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# Classroom Obsevation- 4 SAMPLING METHODS.pptx

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Research 1: Sampling
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# Classroom Obsevation- 4 SAMPLING METHODS.pptx

Research Sampling

Research Sampling

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### Classroom Obsevation- 4 SAMPLING METHODS.pptx

1. 1. SAMPLING METHODS Arranged and presented by MARK BRYAN B. LOTERTE, MPA Adopted from the write-ups of Dr. KANUPRIYA CHATURVEDI
2. 2. SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES •Relearn the reasons for sampling •Develop an understanding about different sampling methods •Distinguish between probability & non probability sampling •Discuss the relative advantages & disadvantages of each sampling methods
3. 3. LET US RECALL AND PLAY!! •Solve the scrambled words and after chose among your group a person that will define or give an insight about the identified word.
4. 4. LET US RECALL AND PLAY!! DTROUCNITINO 1 (Answer INTRODUCTION)
5. 5. LET US RECALL AND PLAY!! RAGELEN NQUSETOI 2 (Answer GENERAL QUESTION)
6. 6. LET US RECALL AND PLAY!! ERHCARSE SINDGE 3 (Answer RESEARCH DESIGN)
7. 7. LET US RECALL AND PLAY!! CHRSEARE CKBARGOUND 4 (Answer RESEARCH BACKGROUND)
8. 8. LET US RECALL AND PLAY!! RSEECHAR OTLO 5 (Answer RESEARCH TOOL)
9. 9. LET US RECALL AND PLAY!! DERALTE TELITURAER 6 (Answer RELATED LITERATURE)
10. 10. LET US RECALL AND PLAY!! CIIFSPCE NQUSETOIS 7 (Answer SPECIFIC QUESTIONS)
11. 11. LET US TALK… Reflect on the given picture. 1. What is the picture about? 2. What is the significance of Survey to the airing period of a TV show?
12. 12. SHARING OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH OUTPUT. 1. What are your sampling methods in your previous researches (PR1 and R2)?
13. 13. RUBRICS FOR CHAPTER-III CRITERIA SCORE Poor (1-3) Fair (4-7) Good (8-10) CONTENT OF METHODOLOGY 1. RESEARCH DESIGN a. The research design must be appropriate for the study. b. The sampling method must be carried out correctly in the study. c. The data collection method must be appropriate for the chosen research design. 2. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS a. The research instrument was properly constructed. b. Questions for the respondents are specific, related to the topic, appropriate, and convenient for the respondents. 3. PROCEDURE a. The procedure demonstrated research skills. b. The procedure was stated in detailed and chronological manner. c. The flowchart reflected the summarized step-by-step procedure of the study.
14. 14. RUBRICS FOR CHAPTER-III CRITERIA SCORE Poor (1-3) Fair (4-7) Good (8-10) FORMAT IN METHODOLOGY 1. SENTENCE AND PARAGRAPH CONSTRUCTION a. Sentences must be written in correct grammar. b. Proper tense of verbs for reporting and third person point of view must be used. c. The whole literature must be written in a creative and orderly manner. 2. PAPER a. Correct font style and size must be followed (Times New Roman, font size 12, double-spaced, etc.). b. The paragraphs must be properly indented. c. The output must be presentable.
15. 15. HISTORY OF SAMPLING……. The beginning of sampling could be traced back to the early political activities of the Americans in 1920 when Literary Digest did a pioneering survey about the Americans citizens’ favorite among the 1920 presidential candidates. This was the very first survey that served as the impetus for the discovery by academic researchers of other sampling strategies that they categorized into two classes: probability sampling or unbiased sampling and non-probability sampling. (Babbie 2013)
16. 16. SAMPLING • Sampling is a word that refers to your method or process of selecting respondents or people to answers questions meant to yield data for a research study. The chosen ones constitute the sample through which you will derive facts and evidence to support the claim or conclusions propounded by your research problem. The bigger group from where you choose the sample is called population, and sampling frame is the term used to mean the list of the members of such population from where you will get the sample. (Paris 2013)
17. 17. SAMPLING •A sample is “a smaller (but hopefully representative) collection of units from a population used to determine truths about that population” (Field, 2005)
18. 18. SAMPLING •Why sample? Resources (time, money) and workload Gives results with known accuracy that can be calculated mathematically
19. 19. SAMPLING •The sampling frame is the list from which the potential respondents are drawn Registrar’s office Class rosters Must assess sampling frame errors
20. 20. SAMPLING • What is your population of interest? • To whom do you want to generalize your results? • All doctors • School children • Indians • Women aged 15-45 years • Other • Can you sample the entire population?
21. 21. SAMPLING •3 factors that influence sample representativeness • Sampling procedure • Sample size • Participation (response) •When might you sample the entire population? • When your population is very small • When you have extensive resources • When you don’t expect a very high response
22. 22. SAMPLING 22 TARGET POPULATION STUDY POPULATION SAMPLE
23. 23. SAMPLING
24. 24. Probability Sampling • Probability sampling involves all members listed in the sampling frame representing a certain population focused on by your study. An equal chance of participation in the sampling or selection process is given every members listed in the sampling frame. By means of the unbiased sampling, you are able to obtain a sample that is capable of representing the population under study or of showing strong similarities in characteristics with the members of the population.
25. 25. Probability Sampling • The right sample size also depends on whether or not the group is heterogeneous or homogeneous. The first group requires a bigger size; the second, a smaller one. For a study in the field of social sciences requiring an in-depth investigation of something such as one involving the national government, the right sample size ranges from 1,000 to 1,500 or up 2,500. On the other hundreds, not thousands, of respondents suffice for a study about any local government unit. (Suter 2012; Emmel 2013)
26. 26. Non-Probability Sampling •Non-probability sampling is disregards random selection of subjects. The subjects are chosen based on their availability or the purpose of the study, and in some cases, on the sole discretion of the researcher. This is not a scientific way of selecting respondents. Neither does it offer a valid or an objective way of detecting sampling errors. (Edmond 2013)
27. 27. SAMPLING •Probability (Random) Samples 1. Simple random sample 2. Systematic random sample 3. Stratified random sample 4. Cluster sample •Non-Probability Samples 1. Quota 2. Voluntary 3. Purposive sample 4. Convenience sample 5. Availability 6. Snowball
28. 28. SAMPLING Probability (Random) Samples A
29. 29. Simple Random Sampling • Simple random sampling is the best type of probability sampling through which you can choose sample from a population. Using a pure- chance selection, you assure every members the same opportunity to be in the sample. Here, the only basics of including or excluding a members is by chance or opportunity, not by any occurrence accounted for by cause-effect relationships. Sample random sampling happens through any of these two methods: (Burns 2012) 1
30. 30. Systematic Sampling • For this kind of probability sampling, chance and system are the ones to determine who should compose the sample. For instance, if you want to have a sample of 100, you may select a set of numbers like 1 to 15, out of a list of 1,500 students, take every 15th name of the list until you complete the total numbers of respondents to constitute your sample. 2
31. 31. Systematic Sampling 2
32. 32. Stratified Sampling •The group comprising the sample is chosen in a way that such group is liable to subdivision during the data analysis stage. A study needing group- by-group analysis finds stratified sampling the right probability sampling to use. 3
33. 33. Cluster Sampling •This is a probability sampling that makes you isolate a set of person instead of individual members to serves as sample members. For example, if you want to have a sample of 120 out of 1,000 students, you can randomly select three section with 40 students each to constitute the sample. 4
34. 34. SAMPLING Non- Probability Samples B
35. 35. Quota Sampling • You resort to quota sampling when you think you know the characteristics of the target population very well. In this case, you tend to choose sample members possessing or indicating the characteristics of the target population. Using a quota or a specific set of a person whom you believe to have the characteristics of the target population involved in the study is your way of showing that the sample you have chosen closely represent the target population as regards such characteristics. 1
36. 36. Voluntary Sampling •Since the subjects you expect to participate in the sample selection are the ones volunteering to constitute the sample, there is no need for you to do any selection process. 1
37. 37. Purposive or Judgmental Sampling •You choose people whom you are sure could correspond to the objectives of your study, like selecting those with rich experience or interest in your study. 2
38. 38. Availability Sampling • The willingness of a person as your subjects to interact with your counts a lot in this non- probability sampling method. If during the data collection time, you encounter people walking on a school campus, along corridors, and along the park of employees lining up at an office, in these people show willingness to respond to your question, then you automatically consider them as your respondents. 3
39. 39. Snowball Sampling • Similar to snow expanding widely or rolling rapidly, this sampling method does not give a specific set of sample. This is true for a study involving unspecified group of people. Dealing with varied groups of people such as street children, mendicants, drug dependents, call center, workers, informal settlers, street vendors, and the like is possible in this kind of non-probability sampling. Free to obtain data to any group just like snow freely expanding and accumulating at a certain place, you tend to increase the number of people you want to form the sample of your study. ( Harding 2013) 4
40. 40. Questions? Anything that you want to CLARIFY?
41. 41. Questions? •What will happen if the selection does not take place in the way it is planned? •What do you call this instance?
42. 42. A Sampling Error •Crops up if the selection does not take place in the way it is planned. Such sampling error is manifested by strong dissimilarity between the sample and the ones listed in the sampling frame. (P) How numerous the sampling errors are depends on the size of the sample.
43. 43. A Sampling Error How will you avoid the said instance (Sampling Error)?
44. 44. A Sampling Error Some Tips!!!
45. 45. A Sampling Error •The smaller the sample is, the bigger the number of sampling errors. Thus, choose to have a bigger sample of respondents to avoid sampling errors. However, deciding to increase the size of your sample is not so easy.
46. 46. A Sampling Error •There are these things you have to mull over in finalizing about this such as express for questionnaires and interview trips, interview schedules, and time for reading respondents’ answers.
47. 47. Sharing what we Learned..
48. 48. LET US APPLY OUR LEARNINGS As pre identified before, based on strength or interest you were grouped according to
49. 49. LET US APPLY OUR LEARNINGS A. Making a Poem/ Jingle B. Dramatization c. News Reporting
50. 50. LET US APPLY OUR LEARNINGS Each Group will be given at lest 2 minutes to prepare and 2 Minutes to Execute their Activity.
51. 51. Remember this one!! 1. What are the benefits of a Survey to the following industries, to wit; A. Politics B. TV Shows 2. In general what are the benefits of Sampling?
52. 52. Assignment •Having the idea of the content of Research Design and Research Sample, per group decide on your Research Instrumentation.
53. 53. LET ME SAY THANK YOU…