Product Orientation Production Capabilities Manufacture Product Aggressive Sales Effort Customers Production Orientation is when a business focuses on the production process and seeks to make goods which are viewed as superior
Market Orientation Customer Needs Potential Market Opportunities Marketing Products & Services Customers Market Orientation starts with the consumer and looks at consumer needs. It is customer orientated.
Boston Box - Strategies Dogs Harvest or Divest Cash Cows Hold sales/market share Use excess cash to invest in stars, problem children Problem Children Build selectively Harvest or divest rest Stars Build sales/market share Invest to turn into cash cow
Product Life Cycle Products have a natural ‘lifespan’. Some are very short others are around for decades. The file of a product can be prolonged by using extension strategies. However all products go through a number of distinct phases.
Stages in Cycle Development Stage – many products will never progress past this stage. Development of new products is essential but can be very costly. Before launching it may be test-marketed. Modifications can then be made based on feedback. Introduction Stage – heavy advertising at this stage to make consumers aware of the product. Sales are slow and costs are high. Growth Stage – consumers more aware of the product and sales start to grow rapidly. It is during this stage that the product begins to become profitable.
Stages in Cycle Maturity Stage – sales reach their peak. Advertising costs are lower and development costs should have been repaid. The product is at its most profitable. The business will work to keep the product in this stage for as long as possible. This can be done by using extension strategies . Decline Stage – Sales and profits start to fall. Mobile phone sales are beginning to decline if firms wish to stay in business they will have to create new phones or new demand for phones.
Extension Strategies Reducing Price Therefore Promoting More Frequent Use of Product – reduce cost of texting to mobile phones. Developing New Markets for Existing Product – Computer were originally manufactured for the business market, moved into home market. Finding New Uses for Existing Products – fire lighters now used for barbeques.
Extension Strategies Develop a Wider Range of Products – new versions of same product can produce new interest from consumers. Irn Bru – range of can and bottle sizes, fruit chews, ‘alco-pop’ market. Developing Styling Changes – introducing slightly different product – football strips.
Branding Branding is used to create USP’s (unique selling propositions) and ESP’s (emotional selling propositions) The business chooses a word or symbol, or both, then registers them so that they can only be used on its products. Baxter’s, Oxo, Cadbury’s and Heinz are all well-known brand names.
Benefits of Branding Instant recognition of the product by the customer. Brand loyalty – repeat purchases Higher prices can be charged Quality is associated with it Easier to launch new products Good after sales service May lead to purchases of other products with same brand name
Drawbacks of Branding Time is taken to establish a brand Promotion costs will be high Bad publicity for one product can affect the whole range of same-brand products Fake products may appear. These imitators are very difficult to stop. (Burberry, Rolex and Calvin Klein who can charge premium prices for their products suffer most at the ands of the forgers.)
Own Brands Most of the supermarket chains, and large retailers such as Boots, offer a wide range of products under their own brand names. These can be produced by the supermarket or by a manufacturer who is contracted to produce goods for the supermarket.
Advantages of Own Brands Own brands will attract more customers and more sales within the store. Producer will have guaranteed sales Products are cheaper Disadvantages of Own Brands Some customers believe ‘own brands’ are of lower value than established brand names (although this is not necessarily true).
Price Consumers will only pay what they can afford and what they think is a reasonable price for the product. Consumers use price as a measure of quality. When setting a price for a product you need to consider: Costs of production Profit mark-up Competitor prices
Long Term Pricing Strategies Low Price - Charge lower than competitors. Only appropriate where there is a little brand loyalty and competition in the market is high. Market Price - Setting price at a similar price to competitors. Homogeneous product means that price competition is not of benefit. They compete in other areas – service etc. High Price - High quality products, premium goods and services where image is important, such as perfumes.
Short Term Pricing Strategies Skimming Using a high price initially for a new product where there is little competition. Penetration Pricing Used to introduce a product to an established market. Allows the business to achieve sales and gain market share very quickly. Usually set a low price to attract customers. Once product is established price can increase.
Short Term Pricing Strategies Destroyer Pricing Setting a very low price to destroy the competition. Product probably being sold at a loss, however once competition is destroyed the price will return to market price. Promotional Pricing Used to boost sales and create interest in a product by lowering the price. Supermarkets use this for some of their sales lines, as loss leaders. Demand-orientated Pricing Price varies with the demand, ie crops, trains, phones etc.
Choice of Distribution Channel The Product – perishable, unique The Market – size – Mars Bars Legal Requirements – alcohol, drugs Buying Habits – expectations of customers The Business – own distribution network
Manufacturers A B C D E Company warehouse Wholesalers Company outlets Retailers Retailers E-tailers C o n s u m e r s
Types of Promotion Promotion Advertising Sales Promotion Direct Mail Personal Selling Public Relations Exhibitions and Trade Fairs Merchandising
Types of Advertising Informative : Health Education Board for Scotland – smoking, drugs, alcohol etc Persuasive : used in very competitive markets, use powerful images and language – ‘Probably the world’s favourite lager.’ Corporate : promoting the whole company not a single product – BP adverts focus on their ‘green image’ not on the product (petrol) Generic : the whole industry come together to promote the whole industry – Scottish Beef, Scottish Tourism