1. Ma. Martha Manette Apostol Madrid
Graduate Studies, Master in Education,
Major in Special Education
Panpacific University North Philippines
Urdaneta City, Pangasinan
2. Field Theory
Proposed that behavior is the result of the
individual and the environment.
This theory had a major impact on social
psychology, supporting the notion that our
individual traits and the environment interact
to cause behavior.
3. Kurt Lewin
“If you want to truly understand something, try to change it.
If you want to truly understand something, try to change it.”
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) was a famous, charismatic
psychologist who is now viewed as the father of social
viewed the social environment as a dynamic field which
impacted in an interactive way with human consciousness
well known for his terms "life space" and "field theory“
sought to not only describe group life, but to investigate the
conditions and forces which bring about change or resist
change in groups.
4. Kurt Lewin
In the field (or 'matrix') approach, Lewin believed that
for change to take place, the total situation has to be
taken into account. well known for his terms "life space"
and "field theory“.
Influenced by Gestalt model, Lewin developed a
theory that emphasized the importance of
individual personalities, interpersonal conflict,
and situational variables.
5. Gestalt Theory
Proposes that learning consists of the grasping of a
structural whole and not just a mechanistic response
to a stimulus. An integrated whole system with its
parts enmeshed. The whole is greater than just the
sum of the parts.
emphasizes that the whole of anything is greater than
its parts. That is, the attributes of the whole are not
deducible from analysis of the parts in isolation. The
word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the
way a thing has been “placed,” or “put together.”
6. Field Theory
This theory believed that a holistic investigation of
human behavior and learning must include the
environment in which the learning is taking place,
including the psychological environment of the
learner and others with whom he interacts.
7. Field Theory
The following two passages offer a more detailed
summary of Lewin's field theory:
From Smith (2001):
Determined by totality of an individual’s situation. In
his field theory, a ‘field’ is defined as ‘the totality of
coexisting facts which are conceived of as mutually
Individuals were seen to behave differently according to
the way in which tensions between perceptions of the
self and of the environment were worked through.
8. Field Theory
From Hall and Lindzey (1978):
Behaviour is a function of the field that exists at the time
the behaviour occurs,
Analysis begins with the situation as a whole from which
are differentiated the component parts, and
The concrete person in a concrete situation can
9. Field Theory in Psychology
Field theory is a psychological theory which
examines patterns of interaction between the
individual and the total field, or environment.
Field theory holds that behavior must be derived from
a totality of coexisting facts. These coexisting facts
make up a "dynamic field," which means that the state
of any part of the field depends on every other part of
it. Behavior depends on the present field rather than
on the past or the future.
11. Biomedical Model
“Health seen as not passive.
Health can be defined on a health-illness continuum”
The model emphasises the link between psychological
factors and illness.
The model was theorized by psychiatrist George L. Engel at
the University of Rochester, and putatively discussed in a
1977 article in Science, where he posited "the need for a
new medical model.
12. Biomedical Model
draws on " biological sciences " including genetics,
biology, medicine and biological psychology.
It is this model that defines problem behaviours as "
It assumes that certain behaviors are caused by
biological factors inherent to the individual, or to
external factors operating at a biological level.
13. Biomedical Model
Conditions such as AD/HD are seen as disorders and
disabilities that have biological aetiologies.
Thus it is that " problem " behaviour is a symptom
caused by an underlying biological abnormality that
can be described by biological sciences such as
genetics, biochemistry and neuro-anatomy and
treated mainly by psychopharmacology and
14. Biomedical Model of Mental Health
model used by some physiciatrists in the
diagnosis of mental disorders.
The term is used by practitioners of of
biological psychiatry, in contrast to the
biopsychosocial model, which incorporates
psychological and social factors.
15. Biopsychosocial Model (BPS)
a general model or approach that posits that biological,
psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and
behaviors), and social factors, all play a significant role
in human functioning in the context of disease or
a combination of biological, psychological, and social
factors rather than purely in biological terms.
16. Biomedical Model Biopsychosocial Model
What causes Such diseases are caused by a Human beings should be seen as
illness? number of factors, including complex systems and illness is
chemical imbalances, bacteria, caused by a multitude of factors
viruses and genetic and not by a single causal factor.
Who is responsible Illnesses arise from biological Illnesses regarded as the result of
for illness? changes beyond the patients a combination of factors, the
control; individuals are therefore individual is no longer simply
not seen as being responsible for seen as a passive victim.
How should illness Treatment is in terms of a The whole person should be
be treated? vaccination, surgery, treated, not just the physical
chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, changes that have taken place.
all of which aimed to change the This can take the form of
physical state of the body. behaviour change, encouraging
changes in beliefs and coping
strategies, and compliance with
17. Biomedical Model Biopsychosocial Model
Who is The responsibility for treatment The patient is in part
responsible for rests with the medical profession. responsible for their treatment.
treatment? This may take the form of
responsibility to take
medication, responsibility to
change beliefs and behavior.
They are not seen as a victim.
What is the Health and illness are seen as Health and illness are not
relationship qualitatively different-you are either qualitatively different, but exist
between health healthy or ill, there is no continuum on a continuum. Rather than
and illness? between the two. being either healthy or ill,
individuals progress along this
continuum from health to
illness and back again.
What is the The mind and body function There is an increasing focus on
relationship independently of each other. The an interaction between the
between the mind mind is incapable of influencing mind and the body. This shift in
and the body? physical matter. The mind is seen as perspective is reflected in the
abstract and relating to feelings and development of a holistic or a
thoughts, and body is seen in terms whole person approach to
of physical matter such as skin, health. The mind and body
muscles, bones, brain and organs. interact.
What is the Illness may have Psychological factors
role of psychological are seen as not only
psychology in consequences, but not possible
health and psychological causes. consequences of
illness? For example, cancer illness but as
may cause unhappiness contributing to its
but mood is not seen as aetiology.
related to either the
onset or progression of
19. Psychodynamic Approach
Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and
the psychodynamic approach to psychology.
The words “psychodynamic’ and “psychoanalysis” are
often confused. Remember that Freud’s theories were
psychoanalysis, whereas the term “psychodynamic”
refers to both his theories and those of his followed.
Freud’s psychoanalysis was the original
psychodynamic theory, but the psychodynamic
approach as a whole includes all theories that were
based on his ideas, e.g. Jung (1964), Adler (1927) and
20. Psychoanalysis in Psychology
Both a theory and a therapy. Major Thinkers
Associated With Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud,
Anna Freud and Erik Erikson.
Emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind on
behavior. Freud believed that the human mind was
composed of three elements: the id, the ego, and the
21. Psychoanalysis in Psychology
Conscious- includes everything that is inside of our
awareness. This is the aspect of our mental processing that
we can think and talk about in a rational way.
Defense Mechanism- A tactic developed by the ego to
protect against anxiety. Defense mechanisms are thought
to safeguard the mind against feelings and thoughts that
are too difficult for the conscious mind to cope with.
Ego - largely unconscious part of personality that mediates
the demands of the id, the superego, and reality. The ego
prevents us from acting on our basic urges (created by the
id), but also works to achieve a balance with our moral and
idealistic standards (created by the superego).
22. Psychoanalysis in Psychology
Id- The personality component made up of unconscious
psychic energy that works to satisfy basic urges, needs, and
Superego- The component of personality composed of our
internalized ideals that we have acquired from our parents
and from society. The superego works to suppress the urges
of the id and tries to make the ego behave morally, rather
Unconscious- A reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and
memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of
the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or
unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict.
systematized study and theory of the psychological
forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the
interplay between unconscious and conscious
In Psychology, Psychodynamics is the study of the
interrelationship among the several areas of the mind,
personality, or psyche as they relate to mental,
emotional or motivational focuses emphasizing on the
dynamism of unconsciousness.
focuses on the formation of psychic energy and its
distribution over the human system and development
by the virtue of interaction among the Freud-defined
mental states – id, ego and superego.
main objective of psychodynamics comprises the
attempt of explanation or interpretation of overt
behaviour or mental state by the virtue of inert
unconscious conflict or forces or processes.
25. Basic Constituents of
Freud proposed three levels of conscious awareness
According to Freud, the personality has three components
acting together to produce the overt complex behavior and
attitude towards any object or events
26. Psychodynamic Approach Assumptions
Our behavior and feelings are powerfully affected by
Our behavior and feelings as adults (including
psychological problems) are rooted in our childhood
All behavior has cause (usually unconscious) even slips of
the tongue. Therefore, all behavior is determined.
Personality is made up of three parts (id, ego and
27. Psychodynamic Approach Assumptions
Behavior is motivated by two instinctual drives: Eros (the
sex drive and life instinct) and Thanatos (the aggressive
drive and death instinct). Both these drives come from the
Parts of the unconscious mind (the id and superego) are
in constant conflict with the conscious part of the
Personality is shaped as the drives are modified by
different conflicts at different times in childhood (during
28. Psychodynamic Approach in Therapy
The main aim of Psychodynamic approach (Brenner,
C., 1954) in therapeutic setting involves some key-
(1) Client centered approach
(2) Metaphoric communication
(3) Human development
(4) Personality structure
29. Strength of Psychodynamic Approach
The strength of Freud employed psychodynamic
approach includes disclosure and treatment of the
origins of abnormal or maladaptive behaviour.
Weakness of Psychodynamic Approach
The primary criticize comes with it’s over-
emphasize on the generalization of an individual
event or result.
Psychodynamic approach focuses on unconscious
processes influencing the individual’s present
behaviour in the context of his past experiences.
The therapy focuses on the issues and conflicts
resolved at the unconscious level resulting from past
dysfunctional relationships and various maladaptive
The focus of this approach primarily concerns on
cognitive therapy as well as behavioural therapy.
31. Behavioral Approach
Behaviorism (or behaviourism)
the learning perspective (where any physical action is a
behavior), is a philosophy of psychology based on the
proposition that all things that organisms do — including
acting, thinking and feeling — can and should be regarded
Comprises the position that all theories should have
observational correlates but that there are no philosophical
differences between publicly observable processes (such as
actions) and privately observable processes (such as
thinking and feeling).
32. Behavioral Approach
Based on the concept of explaining behavior
through observation, and the belief that our
environment is what causes us to behave
differently or suffer illnesses.
33. Behavioral Approach
The main categories of behaviorism are:
this behaviorist approach in psychology is described as "a
purely objective experimental branch of natural science".
based on the idea that all types of psychological research are
based to a greater or lesser extent on observing behaviors.
all our actions can be explained in terms of environmental
34. Assumptions of Behavioral Approach
Behaviorists assume that we can understand people by
observing their behavior.
Behavior can be observed in terms of responses to
Behaviorism also assumes that we are born as a blank
slate, or tabula rasa, and so equal at birth.
35. Cognitive Model
An approximation to animal cognitive processes
(predominantly human) for the purposes of
comprehension and prediction.
Cognitive modeling historically developed within
cognitive psychology / cognitive science (including
human factors) and has received contributions from
the fields of machine learning and artificial
intelligence and others.
36. Cognitive Psychology
A discipline within psychology that investigates the
internal mental processes of thought such as visual
processing, memory, thinking, learning, feeling, problem
solving, and language.
The school of thought arising from this approach is known
as cognitivism which is interested in how people mentally
represent information processing.
Cognitive psychologists use psychophysical and
experimental approaches to understand, diagnose, and
solve problems, concerning themselves with the mental
processes which mediate between stimulus and response.
37. Sports Psychology
The Cognitive Model
Obviously, our thinking processes during competition and
practice are the primary area where Cognitive theory
There are a variety of Cognitive techniques used to help us
be more productive and successful in games and
practice. Let's look at some of these applications:
Relaxation and Imagery
39. Behavioral and Cognitive Approach
Behavioral and cognitive approaches are the basis of
many psychological theories that have been developed
by the scientists.
The behavioral approach is based on the psychological
theory claiming that individual behavior depends on the
environment the person is in.
In contrast, the cognitive approach focuses on the process
of thinking as a determining factor that influences
40. Behavioral Approach
1. The behavioral approach claims that people, as
well as their actions and problems, can be
understood observing their behaviour.
2. The theory assumes that after birth all human
beings are similar. Therefore, formation of
personality is greatly related to the surrounding
environment, which is to shape and bring up the
41. Behavioral Approach
3. The followers of the behavioral approach reject
retrospective methods, and claim that behaviour is
determined by purely external factors, such as
stimuli of the outside world.
4. Consciousness, according to the behavioral
approach, is an artificial analogue of religious
‘soul’ or ‘spirit’, and is absolutely rejected.
42. Cognitive Approach
1. The cognitive approach views the processes of
thinking and cognition as a determinant of
humans’ behavior. Cognition is the act or process
of knowing. It refers to the mental processes of an
individual and includes attention, perception,
memory, reasoning, judgement, imaging, thinking,
2. The given theory is the dominant one in modern
43. Cognitive Approach
3. The proponents of the cognitive approach point
out that the behavioral theories are not adequate
enough, because they say nothing about how
people process information. Cognitive
psychologists have proposed the models of human
thinking and problem solving.
4. The belief of cognitive psychologists is that
humans are not merely passive renders to their
44. Humanistic Approach
Human Psychology developed in the 1950s in
reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalysis was focused on understanding the
unconscious motivations that drove behavior
Behaviorism studied the conditioning processes that
Humanism focused on fundamentally and uniquely
human issues, such as self-identity, death, aloneness,
freedom, and meaning.
45. Humanistic Approach
Humanistic psychology was instead
focused on each individual’s potential and
stressed the importance of growth and self-
Major Thinkers in Humanistic Psychology:
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
46. Humanistic Approach
By using phenomenology, intersubjectivity and first-person
categories, the humanistic approach sought to glimpse the whole
person—not just the fragmented parts of the personality or
The humanistic approach was distinguished by its emphasis on
subjective meaning, rejection of determinism, and concern for
positive growth rather than pathology.
Some of the founders of this school of thought were American
psychologists Abraham Maslow, who formulated a hierarchy of
human needs, and Carl Rogers, who created and developed
client-centered therapy; and German-American psychiatrist
Fritz Perls, who co-founded Gestalt therapy.
It became so influential as to be called the "third force" within
psychology, along with behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Later,
positive psychology opened up humanistic themes to scientific
modes of exploration.
47. Strong Points of Humanistic Psychology
Emphasizes the role of the individual; humanistic
psychology gives more credit to the individual in
controlling and determining their state of mental
Takes environmental influence into account; rather
than focusing solely on our internal thoughts and
desires, humanistic psychology also credits the
environment's influence on our experiences.
48. Strong Points of Humanistic Psychology
1. Humanistic psychology continues to influence
therapy, education, healthcare, and other areas.
2. Humanistic psychology helped remove some of the
stigma attached to therapy, and made it more
acceptable for normal, healthy individuals to explore
their abilities and potential through therapy.
49. Criticisms of Humanistic Psychology
3. Often seen as too subjective; the importance of
individual experience makes it difficult to objectively
study and measure humanistic phenomena. How can
we objectively tell if someone is self-actualized? The
answer, of course, is that we cannot. We can only rely
upon the individual's own assessment of their
4. Observations are unverifiable—there is no accurate
way to measure or quantify these qualities.
50. Humanistic Theraphy
Overlaps considered with existential approaches
emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self(self-
actualization)through self-mastery, self-examination
and creative expression.
The focus is on the self, which translates into “YOU”,
and “your” perception of “your” experiences.
This view argues that you are free to choose your own
behavior, rather than reacting to environmental
stimuli and reinforces. Issues dealing with self-
esteem, self-fulfillment, and needs are paramount.
The major focus is to facilitate personal
51. Humanistic Theraphy
Holds a hopeful constructive view of human beings
and the individual’s substantial capacity to be self-
The ideal description of humanistic therapists is
genuine, non-judgmental, and emphatic, and uses
open-ended responses, reflective listening and
tentative interpretations to promote clients self-
understanding, acceptance and actualization.
52. Humanistic Approach
Humanistic Approach is a variety of approaches
that emphasize personal growth, self-esteem, and
the achievement of human potential more than the
scientific understanding, prediction, and control of
So when we say that humanistic psychology is
concerned with the whole person, we really do
mean it in a very particular way. We assume that
people are whole, and we treat them as if they
are whole, and we encourage them to act as if
they are whole.
53. Existential Approach
Existential psychotherapy is a method of therapy
that operates on the belief that inner conflict within a
person is due to that individual's confrontation with
the givens of existence.
These givens, as noted by Yalom are: the inevitability
of death, freedom and its attendant responsibility,
existential isolation (referring to phenomenology),
and finally meaninglessness.
54. Existential Theraphy’s View of the
Existential therapy starts with the belief that
although humans are essentially alone in the
world, we long to be connected to others. People
want to have meaning in each other’s lives, but
ultimately we must come to realize that we cannot
depend on others for our validation, and with that
realization we finally acknowledge and understand
that we are fundamentally alone.
55. Existential Theraphy’s View of the
In the existential view, there is no such thing as
psychological dysfunction or being ill. Every way of
being is merely an expression of how one chooses to
live one's life.
The Good Life
Existentialism suggests that it is possible for people to
face the anxieties of life head-on and embrace the
human condition of aloneness, to revel in the freedom
to choose and take full responsibility for their choices.
56. Existential Theraphy’s View of the
The existential psychotherapist is generally not concerned
with the client's past; instead, the emphasis is on the
choices to be made in the present and future.
Existential thinkers seek to avoid restrictive models that
categorize or label people. Instead there is a description of
the different levels of experience and existence with which
people are inevitably confronted.
57. Four Dimensions
Physical dimension. Individuals relate to their
environment and to the givens of the natural world around
them. This includes their attitude to the body they have, to
the concrete surroundings they find themselves in, to the
climate and the weather, to objects and material
possessions, to the bodies of other people, their own bodily
needs, to health and illness and to their own mortality.
Social dimension. Individuals relate to others as they
interact with the public world around them. This
dimension includes their response to the culture they live
in, as well as to the class and race they belong to (and also
those they do not belong to).
58. Four Dimensions
Psychological dimension. Individuals relate to
themselves and in this way create a personal world. This
dimension includes views about their own character, their
past experience and their future possibilities.
Spiritual dimension. Individuals relate to the unknown
and thus create a sense of an ideal world, an ideology and a
philosophical outlook. It is here that they find meaning by
putting all the pieces of the puzzle together for themselves.