Concerned with the question of how people
learn, and curriculum specialists ask how
psychology can contribute to the design and
delivery of curriculum.
It provides a basis for understanding the
teaching and learning process. Both processes are
essential to curriculum workers because the
curriculum has worth only when students learn
and gain knowledge.
3. the unifying element of the learning
process; it forms the basis for the
methods, materials, and activities of
learning, and provides many
4. Questions of interest to psychologists and
• Why do learners respond as they do to teachers’
• How do cultural experiences affect students’
• How should curriculum be organized to enhance
• What impact does the school culture have on
• What is the optimal level of student participation
in learning the curriculum’s various contents?
5. Importance of this Foundation
1.Teaching the curriculum and learning it are interrelated, and
psychology cements the relationship.
2.This disciplined field of inquiry furnishes theories and principles
of learning that influence teacher-student behavior within the
context of the curriculum.
3. Basis for understanding how the individual learner interacts
with objects and persons.
4. Screen for helping determine what our objectives and how
learning takes place.
7. • deals with various aspects of
stimulus-response (S-R) and
• Learning tends to focus on
conditioning, modifying, or shaping
behavior through reinforcement and
8. Twentieth Century
– The behaviorists, represent traditional psychology
rooted in philosophical ideas of
They emphasize conditioning behavior and
altering the environment to elicit selected
responses from the learner.
9. Underpinnings in Behaviorist Theory
• Thorndike’s Influence: Tyler, Taba, and
• Classical Conditioning
• Operant Conditioning
• Acquiring New Operants
10. • founder of behavioral psychology. He focused
on testing the relationship between a
stimulus (something arousing interest) and a
response (reaction) .
11. • LEARNING as habit formation, as connecting
more and more habits into a complex structure.
• KNOWLEDGE comprised groupings of simple
components of a skill.
• TEACHING as arranging the classroom to
enhance desirable connections and
12. »As one acquired more
complicated units of
attained a more
13. • Law of Readiness suggests that, when nervous
system is ready to conduct, it leads to a satisfying
state of affairs.
• Law of Exercise provides justification for drill,
repetition, and review.
• Law of Effect responses accompanied by
satisfaction strengthen the connection; responses
accompanied by discomfort weaken the
14. • 1. behavior was influenced by conditions of
• 2. learners’ attitudes and abilities could
improve over time through proper stimuli.
• 3. instructional experiences could be designed
• 4. it was important to select stimuli and
learning experiences that were integrated,
consistent and mutually reinforcing.
15. • No one subject was more likely than
another to improve the mind; rather
learning was a matter of relating
new learning to previous learning.
• No hierarchy of subject matter.
16. had application and thus could
be transferred to other
situations. Rote learning and
was based on generalizations
and the teaching of important
principles to explain concrete
17. • involves meaningful
organization of experiences can
be transferred more readily than
learning acquired by rote.
• The more abstract the principles
and generalizations the greater
the possibility of transfer.
• Science and mathematics as the
major disciplines for teaching
18. was based on the science of
behaviorism what was
observable or measurable, not
The key to learning was to
condition the child in the early
years of life.
19. • The role of the stimuli is less definite, often,
the emitted behavior cannot be connected to a
20. • Operant behavior will discontinue when it is
not followed by reinforcement.
– positive reinforcement simply the presentation
of a reinforcing stimulus.
– negative reinforcement is the removal or
withdrawal of a stimulus.
• Skinner believes in both positive and
negative reinforcement, he rejects
punishment because he feels it inhibits
21. • Behavior and learning can be shaped
through a series of successive sequence of
responses that increasingly approximate the
• Through combination of reinforcing and
sequencing desired responses, new behavior
is shaped; this is what some people today
refer to as behavior modification.
22. • Observational Learning and Modeling. Albert
Bandura ---cognitive factors are unnecessary
in explaining learning; through modeling,
students can learn to perform at sophisticated
• Hierarchical Learning. Robert Gagné ---
comprises a sequence of instructional
materials and methods from simple to
23. Behaviorism and Curriculum
• Curriculum specialists can adopt procedures to
increase and that each student will find learning
• When new topics or activities are introduced,
connections should be built on student’s
• Things about which each student is likely to
have negative feelings should be identified and
modified, to produce positive results.
24. • Behaviorists believe that the curriculum
should be organized so that students can
master the subject matter.
• Combining behaviorism with learning
includes careful analysis and sequencing of
learners’ needs and behavior.
25. A. interested in generating
theories that give insight into
the nature of learning,
specifically how individuals
generate structures of
knowledge and how they
create or learn reasoning and
26. • B. interested not only in the
amount of knowledge
people possess but also in its
type and its influence on
further cognitive actions.
• C. interested in the mind’s
27. Underpinnings in Cognitive Theory
• The Montessori Method
• Jean Piaget Theories
• Piaget’s Influence: Tyler, Taba, Bruner and
• Focus on Thinking and Learning
• Emotional Intelligence
• Problem Solving and Creative Thinking
28. ۩ emphasized looking and listening,
which she viewed as sensory input
channels of learning and as the first
phase of intellectual development.
29. • believed that the more things a child
listens to and looks at, the better for
• emphasized a rich variety of visual and
• recognized that certain cognitive and social
abilities develop before others: children sit
before they walk, grab objects before they
manipulate them, and babble before they
30. • enrich children’s school
• provide children with success in
performing tasks to bolster their
• provide structural play to teach
31. • described cognitive
development in terms of
stages from birth to
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to age two)
2. Preoperational stage (ages two to seven)
3. Concrete operations stage (ages seven to
4. Formal operations stage (ages eleven and up)
32. • Piaget’s cognitive stages presuppose a
maturation: mental operations are
• The stages are hierarchical, the mental
operations increasingly sophisticated and
• Learning depends on the individual’s
intellectual potential and environmental
33. • His cognitive theories focus on environmental
• The educator’s role involves, “the shaping of
actual experience by environing conditions”
and knowing “ what surroundings are
conducive to having experiences that lead to
34. Piaget’s Influence
Three methods of organizing learning
1. Continuity– skills and concepts should be
repeated within the curriculum
2. Sequence– the curriculum should
progressively develop understanding
3. Integration– the curriculum’s element
should be unified; subjects should not be
isolated or taught as a single course.
35. • concerned in organizing
curricula and teaching new
experiences so they are
compatible with existing
experiences, moving from
concrete experiences to
concepts and principles, and
classifying and understanding
36. • what a person has already learned
becomes an instrument of
understanding and dealing
effectively with the situations that
• previous learning is the basis of
subsequent learning, learning
should be continuous, and subject
matter is built on a foundation
(from grade to grade).
37. • the development of
children’s moral standards
and concluded that our
thinking about moral issues
reflects not only our
society but also our stages
of growth and age.
38. Thinking and Learning
• focus on thought processes, what
is happening inside a person’s
• the brain is complex, as is the
process of thinking.
39. Multiple Intelligences
• Howard Gardner – we must nurture all types
of intelligence and all types of excellence
that contribute to the worth of the
individual and society.
• we must consider the versatility of children
and youth, their multiple abilities and ways
of thinking and learning.
• Eight types of intelligence: 1.
verbal/linguistic 2. logical/ mathematical, 3.
visual/ spatial 4. bodily/ kinesthetic, 5.
musical/ rhythmic, 6. interpersonal, 7.
intrapersonal, and 8. naturalistic
40. Emotional Intelligence
“ignoring human’s emotional side is
It is important to remember that students’
feelings color their view of a topic, including
their willingness to consider evidence.
Emotions strongly influence how we treat
information and even construct meaning.
41. Problem Solving and Creative Thinking
• Students must be given supportive conditions
in which they can develop creativity, but they
must be held responsible for confirming or
disproving the value or correctness of their
• Problem- solving procedures do not lead to
creative discovery but establish discoveries’
42. COGNITION AND CURRICULUM
• Most curriculum specialists, learning theorists,
and teachers, are cognitive oriented because
– 1. the cognitive approach constitutes a logical
method of organizing and interpreting learning.
– 2. the approach is rooted in the tradition of
– 3. educators have trained in cognitive approaches
and understand them.
43. Learning in school involves cognitive
processes, and because schools emphasize
learning’s cognitive domain, it follows that most
educators equate learning with cognitive
The teacher who has a structured style
of teaching would prefer the problem-solving
method, based on reflective thinking and
44. • Curriculum specialists must understand that
school should be a place where students are
not afraid to ask questions, be wrong, take
cognitive risks, and play with ideas.
• Schools should be places where students can
fulfill their potential, and not always be right
in order to be rewarded by the teacher.
45. • emphasizes the total person.
• Individual self-awareness of an “I”.
• The study of immediate experiences as one’s
reality is called phenomenology and is
influenced by, an existentialist philosophy.
• Phenomenologist point out that the way we
look at ourselves is basic for understanding
• Our self-concept determines what we do,
even to what extent we learn.
46. Underpinnings in Phenomenology and
• German word means shape, form,
• what people perceive determines the
meaning they give to the field;
likewise their solutions to other
problems depend on their
recognition of the relationship
between individual stimuli and the
47. • On this basis, learning is complex and abstract.
When confronted with learning situation, the
learner analyzes the problem, discriminates
between essential and nonessential data, and
• In terms of teaching, learning is conceived as a
process of selection by the student.
• Curriculum specialists must understand that
learners will perceive something in relation to
the whole; what they perceive and how they
perceive it is related to their previous
48. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Love and belonging needs
(emotional and physical)
(hunger, thirst, sleep, sex)
49. • The teacher’s and curriculum maker’s role in this
scheme is to view the student as a whole person.
The student is to be positive, purposeful, active,
and involved in life experiences.
• The goal of education is to produce a healthy,
happy learner who accomplish, grow, and self-
• Learners should strive for, and teachers should
stress, student self-actualization and sense of
50. Rogers: Nondirective and Therapeutic
• Reality is based on what the individual learner
• This concept of reality should make the teacher
aware of that children will differ in their level
and kind of response to a particular experience.
• He views therapy as a learning method to be
used by the curriculum worker and teacher.
• He believes that positive human relationships
enable people to grow; therefore, interpersonal
relationships among learners are as important
as cognitive scores.
51. • The teacher’s role in nondirective teaching is
that of a facilitator who has close professional
relationships with students and guides their
growth and development.
• The teacher helps students explore new ideas
about their lives, their school work, their
relationships, and their interaction with society.
• The curriculum is concerned with process, not
products; personal needs, not subject matter.
• There must be freedom to learn, not restrictions
or preplanned activities.
52. • The raw data of personal experiences are vital
to understanding the learner.
• It suggest maximum self-fulfillment, self-
actualization, and self-realization.
• Seek to understand what goes on inside us–
our desires, feelings, and ways of perceiving
• Self-esteem and self-concept must be
recognized as essential factors in learning.
• Learners must feel confident about performing
the skill or task required.
PHENOMENOLOGY & EDUCATION
53. • Student-teacher relationship be based on
trust and honesty so that student knows when
the teacher’s ideas of a subject are wise and
• Value the uniqueness of human personality.
54. • All the theories have something to contribute
to explain various aspects of behavior and
learning in classrooms and schools.
• Readers should come to their own conclusions
about what aspects of each theory they can
use for their own teaching and curriculum