4. Elements of Art: Visual
- The aspects of an artwork that can be isolated from each other.
- Generally produced when something is done to the medium after
the technique is carried out.
These are the elements of art and designs are the following: line,
shape and form, space, color, and texture
– Refers to a point moving at an identifiable path- it has
length and direction.
- It also has width, it is one-dimensional and it has the
capacity to either define the perimeters of the artwork (edges)
and/or become a substantial component of the composition.
- Line is “simple”, it has variations in view of its orientation/
direction, shape, and thickness.
7. a. Horizontal and vertical lines
- Horizontal lines are normally associated with rest or calm.
- Landscapes often contain these elements as works like these
often connote a visual sense of being parallel to the ground.
- Vertical lines connote elevation or height, which is usually taken
to mean exaltation or aspiration for action.
8. b. Diagonal crooked Lines
- Diagonal lines convey movement and instability, although the
progression can be seen.
- Crooked or Jagged lines are reminiscent of violence, conflict or
9. c. Curved lines
- These are lines that bend or coil
- They allude to softness, grace, flexibility, or even sensuality.
11. Shape and Form
- These two are related to each other in the sense that they
define the space occupied by the object of art.
- Shape refers to two dimensions: height and width
- Form refers to three dimensions: height, width and depth
- Shapes are part of bigger pictures; each can be identified
by breaking the visual components apart and making
12. There are two (2) categories can be used as broad distinctions:
- These shapes find origin in mathematical propositions.
- Its translation and use are often man-made.
- These include shape such as squares, triangles, cubes,
circles, spheres, and cones.
- These shapes are those readily occurring in nature, often
irregular and asymmetrical.
- Shapes may also be implied.
- Related to shape and form is space.
- inferred from a sense of depth, whether it is real or
- Sculpture is perfect example of artworks that bear in
- Manifested in two-dimensional artworks through the use of
different techniques or use (non-use) of area around the
drawing or picture.
16. However, not all works are sculptures. In two-dimensional
artworks, they may imply:
a. Positive and negative space
- identified with the white space is the negative space.
- Positive space is the space where shadow is heavily used.
b. Three-dimensional space
- can be simulated through variety of techniques such as
- Illusion of three-dimensionality can be achieved in a two-
- One of the elements that enhance the appeal of an artwork.
- This element is a property of light, as it is reflected off the object
- Color is not intrinsic to an object and without light
- Color begins with the notion of a Color Theory that was first
unrevealed by the experiments undertaken by Sir Isaac Newton in
This Color Theory is the creation of a color wheel, which
corresponds to the property of color:
- This dimension of color gives its name: It can be
Primary colors – red, yellow, and blue
Secondary color- green, orange, and violet
Tertiary color- six in total, these hues are achieved
when primary and secondary colors are mixed.
- This refers to the brightness or darkness of color; this
is used in artists to create the illusion of depth and
solidity, a particular mood, communicate a feeling, or in
establishing a scene.
·Light colors- taken as the source of light in the
·Dark colors- lack or even absence of light
- This is the color’s brightness or dullness, identified as
the strength of color, whether it is vivid or muted; to
achieve a specific intensity of a color
·Bright or warm colors- positive energy
·Dull or cool colors- sedate/soothing, seriousness or
28. To better understand intensity of color, color
harmonies are to be considered. However,
color harmonies are also integral
considerations not only for pictorial arts but
also for other art forms.
31. Analogous harmonies
- make use two colors
beside each other in
the color wheel.
Edgar Degas, "Before the Race" (1882-1884) Oil on
panel. Henry Walters (Bequeathed, 1931) Walters Art
32. Triadic harmonies
– make use of three-
within the color
wheel. Edvard Munch, "The Scream" (1893).
Tempera and Casein on cardboard.
Munchmuseet Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo
- Like space, texture can be either real or implied
- This element in an artwork is experienced through
the sense of touch (and sight) and renders the art
35. Frans Pourbus the Younger, "Margherita Gonzaga,
Princess of Mantua" Oil on canvas. Bequest of Collis P.
Huntington, 1990. The Metropolitan of Art, New York
36. Planes and Perspective
Some art forms work with actual spaces, such as
sculptors, architects, and stage designers. However,
with pictorial art that is two-dimensional, notions of
depth and hence perspective requires the
implementation of principles and techniques in creating
an illusion that will fool the eye of three-dimensionality
when in reality there is none.
37. Picture Plane
-the actual surface of the painting or drawing, where no
illusion of a third dimension exists. Hence, the
elements lay flat, as if one was looking through a
window into what lies on the other side of the glass.
38. During the Renaissance, specifically in the 15th century,
chiaroscuro was developed. It made use of light and dark
contrasts and tones in which paintings not only looked three-
dimensional but also more dramatic. Aside from this
technique, linear perspective changed the way pictorial
representation was done. Credited to Renaissance artists, its
early proponents include Leon Battista Alberti, Paolo Uccello,
and architect Filippo Brunelleschi in the early fifteenth
century, who were published in Alberti's On Painting in 1435.
39. Its use was based on the following observations:
a. As forms and objects recede, the smaller they become.
b. We were taught that parallel lines never meet.
However, when they, too, seem to converge when they
recede into a distance, at a point, they both disappear.
This point of disappearance is called the vanishing point.
41. A viewpoint may also be constructed as normal (view standing),
low (view from a lower angle), or high(view looking down on a
scene) depending on the position the viewers take.
There are three types of perspective, grounded on the number of
vanishing points used by the artist:
a. One-point perspective - often used in depicting roads, tracks,
hallways, or rows of trees
-this type of perspective shows parallel lines that seem to
converge at a specific and lone vanishing point, along the horizon
42. b. Two-point perspective - pertains to a painting or drawing that
makes use of two vanishing points, which can be placed anywhere
along the horizon line. It is often used in depicting structures such
as houses or buildings in the landscapes that are viewed from a
c. Three-point perspective - the viewer is looking at a scene from
above or below. It makes use of the three vanishing points, each
corresponding to each axis of the scene.