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• Questionnaires are one of the most popular
methods of conducting research.
• They provide a convenient way to gathering
information from a target population.
• They are cost-effective and easy to construct and
• A questionnaire is a planned self-reported form
designed to elicit information though written or
verbal responses of the subjects.
• In the words, a questionnaire is a research
instrument used for data collection.
• It is a set of questions that may or may not
provide with response alternatives which are to
be answered by subject.
• A questionnaire is a structured instrument consisting of
a series of data prepared by researcher that a research
subject is asked to complete,to gather data from
individuals about knowledge,attitude,beliefs and
• The instrument is called a questionnaire or sometimes
a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ),when
respondents complete the instrument themselves,
usually in a paper and pencil format but occasionally
directly onto a computer.
• A questionnaire is structured self-report paper and
pencil instrument that a research subject is asked to
Open-format / Open ended questions
• Open ended questions are those questions which
provide opportunity to the respondents to express
their opinions and answers in their own way.
• Open –format questions have followings
1. There is no predetermined set of responses.
2. They provide true, insightful and unexpected
3. An ideal questionnaire contains open-ended
questions towards the end of all the questions
that would ask respondents about the
suggestions for changes or improvements.
Ex: state your opinion about the quality of health
care services in punjab?
• These questions offer respondents a number of
alternative replies, from which the subjects must
choose the one that most likely matches the
• Closed-format questions have following
1. They facilitate easy statistical calculation of
2. Provide easy preliminary analysis
3. Can be asked to different groups at different
4. Facilitate efficient tracking of opinion.
could be of the following subtypes
3. Cafeteria questions
4. Rank order questions
5. Contingency questions
6. Rating questions
7. Importance questions
8. Likert questions
9. Bipolar questions
• These requires the respondent to make a
choice between two responses such as yes/no
Q) Have you ever been hospitalized?
These questions require respondents to
make a choice between more than two
Q)Which of the following disease is sexually
• These are special type of MCQ’s that ask the
respondents to select a response that most closely
corresponds to their views.
Q) What do you think about hormone replacement
a. It is dangerous, should be avoided.
b. One should be cautious while using it.
c. I am uncertain about my views.
d. It is beneficial, should be promoted.
Rank order questions
• These questions ask respondents to rank their
responses from most favorable to least
Q) What according to you is most important for
your life. Rank from most favorable to least
• A question that is asked further only if the
respondents gives a particular response to
Q) Are you stressed?
b. Yes, if yes what are the reasons?.........
• These questions ask respondents to judge
something along an ordered dimension.
• Respondent is asked to rate a particular issue
on a scale that ranges from Poor to Good.
• They may provide a number of choices.
Q) How you rank the education quality in India?
1 2 3 4
Good Fair Poor Very Poor
• In this, respondents are asked to rate the
importance of a particular issue, on a rating scale of
1-5. This helps to know that the things/issues that
are important to a respondent.
Q) Exercising every day is ……..for the health.
1 2 3 4 5
Not at all
• Likert questions help to know how strongly the
respondent agrees with a particular statement. These
questions help to assess how respondent feels
towards a certain issue/ services.
Ex: Q) This community a good place to raise
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly agree Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly
• Bipolar questions are questions that have two
• Respondent has to mark his or her response
between two opposite ends of the scale.
• Ex: Q) what is your balance of preference here?
I Like Going For Walks [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] I Like Watching Movie
• It include multiple questions and identical
response categories are assigned.
• Questions are placed one under another,
forming a matrix.
• Response categories are placed along the top
and a list of questions down the side.
• Q) please let us know your weekly schedule of
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
Guidelines for designing a good questionnaire
1. The questionnaire must be developed exactly in
accordance with study objectives
2. The questionnaire should be begin with the
instructions for the respondents to provide the
3. The drafting of the questionnaire should be
concise, precise and brief, because the lengthy
questionnaires may lead to boredom among
4. The language of the questionnaire should be
according to the respondents knowledge about a
5. Questions outside the respondents experience
should not be asked.
6. In asking questions about past events, too much
reliance should not be placed on the respondents
7. Questions which are likely to lead to bias in the
respondents should be avoided.
8. Questions should be very clear and simple. Avoid
9. As for as possible, open ended questions should
10.Avoid questions with difficult concept, which are
not easily understandable for respondents.
11.Controversial and ambiguous questions should be
12.The structure of the questionnaire should be
according to the form in which the responses are
to be recorded.
13.Cross check the respondents by asking the
same information in two different ways.
14.A mailed questionnaire should be accompanied
by introduction to the study, purpose and
directions to fill the questionnaire.
15.Abrupt ending of the questions and
questionnaire should be avoided.
Sequence of the questions
• There should be logical sequence of the questions in
• Researcher must ensure that the answer to question is
not influenced by previous question.
• Questions should flow from more general to more
• Questions should be flow from least to most sensitive.
• Sandwich theory states that a questionnaire should
generally start with demographic profile of subjects,
followed by specific questions according to the
objectives of the study.
• Use statements which can be interpreted in same
way by all subjects.
• Use statements where persons that have different
opinions or traits will give different answers.
• Use only one aspect of the construct in which you
• Avoid asking double-barreled questions which
contain two distinct ideas or concepts.
Ex: are you satisfied with pay and fringe benefits?
• Avoid leading, loaded, ambiguous and long
Questions researcher must consider before developing a
The sample Who are you going to ask?
The method How are you going to ask them?
The questionnaire What are you going to ask them?
The result What will you do with information?
The cost How much do you want to pay for
The time scale By when do you need information?
• Avoid negative and double negative questions
• Use a positive statements
• Do not make assumptions about respondent.
• Use clear and comprehensible wording.
• Use correct spelling, grammar and
Methods of questionnaire administration
• A questionnaire may be administered with
following methods; each method has it unique
advantage as listed below.
4) Personally administered
• low cost
• Not labour intensive
• High speed
• Rapport with respondent
• Detailed questions
• High response rate
• Low cost
• High speed
• Not labour intensive
• Detailed questions
• High response rate
Advantage of questionnaire
• Questionnaire are cost-effective.
• They are easy to analyze.
• They require less time and energy to administer.
• Questionnaire offer the possibility of anonymity.
• They reduce bias as interviewer not present.
• Questionnaire are used for large sample size.
• Questionnaire are less intrusive than phone or
Disadvantage of questionnaire
• Questionnaire are not suitable for all.
Ex: children, blind and illiterates.
• Low response rate.
• Questionnaire sent by mail may be filled by
someone other than the intended person.
• Questionnaire provide only superficial information.
• Probing of response is not possible.
• There are chances of misinterpretation.
• People can lie and answer the question vaguely.