image, a teacher of lies? For its maker trusts his own creation.” - Hab. 2:18 Here is illustrated what recurs in history; humans turn what is a portion of God’s good creation to a bad end.
  21. Lead
  22. The first metals smelted were lead and tin; they melt at temperatures reached easily by an ordinary camp fires. Possibility, then, smelting of these elements was discovered in antiquity accidentally. Cast lead beads found in Anatolia (Turkey) are dated to ca. 6,500 BC. Lead Galena with baryte and pyrite The lead–bearing ore galena (lead sulfide, PbS)*, is common enough that lead is “dirt cheap” relative to “precious metals”... ...and because, in antiquity, it was a by-product of silver refining; galena often contains 1-2% silver (as the sulfide, AgS). *The former mining communities of Galena, KS and Galena, IL, take their names from deposits of the mineral.
  23. Heavy duty *But not as dense as some other metals, as we will discuss later. ... plumb bobs.... sling projectiles.... and water pipes. “You {Lord} blew with your wind; the sea covered them; they sank like lead in the mighty waters. - Ex. 15 v.10 Ready availability, high density* and ease of casting made lead ideal for forming heavy, bulky things like...
  24. Lead value Production of lead, however, had little impact on ancient culture in com- parison to other metals...  It is too malleable to hold a sharp edge needed for serious weapons like swords or spear heads  It is too soft to use for making tools or structural components and parts  Its very abundance made it unsuitable for coinage.
  25. Lead in Scripture It merits mention in Scripture only 8 times; 3 times in lists of metals (as per previous slides) and twice in the Apocrypha book, Sirach. Production of lead, however, had little impact on ancient culture in com- parison to other metals...  It is too malleable to hold a sharp edge needed for serious weapons like swords or spear heads  It is too soft to use for making tools or structural components and parts  Its very abundance made it unsuitable for coinage. The writer alluded to these (apparently well-known) attributes of lead (and tin) as compared to the scarcity and high value of precious metals to express how much God blessed KIng Solomon (Sir. 47:16-18): “Your songs, proverbs, and parables and the answers you gave astounded the nations. In the name of the Lord God... the God of Israel, you gathered gold like tin and amassed silver like lead.”
  26. Lead is poison Scripture does not mention that lead is extremely toxic. With good reason- smelting any metal ore was extremely hazardous given the extreme temperatures required, chemicals added, fumes generated and contaminated waste water released. Lead crystal glassware, containing up to 24% PbO, was formerly prized for all manner of drinking goblets, decanters and bowls. Crystal cutting techniques enhanced its high reflectivity to create a brilliant, sparkling effect. Due to health risks, this kind of glass is now limited to objects not intended to hold liquids.
  27. Well before the time of Jesus, Greeks and Romans developed a crude process to convert metallic lead into a brilliant, high-hiding pigment. “White lead” is known today to be a complex of lead(II) carbonate-and hydroxide, 2PbCO3:Pb(OH)2. Here’s to the red, white, and yellow White lead was the standard colorant for white paints, artist oils, printing inks, and cosmetics despite evidence that it was highly toxic. Lead(II/IV) oxide (Pb3O4, "red lead") was used as a red pigment in ancient Rome, where it was prepared by calcination of white lead. The brilliant yellow pigment, lead(II) chromate (PbCrO4, "chrome yellow") was developed later.
  28. Batteries up! When you call for their energy, this (net) reaction takes place: Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 → 2PbSO4 + 2H2O + 400 kJ/mole Some 3 million tons of lead is processed annually worldwide into lead-acid batteries. They are heavy (the one in your car weighs 19 lbs) but inexpensive, rechargeable and long-lasting. When your car battery “dies” (due to a build up of stable crystalline lead sulfate) and you return it to an auto parts store when you buy a new one, all of the lead in the old one is recycled.
  29. exposure to TEL can thus cause memory loss, delayed reflexes, neurological problems, insomnia, tremors, psychosis, loss of attention, and an overall decrease in cognitive functions. Concerns over the toxicity of lead eventually led to an almost universal ban on TEL use in automobile gasoline by the year 2000. Tetraethyllead, (CH3CH2)4Pb (TEL) was used worldwide starting in the 1920’s as an anti- knock agent (or octane booster) in gasoline. Entirely unlike metallic lead, TEL is a liquid and can be purified by distillation. Featured chemical: Tetraethyllead Like lead, TEL is highly toxic; ingesting as little as a tablespoon induces severe poisoning. Because it is soluble in fat tissue, it crosses the blood-brain barrier easily. Chronic
  30.  HEAVY Denser than all of the other metals known to the people of anci- ent Palestine except for gold, lead even today represents that which is ponderous, weighty, slow-moving and/or awkward. But it’s great as radiation shielding!  NOT PRECIOUS* It’s no great loss to lose an object made of lead like a sinker or a bullet.  TOXIC People did not fully realize lead’s threat to human health until modern times. Corroding water pipes (remember the Flint, MI water supply disaster?) and deteriorating wall paint in old homes remain serious health concerns. Pb: what can we learn from it? *Spot prices in 2020 ranged ca. $0.80 per pound
  31. Tin
  32. You might think that because... (1) it melts at a temperature 100oC lower than that of lead... (2) it is soft (for a metal) and therefore easily shaped, and... (3) its ore is relatively abundant... .... therefore tin must have been of great value to early civilizations. Tin Since bronze consists mainly (ca. 90%) of copper, we will study how the Bible views it when we study how the Bible views copper. Tin was sought after by ancient peoples– but only to add to copper to produce the alloy that launched an “Age”, namely, bronze.
  33. Tin as in sin No surprise, then, that the word “tin” (Latin: stannum) occurs in Scripture only 4 times, never by itself, only in the lists with other metals (as per previous slides): Num. 31: 22 - “everything that can stand the fire.” Ezek. 22: 18 - “Israel has become dross to me” Ezek. 22: 20 - “You (Israel) have become dross” Ezek. 27: 12 - “... exchanged {metals} for your wares” Pewter is another important alloy of tin but one that consists mostly of tin mixed with either ca. 10% antimony and 2% copper or ca. 10% lead. Known since antiquity, it came into widespread use in Europe in the Middle Ages. Too bad tin wasn’t used for water pipes since, unlike lead, tin is non- toxic.
  34. Though tin is relatively abundant in the Earth’s crust, major deposits of the most important tin–bearing ore cassiterite (tin oxide, SnO2) source of tin throughout his- tory to the present day are scarce. Cornwall (far SW England) is home to a number of such deposits (old mine, below). Cassiterite (with muscovite) The Romans mined tin ore there and mining continued until the last mine closed in 1999. At peak production in the 1800’s, Cornish tin accounted for half the world’s supply.
  35. Solder Alloys of tin/lead have lower melting points than tin itself up to an alloy containing 55 wt% lead, the 62/38 blend being the lowest melting, or “eutectic mixture”. All of these alloys are useful as solder for joining pipes, electric circuits, and stained-glass windows. Metal Plating Tin bonds readily to iron. Electro-plating it to lead, zinc and steel prevents corrosion. Its most important ap- plication is the manufacture of steel con- tainers for food packaging/preservation; the so-called “tin can.” Toothpaste Additive Tin (II) fluoride (SnF2) helps protect teeth from decay, reduce plaque build-up (and thus, tartar formation) and strengthen tooth enamel. Tin today
  36. International regulations are now in place that either ban or severely limit the use of anti-fouling paints containing tin. Tributyltin oxide (TBT) is an organotin biocide. Added to coatings ap- plied to the hulls of ocean-going ships, it prevents bottom-fouling and thus decreases fuel consumption and maintenance costs. Featured chemical: tributyltin oxide TBT, however, slowly leaches into the ocean and concentrated by the marine food chain. It then harms layers of the ecosystem, including vertebrates and even mam- mals like otters and dolphins.
  37. Copper (and Bronze)
  38. Copper Copper is a malleable and ductile metal with thermal and electrical conductivity second only to that of silver. Elemental copper occurs in nature in useable form (as nuggets) and so was among the first metals shaped and used by humans. It’s ores were among the first to be subjected to smelting, by as early as 5,000 BC
  39. Copper Bronze Age Copper is a malleable and ductile metal with thermal and electrical conductivity second only to that of silver. Elemental copper occurs in nature in useable form (as nuggets) and so was among the first metals shaped and used by humans. It’s ores were among the first to be subjected to smelting, by as early as 5,000 BC The (likely accidental) observation that the presence of minor amounts of a second metal, especially tin, made copper harder and thus more suitable for the fabrication of weapons led to the deliberate mining and smelting of tin ores and helped fuel trade all over Western lands. In this way, the copper-tin alloy, bronze became far more important than pure copper and gave its name to the entire period of history from about 3,300 to 1,200 BC.
  40. Copper in Scripture The Lord your God is bringing you into a good land... of brooks of water, of fountains and springs..., a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olive trees and honey... In which you will... lack nothing, a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills you can dig copper. - Deut. 8:9 No surprise, then, that the word “copper” occurs only 3x in the OT. The first occurrence is in Deuteronomy, in the “farewell” speech of Moses to Israel. He puts copper on a very short list of the essentials of the good life, blessings promised by God to His people that came with the Promised Land. There is, in fact, little copper ore in Palestine; but a major deposit is not far away on the island of.....
  41. Copper’s chemical symbol, Cu comes from the Latin cuprum (“metal of Cyprus”) ...Cyprus
  42. About 12 BC, “Caesar gave Herod half the revenue from the copper mines on Cyprus” - Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, Book 16, Chap. 4 Copper = wealth... Greek Amphitheater at Limossol, Cyprus
  43. ...literally, as coinage The word “copper” is mentioned only 5 times in the NT; 3 times as in coinage and once as the material of cooking pots: “{Jesus} sat down opposite the treasury and watched people putting money into the offering box... a poor widow came and put in two small copper coins...” - Mk. 12: 42 (and Lk. 21:2) “You received without paying so give without pay. Acquire no gold or silver or copper {coins} for your belts, no bag for your journey.” - Mt. 10:9 “.. the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands. There are many other traditions that they observe, such as the washing of... copper vessels...” - Mk. 7:4
  44. Coins are still made of copper Most coins circulated in the USA are made of Cu (91.7%) and Ni (8.3%) ...“pennies” [97.5% Zn / 2.5% Cu]... ...and “nickels” [75% Cu and 25% Ni] Exceptions are... $0.10 $0.25 $0.50 $1.00 $0.01 $0.05
  45. All the rage in the Bronze Age The greater importance of bronze, the 88/12 alloy of copper/tin*, is clear from the far more frequent occurrences of the term in Scripture [139 times in the NIV, 133 times in the ESV] than copper. “You shall make pots for it to receive its ashes, and shovels and basins and forks and fire pans. You shall make all its utensils of bronze.” - Exo. 27:3 *The term “bronze” applies to a family of copper alloys that contain various amounts of tin, arsenic and other elements. “Brass” is reserved for alloys containing zinc.
  46. Bronze rules in OT times Bronze was harder than copper yet easier to refine, cast, and forge. The earliest history of Semitic peoples was coincident with the Bronze Age, so it is no surprise that the OT has references to a great variety of objects made from bronze: Object Reference Object Reference rings Exo. 27:4 pillars 1Ki. 7:15 serpent Num. 21:9 cymbals 1Chr. 15:19 shackles Judg. 16:21 tubes Job 40:18 helmet 1Sam. 17:5 doors Ps. 107:16 bow 2Sam. 22:35 walls Jer. 1:18 altar Ezek. 9:2 mountain Zech. 6:1 During period of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, bronze gradually gave way to iron in many critical end-uses, especially weapons.
  47. Bronze is less important in NT times “... and on turning I saw... one like a son of man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash around his chest. The hairs of his head were white... his eyes were like a flame of fire, his feet were like burnished bronze, refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters. - Rev. 1:12-15 To the... church in Thyatira write: These are the words of the Son of God, whose eyes are like blazing fire and whose feet are like burnished bronze. - Rev. 2:18 Because of the nature of the texts that comprise the two Testaments, the Old refers to all of the metals of this study far more often than does the New. For bronze, the are only 4 NT occurrences, all in a single book.
  48. Bronze properties  Hard, somewhat brittle, but highly ductile  Oxidation at an object’s surface yields a patina that protects the object from further corrosion  Is resistant to corrosion by seawater, hence an excellent material for ship fittings  High electrical conductivity (same as Cu)  Low friction when contacting dissimilar metals  Does not produce sparks when struck (safer around flammables)  Expands slightly when hardening from the melt making the reproduction of fine mold details possible; thus it is the mater- ial of choice for metal sculptures.
  49. Bronze illustrates an almost universal principle in materials science - that a metal’s proper- ties improve and its utility increases with the addition of other elements. From steel (modified iron) to glass (lead crystal) to semi- conductors (silicon doped with boron or phosphorous), the addition of “impurities” enhances performance. What do you think? What spiritual lesson might you see in this? What can we learn from bronze?
  50. Iron
  51. Even during the Bronze Age, people made weapons from iron. But the iron did not come from the smelting of ores. Although its ore is abundant, iron’s high melting point (ca. 2,800 °F) put the smelting of its ore and its further refining out of reach until the development of specially designed furnaces (next slide). The only iron available was what fell from outer space- meteoric iron (right). The Age of Iron Axes, daggers, beads, and pendants made of this type of iron have been confirmed to be meteoritic in origin, largely due to their high nickel content (of ca. 10-30%)
  52. Evidence of a bloomery furnace was found at Tell Hammeh, Jordan, and dated to ca. 930 BC. The interior of such a hardened-clay chimney (charged with charcoal and fed with air blown into its base) reached a temperature sufficient to reduce iron oxide to metallic iron without actually melting it. Further manual hammering of the crude iron to remove most of the slag produced wrought iron. The Iron Age, properly, began with the development of bloomery smelting in Anatolia, the Caucasus region and/or the Balkans in the late 2nd millennium BC (ca. 1300 BC). The Age of Iron
  53. Iron in Scripture References to iron in the books of the Pentateuch and Joshua, which are set in a time well before the start of the Iron Age, are anachronistic: Tubal-cain.. was the forger of instruments of bronze and iron. - Gen. 4:22 The Lord has taken you and brought you out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be a people of his own inheritance... - Deut. 4:20 “The ironsmith takes a cutting tool and works it over the coals. He fashions it with hammers and works it with his strong arm.” - Isa. 44:12 By the time kings ruled Israel and Judah, the forging of iron was widely practiced.
  54. Iron in Scripture The most important property of iron is its hardness (chart, next slide) and therefore the superiority of tools, parts, and weapons made from it: “Thus says the Lord: You have broken wooden bars, but you have made in their place bars of iron. - Jer. 28:13 The word “iron” appears often in the OT (82 times), sel- dom in the NT (6 times, only once outside Revelation). Since no other metal was harder than iron, only an iron tool could be used to shape another piece of iron: Iron sharpens iron as one man sharpens another. - Prov. 27:17 This passage indicates the value of iron relative to other materials: “Instead of iron I will bring silver; instead of wood, bronze, instead of stones, iron. I will make your overseers peaceable and your taskmasters righteousness. - Isa. 60:17
  55. Fe~4.5 MohsHardnessRating Cu~3.0 Sn~1.5 Ironishard Ti~6.0 W~9.0
  56. Stronger than iron is really strong The bones of [Behemoth] are tubes of bronze and his limbs like bars of iron. - Job 40:18 [Leviathan] counts iron as straw and bronze as rotten wood..... - Job 41:27
  57. Iron is power These passages strongly imply that the people of Israel did not have chariots of iron; perhaps no chariots at all since they were useless in the rugged hills of central Palestine. And the LORD was with Judah, and he took possession of the hill country, but he could not drive out the inhabitants of the plain because they had chariots of iron. - Judg. 1:19 Then the people of Israel cried out to the LORD for help, for {Sisera} had 900 chariots of iron and oppressed the people of Israel cruelly for twenty years. -Judg. 4:3
  58. Steel is superior Ancient charcoal-fed smelting furnaces produced “pig iron” containing high and varying amounts of carbon which dissolves readily in iron. Today, elements are often added to the iron/carbon mix to produce steel with enhanced properties. Nickel and manganese increases tensile strength; vanadium in- creases hardness while decreas- ing metal fatigue. taining only 2% carbon, metal of superior quality we call steel. Laborious and often secret techniques were needed to make iron con-
  59. Stainless steel contains >11% chromium which forms a passive surface film that protects the underlying iron from corrosion.
  60. Featured chemical: ferrocene Unrecognized until 1951, it was the first known “sandwich” complex, now an entire class of chemical compounds in which a metal atom is bonded to two carbocyclic rings [commonly, cyclopentdienyl (C5H5 -) ligands]. The 1973 Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to the researchers who eluci- dated its novel and surprisingly stable structure, an insight that opened up the vast and productive field of organometallic chemistry. Air-stable; melts (172.5oC) without decomposition; sol- uble in common organics, insoluble in water.
  61. Silver
  62.  In Column 11 of the Periodic Table; below copper, above gold...  ... and so has similar properties: soft, extremely malleable and ductile, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and lustrous  ... likewise, occurs in its elemental form in the Earth's crust  Roughly 100 times the value of copper but 1/100th that of gold;* used extensively (more than gold) since antiquity in coinage  Produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining Silver  Mineral forms are argentite (Ag2S, left) and chlorargyrite (AgCl)  Does not react with air, even heated; thus considered a “noble” metal (as is gold)  Associated in myth with the moon (as was gold with the sun). *In September 2020, spot prices were: copper, $6.87/Kg; silver, $0.73/g; and gold, $59.77/g.
  63. The word “silver” occurs...  more often than “bronze” and “iron” combined,  283 times [OT = 263 / NT = 20  often along with “gold” (169)  Some OT examples: Silver in Scripture Greek: ἀργυρῳς (argyros) Latin: argentum Gen. 37:28 - {His brothers} ... sold {Joseph}to the Ishmaelites for 20 shekels of silver, who then took Joseph to Egypt. Jos. 6: 24 - They burned {Jericho}... putting only the silver and gold and vessels of bronze and iron into the treasury.... Ps. 12:6 - The words of the Lord are pure words, like silver refined in a furnace on the ground, purified seven times. Isa. 48:10 - Behold, I have refined you, but not as silver; I have tried you in the furnace of affliction. Mal. 3:3 - {The Lord} will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and He will purify the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver...
  64. Matt. 26:15 - Then... Judas Iscariot went to the chief priests... “What will you give me if I deliver him over to you?”...They paid him 30 pieces of silver. Lk. 15:8 - What woman, having ten silver coins, if she loses one coin, does not light a lamp and sweep the house and seek diligently until she finds it? Silver in the NT 1Cor. 3:12-13 - ... if anyone builds on their foundation with gold, silver, pre- cious stones, wood, or straw, each... will become manifest; the Day will disclose it, because it will be revealed by fire... Acts 19:24 - ...There arose a dis- turbance... For the man Demetrius, a silversmith who made silver shrines of Artemis (right), brought business to the craftsmen....
  65. Certain silver compounds (salts) darken when exposed to light, via reduction: Ag-I  Ag In the 1830’s, Louis Daguerre worked out a way to amplify a tiny bit of this reaction that took place on the surface of a glass plate coated with an emulsion of silver iodide in gelatin. The process created “fixed” dark areas only where the plate was ex- posed to light, thus providing an image. The Ag-gelatin process is the most commonly used chemical process in black-and-white photography. Silver made photography possible
  66. Did you know...? The medal awarded to an Olympic athlete who wins first place in an Olympic event is not solid gold. The ones awarded in 2016 (Rio de Janeiro) were 98.8% silver.... But the silver medals were 100% silver.
  67. Featured chemistry: silver tarnish To clean fine silver, wrap it with aluminum foil and immerse in hot water containing a little baking soda. This electrochemical reaction takes place: 3 Ag2S + 2 Al  6 Ag + Al2S3 The surface of a silver object reacts with hydrogen sulfide present in air, depositing black silver sulfide: 2Ag + H2S  Ag2S + H2
  68. What can we learn from silver? What do you think? What spiritual lessons might we draw from the fact that silver is valuable (but not so much as to drive people mad), reactive enough to enable photography (but not so much as to make coins corrode into powder), shiny but not of an unusual color? Silver comes in second.  As in the Period Table, silver is between copper and gold;  Silver is “precious” but its greater abundance means it is not anywhere near the value of gold  Silver is bright like the moon but moonlight is a weak reflection of the brilliance of the sun  Silver medals are awarded to those who out-perform all but one in an event or contest of skill or scholarship
  69. Gold
  70. The gold standard Gold is the standard for value; whatever is deemed precious is gauged by it (“worth its weight in...). So it has been since ancient times, so it is in Scripture, so it remains to this day. The ordinances of the Lord are true and righteous...More to be desired are they than gold, even much fine gold Ps. 19:9-10 [Wisdom’s] fruit is better than gold, even fine gold Prov. 8:19 ... the tested genuineness of your faith {is} more precious than gold that perishes though it is tested by fire 1Pe. 1:7 The words “gold”/“golden” appear in the Bible 426 times, mostly in the OT (389 times), more often than words for all of the other metals combined. What do you think? What makes gold so valuable as to inspire a “gold rush”? Why does its value skyrocket when the economy tanks? Greek: χρυσός (chrysos) Latin: aurum
  71. Gold is... These properties do not adequately explain the extraordinary power that gold exerted over human beings throughout human history. Property Gold, compared to other metals Relative abundance Is rare, 100x less abundant than Ag Occurrence in nature As metal (flakes, nuggets), not as ore Melting point High, but not too high for refining Density Extreme; almost twice that of lead Color Yellow, lustrous (S is only other yellow element) Stability Very; does not rust or tarnish Hardness Not very; of no use in making weapons Malleability/Ductility Almost perfectly so; can make foil, thread
  72. {Bezalel, the chief craftsman} made the ephod of gold, blue and purple and scarlet yarns, and fine twined linen. And they hammered out gold leaf, and he cut it into threads to work into the blue and purple and the scarlet yarns, and into the fine twined linen, in skilled design. - Exo. 39:2-4 Gold is malleable
  73. Easy to make into an idol... So all the people took off the rings of gold that were in their ears and brought them to Aaron. And he ...fashioned it with a graving tool and made a golden calf. {The people} then said, “This is your god, Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt!” When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it. - Exo. 32:3-5 Study for "Moses and the Golden Calf“, Leon Sitarchuk (c. 1940)
  74. ...but gold is more often a blessing... Scripture does not denigrate gold; its acquisition and possession is not designated as sinful. Rather, it is a symbol of God’s blessing... The Lord has greatly blessed {Abraham}... He has given him flocks and herds, silver and gold, male servants and female servants, camels and donkeys. - Gen. 24:34-35 Aaron... set up... the lampstand, as the Lord commanded Moses... {its} workmanship of... hammered gold... according to the pattern that the Lord had shown Moses. - Num. 8:3-5
  75. ...often reserved for royalty... Scripture does not denigrate gold; its acquisition and possession is not designated as sinful. Rather, it is a symbol of God’s blessing... The Lord has greatly blessed {Abraham}... He has given him flocks and herds, silver and gold, male servants and female servants, camels and donkeys. - Gen. 24:34-35 Aaron... set up... the lampstand, as the Lord commanded Moses... {its} workmanship of... hammered gold... according to the pattern that the Lord had shown Moses. - Num. 8:3-5 ... O Lord, in your strength the king rejoices... You have given him his heart's desire... You meet him with rich blessings; You set a crown of fine gold upon his head. - Ps. 21:1-3 The king {Solomon} made a great ivory throne and overlaid it with the finest gold. - 1Ki. 10:18
  76. it was in Egypt, The most massive single gold object known is the innermost tomb of Egyptian King Tutankkomen, who reigned 300 years before the time of Kings David and Solomon. It is formed from beaten gold sheet, ca. 0.1 inch thick, and weighs 243 pounds.
  77. ...a fitting gift for the Prince.... Gold was one of the three precious gifts that the Magi, the “wise men” from the East, laid at the feet of the baby Jesus: When they saw the star, {the Magi} rejoiced... And going into the house, they saw the child with his mother. They fell down and worshiped him. Then, opening their treasures, they offered him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh. - Mt. 2:11
  78. ...and for buildings in heaven. The city {Jerusalem} was of pure gold.... The foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with every kind of jewel.... the twelve gates were twelve pearls... and the street of the city was pure gold. - Rev. 21:18-21
  79. From where did Israel get gold? Gold from Ophir? From Sheba? No one today knows the location of these places. Africa? There are important gold mines today in South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania, and Mali; perhaps gold was shipped up the eastern coast or carried across the Sahara desert. The queen of Sheba heard... of Solomon ... she came to test him with hard questions.... with a very great retinue, with camels bearing spices and very much gold and precious stones.... - 1Ki. 10: 1-2 Hiram sent... seamen... with servants of Solomon to Ophir and brought back gold, 420 talents, to King Solomon - 1Ki. 9: 27-28 More likely, gold came from nearby Asia Minor, in the east- central region now the site of the Çöpler Mine, one of the largest in the world, (estimated reserves of 6 million oz.)
  80. Nevada is the leading gold-producing state; In 2016 it yielded 5.5 million ounces, 81% of all US gold, 5.5% of all gold worldwide. Where is there gold in America?
  81. But where shall wisdom be found? And where is the place of understanding? Man does not know its worth, and it is not found in the land of the living. The deep says, ‘It is not in me,’ and the sea says, ‘It is not with me.’ It cannot be bought for gold, and silver cannot be weighed as its price. - Job 28: 12-15 Where is there wisdom...? WISDOM
  82. It cannot be valued in the gold of Ophir, in precious onyx or sapphire. Gold and glass cannot equal it, nor can it be exchanged for jewels of fine gold. No mention shall be made of coral or of crystal; the price of wisdom is above pearls. The topaz of Ethiopia cannot equal it, nor can it be valued in pure gold. - Job 28: 16-19 Wisdom’s value WISDOM
  83. Featured chemistry: gold cyanidation Long gone are the days of panning for gold nuggets. Nowadays, the economical process for extracting gold from low-grade ore is to leach it out with an aerated aqueous solution of sodium cyanide. Who’d’ve thought you could dissolve gold in water? It works because oxygen strips an electron from each gold atom to form a water-soluble gold ion, Au(CN)2 - 4 Au + 8 NaCN + O2 + 2H2O → 4 Na[Au(CN)2] + 4 NaOH
  84. For further discussion  Are metals “natural” or “artificial”? Why, why not? Take steel as a specific example. Extend your reasoning to non-metallic elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine or plutonium  What do gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and lead symbolize to you? Relate a story about one or more of these elements that is meaningful to you personally  Could Jesus have been a blacksmith? What teachings of Jesus showed his familiarity with coinage?  Speculate: why are so many of the NT references to metals located in to the Book of Revelation?  Besides wisdom, what else does the Bible teach we should value above gold and silver?
  85. This concludes “Elements of the Bible” If you benefitted from this study, be sure to check out the many other Scripture-based studies of the “Lessons To Go” series, all available on SlideShare