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RESEARCH Questionnaire

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QUESTIONNAIRE MADE EASY FOR CONDUCTING RESEARCH

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RESEARCH Questionnaire

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION • Questionnaires are one of the most popular methods of conducting research. • They provide a convenient way to gathering information from a target population. • They are cost-effective and easy to construct and analyze. • A questionnaire is a planned self-reported form designed to elicit information though written or verbal responses of the subjects.
  2. 2. • In the words, a questionnaire is a research instrument used for data collection. • It is a set of questions that may or may not provide with response alternatives which are to be answered by subject.
  3. 3. DEFINITION • A questionnaire is a structured instrument consisting of a series of data prepared by researcher that a research subject is asked to complete,to gather data from individuals about knowledge,attitude,beliefs and feelings. • The instrument is called a questionnaire or sometimes a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ),when respondents complete the instrument themselves, usually in a paper and pencil format but occasionally directly onto a computer. • A questionnaire is structured self-report paper and pencil instrument that a research subject is asked to complete.
  4. 4. TYPES OF QUESTIONS
  5. 5. Open-format / Open ended questions • Open ended questions are those questions which provide opportunity to the respondents to express their opinions and answers in their own way. • Open –format questions have followings characteristics: 1. There is no predetermined set of responses. 2. They provide true, insightful and unexpected suggestions.
  6. 6. 3. An ideal questionnaire contains open-ended questions towards the end of all the questions that would ask respondents about the suggestions for changes or improvements. Ex: state your opinion about the quality of health care services in punjab?
  7. 7. Closed-format questions • These questions offer respondents a number of alternative replies, from which the subjects must choose the one that most likely matches the appropriate answer. • Closed-format questions have following characteristics: 1. They facilitate easy statistical calculation of data. 2. Provide easy preliminary analysis 3. Can be asked to different groups at different intervals. 4. Facilitate efficient tracking of opinion.
  8. 8. Closed-format questions could be of the following subtypes 1. Dichotomous questions 2. Multiple-choice questions 3. Cafeteria questions 4. Rank order questions 5. Contingency questions 6. Rating questions 7. Importance questions 8. Likert questions 9. Bipolar questions 10.Matrix questions
  9. 9. Dichotomous questions • These requires the respondent to make a choice between two responses such as yes/no or male/female. Ex: Q) Have you ever been hospitalized? a. Yes b. No
  10. 10. Multiple-choice questions These questions require respondents to make a choice between more than two response alternatives. Ex: Q)Which of the following disease is sexually transmitted ? a.DM b. Hypothyrodism c. Syphilis d. HTN
  11. 11. Cafeteria questions • These are special type of MCQ’s that ask the respondents to select a response that most closely corresponds to their views. • Ex: Q) What do you think about hormone replacement therapy? a. It is dangerous, should be avoided. b. One should be cautious while using it. c. I am uncertain about my views. d. It is beneficial, should be promoted.
  12. 12. Rank order questions • These questions ask respondents to rank their responses from most favorable to least favorable. Ex: Q) What according to you is most important for your life. Rank from most favorable to least favorable. a. Money b. Education c. Family d. Health
  13. 13. Contingency questions • A question that is asked further only if the respondents gives a particular response to previous question. Ex: Q) Are you stressed? a. No b. Yes, if yes what are the reasons?.........
  14. 14. Rating questions • These questions ask respondents to judge something along an ordered dimension. • Respondent is asked to rate a particular issue on a scale that ranges from Poor to Good. • They may provide a number of choices. Ex: Q) How you rank the education quality in India? 1 2 3 4 Good Fair Poor Very Poor
  15. 15. Importance questions • In this, respondents are asked to rate the importance of a particular issue, on a rating scale of 1-5. This helps to know that the things/issues that are important to a respondent. • Ex: Q) Exercising every day is ……..for the health. 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely important Very important Some what important Not very important Not at all important
  16. 16. Likert questions • Likert questions help to know how strongly the respondent agrees with a particular statement. These questions help to assess how respondent feels towards a certain issue/ services. Ex: Q) This community a good place to raise children? 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly agree Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly disagree
  17. 17. Bipolar questions • Bipolar questions are questions that have two extreme answers. • Respondent has to mark his or her response between two opposite ends of the scale. • Ex: Q) what is your balance of preference here? I Like Going For Walks [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] I Like Watching Movie
  18. 18. Matrix questions • It include multiple questions and identical response categories are assigned. • Questions are placed one under another, forming a matrix. • Response categories are placed along the top and a list of questions down the side. EX: • Q) please let us know your weekly schedule of the following:
  19. 19. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Gym (weight Traning) Aerobics Eating (Dinner/Lunc h) Drink (Alcoholic breverages)
  20. 20. Guidelines for designing a good questionnaire General points: 1. The questionnaire must be developed exactly in accordance with study objectives 2. The questionnaire should be begin with the instructions for the respondents to provide the responses. 3. The drafting of the questionnaire should be concise, precise and brief, because the lengthy questionnaires may lead to boredom among respondants.
  21. 21. 4. The language of the questionnaire should be according to the respondents knowledge about a particular knowledge. 5. Questions outside the respondents experience should not be asked. 6. In asking questions about past events, too much reliance should not be placed on the respondents memory. 7. Questions which are likely to lead to bias in the respondents should be avoided. 8. Questions should be very clear and simple. Avoid professional jargons.
  22. 22. 9. As for as possible, open ended questions should be avoided. 10.Avoid questions with difficult concept, which are not easily understandable for respondents. 11.Controversial and ambiguous questions should be avoided. 12.The structure of the questionnaire should be according to the form in which the responses are to be recorded.
  23. 23. 13.Cross check the respondents by asking the same information in two different ways. 14.A mailed questionnaire should be accompanied by introduction to the study, purpose and directions to fill the questionnaire. 15.Abrupt ending of the questions and questionnaire should be avoided.
  24. 24. Sequence of the questions • There should be logical sequence of the questions in the questionnaire. • Researcher must ensure that the answer to question is not influenced by previous question. • Questions should flow from more general to more specific. • Questions should be flow from least to most sensitive. • Sandwich theory states that a questionnaire should generally start with demographic profile of subjects, followed by specific questions according to the objectives of the study.
  25. 25. Question construction • Use statements which can be interpreted in same way by all subjects. • Use statements where persons that have different opinions or traits will give different answers. • Use only one aspect of the construct in which you are interested. • Avoid asking double-barreled questions which contain two distinct ideas or concepts. Ex: are you satisfied with pay and fringe benefits? • Avoid leading, loaded, ambiguous and long questions.
  26. 26. Questions researcher must consider before developing a questionnaire The sample Who are you going to ask? The method How are you going to ask them? The questionnaire What are you going to ask them? The result What will you do with information? The cost How much do you want to pay for answer? The time scale By when do you need information?
  27. 27. • Avoid negative and double negative questions • Use a positive statements • Do not make assumptions about respondent. • Use clear and comprehensible wording. • Use correct spelling, grammar and punctuation.
  28. 28. Methods of questionnaire administration • A questionnaire may be administered with following methods; each method has it unique advantage as listed below. 1) Postal 2) Phone 3) Electronic 4) Personally administered
  29. 29. Postal • low cost • Not labour intensive • anonymity
  30. 30. Phone • High speed • Rapport with respondent • Detailed questions • High response rate
  31. 31. Electronic • Low cost • High speed • Anonymity • Not labour intensive
  32. 32. Personally administered • Detailed questions • High response rate
  33. 33. Advantage of questionnaire • Questionnaire are cost-effective. • They are easy to analyze. • They require less time and energy to administer. • Questionnaire offer the possibility of anonymity. • They reduce bias as interviewer not present. • Questionnaire are used for large sample size. • Questionnaire are less intrusive than phone or face-to-face interview.
  34. 34. Disadvantage of questionnaire • Questionnaire are not suitable for all. Ex: children, blind and illiterates. • Low response rate. • Questionnaire sent by mail may be filled by someone other than the intended person. • Questionnaire provide only superficial information. • Probing of response is not possible. • There are chances of misinterpretation. • People can lie and answer the question vaguely.
  35. 35. CONCLUSION

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